Elections in South Korea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Emblem of South Korea.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
South Korea
Constitution

Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly.

The president is directly elected for a single five-year term by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a four-year term, 245 in single-seat constituencies and 54 members by proportional representation. Each individual party willing to represent its policies in the National Assembly must be qualified on the legislative (general) election that: i) if the national party-vote reaches over 3.00% on proportional contest or ii) if more than 5 members of their party that has been elected in each of their first-past-the-post election constituencies.[1]

South Korea has a multi-party system, with two dominant parties and numerous third parties.

Schedule[edit]

Election[edit]

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Type National Assembly (April)
Presidential (December)
None Gubernatorial (April) None National Assembly (April) Presidential (December)
President President None President
National Assembly All seats None All seats None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None All positions None

Inauguration[edit]

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Type National Assembly (July) Presidential (February) Gubernatorial (July) None National Assembly (July) None
President None February 25 None
National Assembly July 3 None July 3 None
Provinces, cities and municipalities None July 1 None

Latest elections[edit]

2014 local election[edit]

2012 Presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 19 December 2012 South Korean presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Park Geun-hye Saenuri Party 15,773,128 51.55
 
Moon Jae-in Democratic United Party 14,692,632 48.02
 
Kang Ji-won Independent 53,303 0.17
 
Kim Soon-ja Independent 46,017 0.15
 
Kim So-yeon Independent 16,687 0.05
 
Park Jong-sun Independent 12,854 0.04
 
Invalid/blank votes 126,838
Total 30,721,459 100
Registered voters/turnout 40,507,842 75.84
Source: National Election Commission

2012 legislative elections[edit]

e • d Summary of the 11 April 2012 South Korean National Assembly election results[2][3][4][5][6]
Turnout 54.3%
Parties Local seats ± Block seats ± Constituency votes  % PR block votes  % Total seats ±
Saenuri Party (새누리당) (NFP) 1 127 -10 25 -5 9,324,911 43.3% 9,130,651 42.8% 152 -15
Democratic United Party (민주통합당) (DUP) 106 +40 21 +6 8,156,045 37.9% 7,777,123 36.5% 127 +46
Unified Progressive Party (통합진보당) (UPP) 7 +5 6 +3 1,291,306 6.0% 2,198,405 10.3% 13 +8
Liberty Forward Party (자유선진당) (LFP) 3 -11 2 -2 474,001 2.2% 690,754 3.2% 5 -13
New Progressive Party (진보신당) (NPP) 0 ±0 0 ±0 101,614 0.5% 243,065 1.1% 0 ±0
Korea Vision Party (국민생각) (KVP) 0 ±0 0 ±0 44,379 0.2% 156,241 0.7% 0 ±0
Creative Korea Party (창조한국당) (CKP) 0 -1 0 -2 3,624 0.0% 91,935 0.4% 0 -3
   Other parties 0 ±0 0 ±0 132,709 0.6% 1,043,887 5.0% 0 ±0
Independents 3 -22 2,016,737 9.4% 3 -22
Total 246 54 21,545,326 100.0% 21,332,061 100.0% 300
Ideology
Conservative (NFP, LFP, KVP) 130 -21 27 -7 9,843,291 45.7% 9,977,646 46.7% 157 -28
Liberal (DUP, CKP) 106 +39 21 +4 8,159,669 37.9% 7,869,058 36.9% 127 +43
Progressive (UPP, NPP) 7 +5 6 +3 1,392,920 6.5% 2,441,470 11.4% 13 +8
Total 246 54 19,395,880 90.1% 20,288,174 95.0% 300

1 Comparison includes members elected in 2008 for the Pro-Park Coalition

Past elections[edit]

1948 legislative election[edit]

The election was held on May 10, 1948.

1948 presidential election[edit]

Under the original constitution of South Korea, the president was elected indirectly by the National Assembly.[7] The only such election was held on July 20, 1948. Syngman Rhee received 182 of 199 votes (92%), thus defeating the two independent candidates Kim Koo(who received 13 votes, despite not participating in the process) and An Jae-hong (안재홍), who received 2 votes.[8] Rhee thus became the Republic of Korea's first president.

