United States presidential election, 1824
|Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states won by Jackson, Orange denotes those won by Adams, Green denotes those won by Crawford, Light Yellow denotes those won by Clay. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.|
The United States presidential election of 1824 was the 10th quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824. John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825, after the election was decided by the House of Representatives in what was termed by some individuals a Corrupt Bargain. The previous years had seen a one-party government in the United States, as the Federalist Party dissolved, leaving only the Democratic-Republican Party as a national political entity. In this election, the Democratic-Republican Party splintered as four separate candidates sought the presidency. This process did not yet lead to formal party organizations, but later, the faction led by Andrew Jackson would evolve into the modern Democratic Party, while the factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party (no relation to the current Republican Party) and then the Whig Party.
The presidential election of 1824 is notable for several reasons. Most importantly of all, it was the only election since the passage of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution to have been decided by the House of Representatives in accordance with its provision to turn over the choice of the president to the House when no candidate secures a majority of the electoral vote. It was also the only presidential election in which the candidate who received the most electoral votes did not become president, since Andrew Jackson's plurality of electoral votes was insufficient to prevent the election from being thrown into the House of Representatives, and the first in which the successful presidential candidate did not win the popular vote. Lastly, this election marked the seventh consecutive presidential victory for the Democratic-Republican Party, which, to this day, represents the longest presidential winning streak in American history.
- 1 General Election
- 2 Results by state
- 3 1825 Contingent election
- 4 Electoral College selection
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
- 8 Navigation
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
The previous competition between the Federalists and the Republicans collapsed after the War of 1812 due to the disintegration of the Federalists' popular appeal, and President James Monroe of the Republican party was actually able to run without opposition in the election of 1820. Like all the previous two-term presidents, Monroe declined to seek re-nomination in the election of 1824. Monroe's vice president, Daniel D. Tompkins, was considered unelectable due to his overwhelming unpopularity and major health problems (which would ultimately claim his life in June 1825, a little over three months after he left office), thus the presidential nomination was left wide open within the Republican party, the only major national political entity remaining in the United States at the time. Five serious contenders were recognized:
William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury, who had been nominated by a caucus of a minority of the Republican members of Congress. The majority decided that this caucus was elitist and anti-democratic, thus they were inclined to disregard its preference.
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State, who held the second most prominent position in the American government at that time. Both James Madison and James Monroe (the last two presidents) had gone from Secretary of State to the presidency, and there was an attitude that the post of Secretary of State was intended to be preparatory to promotion to the presidency.
Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, who was well known and well respected across the nation. He probably would have received the Congressional caucus nomination if he had wanted it, but he did not believe that the caucus process was the best means to select presidential candidates.
Andrew Jackson, a military hero, former governor, and former senator, who was widely viewed as a champion of the common man in many parts of the country.
John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, who had a strong following in South Carolina and Pennsylvania. Pressures within South Carolina state politics were forcing him to shift from his earlier stance as a nationalist to his later position as a rigid defender of states' rights. Calhoun decided there was no way he could win the presidency against such tough competition.
Withdrew before election
Declined to run
|Presidential Ballot||Vice Presidential Ballot|
|William H. Crawford||64||Albert Gallatin||57|
|John Quincy Adams||2||Erastus Root||2|
|Andrew Jackson||1||John Quincy Adams||1|
|William Rufus King||1|
The traditional Congressional caucus nominated Crawford for president and Albert Gallatin for vice-president, but it was sparsely attended and was widely attacked as undemocratic. Gallatin later withdrew from the contest for the vice presidency, after quickly becoming disillusioned by repeated attacks on his credibility made by the other candidates. He was replaced by North Carolina senator Nathaniel Macon. A serious impediment to Crawford's candidacy was created by the effects of a stroke he suffered in 1823. Among other candidates, John Quincy Adams had more support than Henry Clay because of his huge popularity among the old Federalist voters in New England. By this time, even the traditionally Federalist Adams family had come to terms with the Democratic-Republican Party.
The election was as much a contest of favorite sons as it was a conflict over policy, although positions on tariffs and internal improvements did create some significant disagreements. In general, the candidates were favored by different sections of the country: Adams was strong in the Northeast; Jackson in the South, West and mid-Atlantic; Clay in parts of the West; and Crawford in parts of the East.
Secretary of War John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, who was initially a fifth candidate in the early stages of consideration, declined to run for president, but did decide to seek the vice presidency. For president, he backed Jackson, whose political beliefs he considered more compatible with those of most voters in the southern states. Both Adams and Jackson supporters backed Calhoun's candidacy as vice president, thus he easily secured the majority of electoral votes he needed to secure that office. In reality, Calhoun was vehemently opposed to nearly all of Adams's policies, but he did nothing to dissuade Adams supporters from voting for him for vice president.
