The Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a line of Soviet and Russian computer systems developed by Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering. In 1992 a spin-off company Moscow Center of SPARC Technologies (MCST) was created and continued development.
These computers are used in the space program, nuclear weapons research, and defense systems.
- Elbrus 1 (1973) was the fourth generation Soviet computer, developed by Vsevolod Burtsev. Implements tag-based architecture and ALGOL as system language like the Burroughs large systems. A side development was an update of the 1965 BESM-6 as Elbrus-1K2.
- Elbrus 2 (1977) was a 10-processor computer, considered the first Soviet supercomputer, with superscalar RISC processors. Re-implementation of the Elbrus 1 architecture with faster ECL chips.
- Elbrus 3 (1986) was a 16-processor computer developed by Boris Babaian. Differing completely from the architecture of both Elbrus 1 and Elbrus 2, it employed a VLIW architecture.
- Elbrus-90micro (1998-2010) is a computer line based on SPARC instruction set architecture (ISA) microprocessors: MCST R80, R150, R500, R500S and MCST-4R working at 80, 150, 500 and 1000 MHz.
- Elbrus-3M1 (2005) is a 2-processor computer based on Elbrus 2000 microprocessor employing VLIW architecture working at 300 MHz. It is a further development of the Elbrus 3 (1986).
- Elbrus МВ3S1/C (2009) is a ccNUMA 4-processor computer based on Elbrus-S microprocessor working at 500 MHz.
- Elbrus website in Russian
- Elbrus E2K
- "Elbrus" processor info (russian)
- "Elbrus-S" processor info (russian)
- МВ3S1/C "Elbrus-S" based processor module(russian)
- "Elbrus-3M1" computer info (russian)
- (I) Power Point document "Elbrus-3M1"
- (II) Power Point document "Elbrus-3M1"
- Russian microprocessors: An overview (Spanish - Espacial.org)
- Video of booting Windows 2000 on Elbrus microprocessor
- The Elbrus-2: a Soviet-era high performance computer – project and hardware history discussion, including an interview with Boris Babaian, from the Computer History Museum