The vice-president was elected separately at the same legislative session. Under the rules of the first constitution, a candidate had to receive 2/3 of the votes in order to prevail; however, in the first round, no vice-presidential candidate was able to do so. Lee Si-hyeong received only a simple majority with 113 votes, Kim Koo 65, Cho Man-sik 10, Oh Se-Chang 5, Jang Taek-sang 3, and Seo Sang-in 1. A runoff was therefore held between Kim and Yi, in which Yi took in 133 votes and gained the vice-presidency.[9]

Less than a year after the election, on June 26, 1949, Kim was assassinated by 2nd lieutenant and Korean Independence Party member An Du-hui (안두희), whom a bus driver killed in Incheon on October 23, 1996.[10]

1952 presidential election[edit]

In May 1952, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly elected position after having jailed members of parliament whom he expected to vote against it. In the same month, elections were held.

Election held during the Korean War on May 8, 1952. Turnout: 88.09%. Result: Syngman Rhee (이승만; 74.62%; Liberal Party [자유당]) wins over Cho Bong-am (조봉암; 11.36%), Lee Si-yeong (이시영; 10,89%; vice president of 1948) and Sin Heung-u (신흥우; 3,13%), thus being elected into his second term in office. He then pushes through another amendment to exempt himself from the presidential eight-year term limit. Other candidates: none. Votes deemed invalid: 3,51%

1954 legislative election[edit]

1956 presidential election[edit]

President Rhee has become less popular, but the opposition's main candidate for presidency Shin Ik-hee (신익희) suddenly dies while campaigning.

Election held on May 15, 1956. Turnout: 94.38%. Result: Syngman Rhee (이승만; 69.99%; Liberal Party [자유당]) wins over Cho Bong-am (조봉암; 30.01%; Progressive Party), thus being elected into his third term in office. Other candidates: none. Votes deemed invalid: 20,48%

March 1960 presidential election[edit]

The opposition's only candidate for presidency Cho Byeong-ok (조병옥) dies on February 15, 1960. The only living candidate Rhee Syngman Rhee (이승만; Liberal Party [자유당]) gets 100% of the vote. Other candidates: none.

Vice president is elected separately, with Rhee's favourite Lee Gi-bung (이기붕) being declared victor. Opposition claims election was rigged and declares it invalid.

Public pressure topples Rhee's regime: The president resigns on April 26, 1960 and is evacuated from Korea by the United States' CIA two days later. In response to his government's authoritarian excesses, the state changes to a parliamentary system, in which the president wields no power.

1960 legislative election[edit]

August 1960 presidential election[edit]

On August 12, 1960, the newly elected parliament elects a new president. Yun Po Sun, whom Rhee had appointed mayor of Seoul in 1948 and minister in 1949, but who soon opposed him and in 1960 eventually founded the Democratic Party (민주당), is elected president (82%) and appoints Chang Myeon (장면) prime minister. Chang leaves the Democratic Party to form the New Democratic Party (신민당).

In 1961, Major-General Park Chung Hee successfully leads a military coup and takes over power, leaving Yun in office. Yun resigns on March 22, 1962.

Under pressure from the Kennedy administration in the United States, Park has to restore civilian government, but closely wins the following elections:

1963 presidential election[edit]

Election held on October 15, 1963. Turnout: 84.99%. Result: Park Chung Hee (박정희; 46.65%; Democratic Republican Party [민주공화당]; president 1963 to 1979) wins over Yun Po Sun (윤보선; 45.1%; Democratic Party [민주당]; president 1960 to 1962) and Oh Jae-yeong (오재영; 4.05%; Autumn Wind Club [추풍회]). Other candidates (2): 4,2%. Votes deemed invalid: 8.65%. The difference between Park and Yun is only 156,026 votes or 1.5477% of valid votes.

