A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus and/or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.
Manifesto is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto" (p. 102). Similarly, "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published" (p. 103)
Examples of notable manifestos:
- The Act of Abjuration (1581)
- The United States Declaration of Independence (1776)
- The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) during the French Revolution
- The Haitian Declaration of Independence (1804) after the Haitian Revolution
- The Cartagena Manifesto (1812), by Simón Bolívar
- The Tamworth Manifesto issued in 1834 by Sir Robert Peel
- The Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
- The Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
- The Anarchist Manifesto (1850), by Anselme Bellegarrigue.
- The 1890 Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Wilford Woodruff as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- The Second Manifesto dealing with plural marriage, issued by Joseph F. Smith as president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- The October Manifesto (1905) issued by Nicholas II, in an effort to cease the 1905 Russian Revolution
- The Manifesto of the Sixteen (1916)
- The Urmia Manifesto of the United Free Assyria, (1917) by Dr. Freydun Atturaya
- The Liminar Manifesto in the Argentine University Revolution (1918)
- The Amasya Circular (1919)
- The Fascist Manifesto (1919), by Fasci di Combattimento
- The Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals (1925), by Benedetto Croce
- Mein Kampf (My Struggle) (1925), by Adolf Hitler
- The Cannibal Manifesto (1928), by Oswald de Andrade
- The Regina Manifesto (1933), by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
- The Humanist Manifesto I, II and III (1933, 1973, 2003)
- The PKWN manifesto (1944), by Polish Committee of National Liberation
- The Oxford Manifesto (1947) describing the basic principles of Liberal International
- The Objectives Resolution of Pakistan (1949), by Liaquat Ali Khan
- The Russell-Einstein Manifesto (1955), against nuclear weapons and war
- The Southern Manifesto (1956), opposing the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education
- Report on the Construction of Situations (1957), by Guy Debord
- The Manifesto of the 121 against the Algerian War (1960)
- The Sharon Statement (1960), by M. Stanton Evans et al. (Young Americans for Freedom)
- The Port Huron Statement (1962), by Tom Hayden et al.
- The SCUM Manifesto (1968), by Valerie Solanas
- The Manifesto of the 343 (1971) in which 343 French women admitted to having a (then illegal) abortion
- For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto (1973), by Murray Rothbard
- New Libertarian Manifesto (1980), by Samuel Edward Konkin III
- Guy Verhofstadt's Burgermanifests: I (1981); II (1991); III (1994); IV (2006)
- A Cyborg Manifesto (1985), by Donna Haraway
- The Contract with America (1994), by the Republican candidates for the House of Representatives
- De puinhopen van acht jaar Paars (2002), by Pim Fortuyn
- The Companion Species Manifesto (2003), by Donna Haraway
- Manifesto on Freedom and Democracy for Vietnam (2006) by Bloc 8406
- The Euston Manifesto (2006) by Euston Manifesto Group
- Liberty and Tyranny: A Conservative Manifesto (2009) by Mark Levin
- The Revolution: A Manifesto (2009) by Ron Paul
- The Rich and the Rest of Us: A Poverty Manifesto (2012) by Tavis Smiley and Cornel West
- The Futurist Manifesto (1909), by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
- The Art of Noises (1913), by Luigi Russolo
- The Futurist Architecture Manifesto (1914), by Antonio Sant'Elia
- BLAST the Vorticist manifesto (1914), by Wyndham Lewis
- The Dada Manifesto (1918), by Tristan Tzara
- The Surrealist Manifesto (1924), by André Breton
- The Symbolist Manifesto (1886), by Jean Moreas
- The Free Cinema Manifesto (1956) by Lindsay Anderson Karel Reisz Tony Richardson Lorenza Mazzetti
- Fluxus manifesto (1961) by George Maciunas
- The Romantic Manifesto (1969) by Ayn Rand
- Manifesto of Poetic Eggs, in "Empire of Dreams," (1998 in Spanish, 1994 in English) by Giannina Braschi
- Dogma 95 (1995) by Lars von Trier, Thomas Vinterberg, Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen
- Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity (1996) by Basarab Nicolescu
- Minnesota declaration: truth and fact in documentary cinema (1999), by Werner Herzog
- First Things First 2000 manifesto: Ethics and social responsibility in graphic design (1999), by Kalle Lasn & Chris Dixon with Ken Garland. Edited by Rick Poynor
- The Neofuturistic City Manifesto (2007), by Vito Di Bari
- The Versatilist manifesto (2007), by Denis Mandarino
- "Political Erotical Mystical Manifesto" (2011), by Kendell Geers
Scientific and Educational
- The Behaviorist Manifesto (1913) issued by John B. Watson in opposition to the introspection method in psychology
- Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (1969) written by Vine Deloria, Jr.
- The GNU Manifesto (1985), by Richard Stallman, an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project
- The Hacker's Manifesto (1986), by The Mentor aka Loyd Blankenship
- The Debian Manifesto (1993), by Ian Murdock
- A Cypherpunk's Manifesto (1993) by Eric Hughes
- Industrial Society and Its Future, otherwise known as the Unabomber Manifesto (1995), by Ted Kaczynski
- The Third Manifesto (1995), by Christopher J. Date and Hugh Darwen, a proposal for relational database management system
- The Cathedral and the Bazaar (1997), by Eric S. Raymond
- The Cluetrain Manifesto (1999) by Rick Levine, Christopher Locke, Doc Searls and David Weinberger
- Pluginmanifesto (2001) by Ana Kronschnabl, a Web film statement
- The Hacktivismo Declaration (2001) by Oxblood Ruffin (Hacktivismo)
- The Mozilla Manifesto (2007), by Mozilla community
- Principles of Programming Languages (2007), by Robert Harper
- You Are Not A Gadget: A Manifesto (2010), by Jaron Lanier
- The Hardware Hacker Manifesto (2010), by Cody Brocious
- Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition of Manifesto.
- [dead link]
- Dictionary.com definition of Manifesto.
- David Robertson, The Routledge Dictionary of Politics, Edition 3, Psychology Press, 2004, p. 295, ISBN 0415323770, 9780415323772
- Oxford English Dictionary
- "La Transdisciplinarité - Manifeste". Nicol.club.fr. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "Werner Herzog Film: Home". Wernerherzog.com. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "Manifesto of Neo-Futuristic City". Neofuturistic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "The Neofuturistic City Manifesto released online". Architecturelab.net. July 13, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- Critical Arts: A Journal of South-North Cultural and Media Studies 27(6), An Van Dienderen & Kris Rutten, 2013, p. 655-660.
- "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it". Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "A Brief History of Debian - The Debian Manifesto". Debian.org. December 31, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto".
- "The Mozilla Manifesto". Mozilla.org. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "15-312 Principles of Programming Languages". Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- "The Hardware Hacker Manifesto - I, Hacker". Daeken.com. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
- British political party manifesto archives, 1900–present: Labour, Conservative, Liberal/SDP/Liberal Democrat