The campaigning for presidential election of 1824 took many forms. Contrafacta, or well known songs and tunes whose lyrics have been altered, were used to promote political agendas and presidential candidates. Below can be found a sound clip featuring "Hunters of Kentucky," a tune written by Samuel Woodsworth in 1815 under the title "The Unfortunate Miss Bailey." Contrafacta such as this one, which promoted Andrew Jackson as a national hero, have been a long-standing tradition in presidential elections. Another form of campaigning during this election was through newsprint. Political cartoons and partisan writings were best circulated among the voting public through newspapers. Presidential candidate John C. Calhoun was one of the candidates most directly involved through his participation in the publishing of the newspaper The Patriot as a member of the editorial staff. This was a sure way to promote his own political agendas and campaign. In contrast, most candidates involved in early 19th century elections did not run their own political campaigns. Instead it was left to volunteer citizens and partisans to speak on their behalf.
Jackson supporters used this Battle of New Orleans anthem as their campaign song.
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Considering the large numbers of candidates and strong regional preferences, it is not surprising that the results of the election of 1824 were inconclusive. The electoral map confirmed the candidates' sectional support, with Adams winning outright in the New England states, Jackson gleaning success in states throughout the nation, Clay attracting votes from the west, and Crawford attracting votes from the east. Andrew Jackson received more electoral and popular votes than any other candidate, but not the majority of 131 electoral votes needed to win the election. Since no candidate received the required majority of electoral votes, the presidential election was decided by the House of Representatives (see "Contingent election" below). Meanwhile, John C. Calhoun easily defeated his rivals in the race for the vice presidency, as the support of both the Adams and Jackson camps quickly gave him an unassailable lead over the other candidates.
|Presidential Candidate||Party||Home State||Popular Vote(a)||Electoral Vote|
|John Quincy Adams(e)||Democratic-Republican||Massachusetts||113,122||30.9||84|
|William Harris Crawford(c)||Democratic-Republican||Georgia||40,856||11.2||41|
|(Massachusetts unpledged electors)||None||Massachusetts||6,616||1.8||0|
|Needed to win||131|
(a) The popular vote figures exclude Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, New York, South Carolina, and Vermont. In all of these states, the Electors were chosen by the state legislatures rather than by popular vote.
(b) Jackson was nominated by the Tennessee state legislature and by the Democratic Party of Pennsylvania.
(c) Crawford was nominated by a caucus of 66 congressmen that called itself the "Democratic members of Congress".
(d) Clay was nominated by the Kentucky state legislature.
(e) Adams was nominated by the Massachusetts state legislature.
|Vice Presidential Candidate||Party||State||Electoral Vote|
|John C. Calhoun||Democratic-Republican||South Carolina||182|
|Nathan Sanford||Democratic-Republican||New York||30|
|Nathaniel Macon||Democratic-Republican||North Carolina||24|
|Martin Van Buren||Democratic-Republican||New York||9|
|Needed to win||131|
Results by state
|John Quincy Adams
|Connecticut||8||no ballots||7,494||70.39||8||no ballots||1,965||18.46||-||10,647||CT|
|Delaware||3||no popular vote||no popular vote||1||no popular vote||no popular vote||2||-||DE|
|Georgia||9||no popular vote||no popular vote||no popular vote||no popular vote||9||-||GA|
|Kentucky||14||6,356||27.23||-||no ballots||16,982||72.77||14||no ballots||23,338||KY|
|Louisiana||5||no popular vote||3||no popular vote||2||no popular vote||no popular vote||-||LA|
|Maine||9||no ballots||10,289||81.50||9||no ballots||2,336||18.50||-||12,625||ME|
|Massachusetts||15||no ballots||30,687||72.97||15||no ballots||no ballots||42,056||MA|
|New Hampshire||8||no ballots||9,389||93.59||8||no ballots||643||6.41||-||10,032||NH|
|New Jersey||8||10,332||52.08||8||8,309||41.89||-||no ballots||1,196||6.03||-||19,837||NJ|
|New York||36||no popular vote||1||no popular vote||26||no popular vote||4||no popular vote||5||-||NY|
|North Carolina||15||20,231||56.03||15||no ballots||no ballots||15,622||43.26||-||36,109||NC|
|Rhode Island||4||no ballots||2,145||91.47||4||no ballots||200||8.53||-||2,345||RI|
|South Carolina||11||no popular vote||11||no popular vote||no popular vote||no popular vote||-||SC|
|Vermont||7||no popular vote||no popular vote||7||no popular vote||no popular vote||35,031||VT|
Breakdown by ticket
|Presidential Candidate||Running Mate||Electoral Vote|
|Andrew Jackson||John C. Calhoun||99|
|John Quincy Adams||John C. Calhoun||74|
|Henry Clay||Nathan Sanford||28|
|William Harris Crawford||Nathaniel Macon||24|
|John Quincy Adams||Andrew Jackson||9|
|William Harris Crawford||Martin Van Buren||9|
|Henry Clay||John C. Calhoun||7|
|Henry Clay||Andrew Jackson||3|
|William Harris Crawford||Nathan Sanford||2|
|William Harris Crawford||Henry Clay||2|
|William Harris Crawford||John C. Calhoun||2|
|William Harris Crawford||Andrew Jackson||1|
|John Quincy Adams||none||1|
1825 Contingent election
Since no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, the presidential election was thrown into the U.S. House of Representatives. Following the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment, only the top three candidates in the electoral vote were admitted as candidates in the House: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and William Harris Crawford. Henry Clay, who happened to be Speaker of the House at the time, was left out. Clay detested Jackson and had said of him, "I cannot believe that killing 2,500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the various, difficult, and complicated duties of the Chief Magistracy." Moreover, Clay's American System was far closer to Adams' position on tariffs and internal improvements than Jackson's or Crawford's, so Clay threw his support to Adams. Thus Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825, on the first ballot, with 13 states, followed by Jackson with 7, and Crawford with 4.