1967 presidential election[edit]

Election held on May 3, 1967. Turnout: 83.57%. Result: Park Chung Hee (박정희; 51.44%; Democratic Republican Party (민주공화당); president 1963 to 1979) wins over Yun Po Sun (윤보선; 40.93%; New People's party [신민당] president 1960 to 1962), Oh Jae-yeong (오재영; 2.39%; Unified Korea Party [통한당]), Kim Jun-yeon (2.25%; Democratic Party [민주당]) and Jun Jin-han (2.1%; Korean Independence Party [한국독립당]) and Lee Se-jin (0.89%; Justice Party [정의당]). Other candidates: none. Votes deemed invalid: 5.04%. The difference between Park and Yun is 1,162,125 votes or 10.5087% of valid votes.

1971 presidential election[edit]

Park wins against later president Kim Dae-jung by a margin of 8% of valid votes and in 1972 establishes the Yusin Constitution.

1972 presidential election[edit]

Indirect presidential election controlled by Park's incumbent regime.

1978 presidential election[edit]

Indirect presidential election controlled by Park's incumbent regime.

1979 presidential election[edit]

Kim Jae-kyu, chief of the KCIA, assassinates Park on October 26, 1979. Prime minister Choe Gyuha becomes acting president under the Yusin Constitution and shortly after is elected president by the National Conference for Unification, an electoral college set up as part of the Yusin system. Chun Doo-hwan curbs his power in a military coup in December 1979; Choe resigns after the Gwangju massacre of 1980.

1980 presidential election[edit]

Indirect presidential election controlled by General Chun Doo-hwan.

1981 presidential election[edit]

Indirect presidential election controlled by Chun's incumbent regime under the new 1980 Constitution. It was the last indirect presidential election.

1987 presidential election[edit]

1992 presidential election[edit]

1997 presidential election[edit]

2000 legislative election[edit]

2002 presidential election[edit]

2004 legislative election[edit]

October 26, 2005 by-election[edit]

By-election held on October 26, 2005 in Bucheon, Daegu, Gwangju and Ulsan districts.
See the external links section for a comment on the by-election's outcome and aftermath.

2007 presidential election[edit]

2008 legislative election[edit]

2010 local election[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Representation System(Elected Person), the NEC, Retrieved on April 10, 2008
  2. ^ Number of Local seats earned by each party (in Korean), National Election Commission, Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  3. ^ Number of Block seats earned by each party (in Korean), National Election Commission, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  4. ^ Total number of votes earned for Block seats by each party (in Korean), National Election Commission, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  5. ^ Chang Se-hoon(장세훈) (April 14, 2012). "과반의석? 박근혜 긴장 늦추지 못하는 이유는" [Winning majority? Why Park Geun-hye can't be too cheerful about the election.]. 서울신문 (in Korean). Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  6. ^ News 1 (April 13, 2012). "총선 결과, 보수-진보 의석수 158 대 142, 정당 득표 997만 대 982만. 박빙 대선 레이스 예고" [Election results, conservatives vs liberals: seats 158 vs. 142, total votes 9.97mil. vs. 9.82mi. President election will be a close call.] (in Korean). JoongAng daily. Retrieved April 13, 2012. 
  7. ^ Lee (1984), p. 378.
  8. ^ "제1 공화국의 선거: 1. 1948년 ― 초대 대통령ㆍ부통령선거". Jeonbuk Election Commission website. Archived from the original on March 9, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2006. 
  9. ^ "제1 공화국의 선거: 1. 1948년 ― 초대 대통령ㆍ부통령선거". Jeonbuk Election Commission website. Archived from the original on March 9, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2006. 
  10. ^ The date of the 1949 assassination is confirmed by Nahm (1986), p. 380. The name is confirmed by Lee (1993), p. 99.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Nahm, A.C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2. 
  • Lee, Il-cheong (이일청) (1993). 인명국사대사전 (Inmyeong guksa daesajeon, Unabridged biographical dictionary of Korean history. Seoul: Goryeo Munhaksa. 
  • Lee, Ki-baik (1984). A new history of Korea (rev ed.). Seoul: Ilchokak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0. 

External links[edit]