Elections in Estonia
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Estonia elects a legislature on the national level. The Riigikogu has 101 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation. A head of state - the president - is elected for a five-year term by parliament (1st-3rd round) or an electoral college (4th and subsequent rounds). Locally, Estonia elects local government councils, which vary in size. Election law states the minimum size of a council depending on the size of municipality. Local government councils are elected by proportional representation too.
- The minimum number of council members is prescribed to be at least 7 seats
- Over 2,000 inhabitants: at least 13 seats
- Over 5,000 inhabitants: at least 17 seats
- Over 10,000 inhabitants: at least 21 seats
- Over 50,000 inhabitants: at least 31 seats
- Over 300,000 inhabitants: at least 79 seats
Elections have taken place in the following years: Past elections:
- Riigikogu (parliament): 1992, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011
- Local/municipal: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2013
- Europarliament: 2004, 2009, 2014
- Referendums: 2003 (EU)
- President: 1992 (Lennart Meri), 1996 (Lennart Meri), 2001 (Arnold Rüütel), 2006 (Toomas Ilves), 2011 (Toomas Ilves)
Latest national election
|Party||Ideology||Votes||% votes||Change||Seats||Swing||seats %/
|Estonian Reform Party (Eesti Reformierakond)||Classical liberalism||164,275||28.6%||0.8%||33||2||1.14|
|Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond)||Centrism, Social liberalism||134,090||23.3%||2.8%||26||3||1.10|
|Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit)||Conservatism, Liberal Conservatism||118,023||20.5%||2.6%||23||4||1.11|
|Social Democratic Party (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond)||Social democracy, Third Way||98,302||17.1%||6.5%||19||9||1.10|
|Estonian Greens (Erakond Eestimaa Rohelised)||Green politics||21,828||3.8%||3.3%||0||6||—|
|People's Union of Estonia (Eestimaa Rahvaliit)||Agrarianism||12,192||2.1%||5.0%||0||6||—|
|Russian Party in Estonia (Vene Erakond Eestis)||Russian minority||5,027||0.9%||0.7%||0||—||—|
|Party of Estonian Christian Democrats (Erakond Eesti Kristlikud Demokraadid)||Christian democracy||2,927||0.5%||1.2%||0||—||—|
|Estonian Independence Party (Eesti Iseseisvuspartei)||Euroscepticism, Nationalism||2,569||0.4%||0.2%||0||—||—|
- European Parliament election, 2004
- European Parliament election, 2009
- European Parliament election, 2014
The Constitution of Estonia gives the Parliament of Estonia the power to submit a bill or other national issue to a referendum (article 105 of the Constitution). The result of the vote is binding. If a bill which is submitted to a referendum does not receive a majority of votes in favour, the President of the Republic shall declare extraordinary elections to the Parliament.
There are some issues which cannot be submitted to the referendum: issues regarding the budget, taxation, financial obligations of the state, ratification and denunciation of international treaties, the declaration or termination of a state of emergency, or national defence (article 105 of the Constitution).
Some parts of the Constitution (chapters "General Provisions" and "Amendment of the Constitution") can be amended only by a referendum (article 162 of the Constitution). The rest of Constitution can be amended either by
- a referendum;
- two successive memberships of the Parliament;
- the Parliament, as a matter of urgency (article 163 of the Constitution).
A three-fifths majority of the membership of the Parliament is required to submit a bill to amend the Constitution to a referendum (article 164 of the Constitution).
A referendum was called by the Parliament of Estonia on 2 occasions since its independence from USSR was declared:
- a referendum on a new constitution and citizenship in 1992
- Estonian European Union membership referendum in 2003
- Adam Carr's Election Archive
- Parties and elections[dead link]
- National Electoral Committee of Estonia
- NSD: European Election Database - Estonia publishes regional level election data; allows for comparisons of election results, 1992-2007
- "Constitution of Estonia". Retrieved 2013-11-01.