Adams' victory shocked Jackson, who, as the winner of a plurality of both the popular and electoral votes, expected to be elected president. Interestingly enough, not too long before the results of the House election, an anonymous statement appeared in a Philadelphia paper, called the Columbian Observer. The statement, said to be from a member of Congress, essentially accused Clay of selling Adams his support for the office of Secretary of State. No formal investigation was conducted, so the matter was neither confirmed nor denied. When Clay was indeed offered the position after Adams was victorious, he opted to accept and continue to support the administration he voted for, knowing that declining the position would not have helped to dispel the rumors brought against him. By appointing Clay his Secretary of State, President Adams essentially declared him heir to the Presidency, as Adams and his three predecessors had all served as Secretary of State. Jackson and his followers accused Adams and Clay of striking a "corrupt bargain". The Jacksonians would campaign on this claim for the next four years, ultimately attaining Jackson's victory in the Adams-Jackson rematch in 1828.
Results by state in House of Representatives
|Delegation winner||Adams vote||Jackson vote||Crawford vote|
|Total votes||Adams||87 (41%)||71 (33%)||54 (25%)|
|Votes by state||Adams||13 (54%)||7 (29%)||4 (17%)|
Electoral College selection
|Method of choosing Electors||State(s)|
|Each Elector chosen by voters statewide||Alabama
|Each Elector appointed by state legislature||Delaware
|State is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district||Illinois
- Corrupt Bargain
- Electoral college
- History of the United States (1789-1849)
- Inauguration of John Quincy Adams
- Realigning election
- Second Party System
- Smoke-filled room
- United States House elections, 1824
- Popular vote totals are incomplete. See footnote (a) in section "Results"
- Hansen, Liane (Host). (October 5, 2008). Songs Along The Campaign Trail [Radio series episode]. In Election 2008: On The Campaign Trail. National Public Radio.
- Hay, Thomas R (October 1934). John C. Calhoun And The Presidential Campaign Of 1824, Some Unpublished Calhoun Letters. The American Historical Review, 40, No. 1, Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1838676
- McNamara, R (September 2007). The Election Of 1824 Was Decided In The House Of Representatives. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from About. Com Web site: http://history1800s.about.com/od/leaders/a/electionof1824.htm
- Schimler, Stuart (February 12, 2002). Singing To The Oval Office: A Written History Of The Political Campaign Song. Retrieved October 28, 2008, from President Elect Articles Web site: http://www.presidentelect.org/art_schimler_singing.html
- Leip, David. 1824 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 26, 2005).
- Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 30, 2005).
- Henry Clay to Francis Preston Blair, January 29, 1825.
- Adams, John Quincy; Adams, Charles Francis (1874). Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from 1795 to 1848. J.B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 501–505. ISBN 0-8369-5021-6. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
- United States Congress (1825). House Journal. 18th Congress, 2nd Session, February 9. pp. 219–222. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
- Schlesinger, Arthur Meier; Israel, Fred L. (1971). History of American presidential elections, 1789–1968, Volume I, 1789–1844. New York: Chelsea House. pp. 379–381. ISBN 0070797862. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
- McMaster, J. B. (1900). History of the People of the United States..., V. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 81. In Bemis, Samuel Flagg (1965). John Quincy Adams and the Union. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 54.
- Akin (1824). "Caucus curs in full yell, or a war whoop, to saddle on the people, a pappoose president / J[ames] Akin, Aquafortis". Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "A Historical Analysis of the Electoral College". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 20, 2005.
- Presidential Election of 1824: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress