Electoral Reform Society
London, United Kingdom
|Focus||Democracy, Electoral Reform, Elections|
|Method||lobbying, research, innovation|
The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform. It seeks to replace the First Past the Post voting system with one of Proportional Representation, advocating the Single Transferable Vote. It is the oldest operating organisation concerned with political and electoral reform in the world.
The Electoral Reform Society seeks a "representative democracy fit for the 21st century."  It believes that:
- Every vote and every voice has value and should be heard
- Everyone should be able to shape the decisions that affect their lives
- Our institutions should reflect the people they serve
- People should be able to hold those in power to account
- Politics should offer people real alternatives
A PRS pamphlet of the 1920s described the organization's aims thusly: 1. to reproduce the opinions of the electors in parliament and other public bodies in their true proportions 2. to secure the majority of electors shall rule and all other considerable minorities shall be heard 3. to give electors a wider freedom in the choice of representation 4. to give representative greater independence by freeing them from the pressure of sectional interests (perhaps party discipline and back-room deals were meant] 5. to ensure to parties representation by their ablest and most trusted members. 
Since its formation, the Society has advocated replacement of the First Past the Post and Plurality-at-large voting systems by a system achieving as pure proportional representation as possible, such as through party slate elections or multi-member ridings. The Single Transferable Vote has historically been less supported and was described by a PRS spokesperson as having advantages as well as disadvantages over the FPTP system but makes no claim to be Proportional representation.). First Past the Post is currently used for elections to the House of Commons, and for most local elections in England and Wales, while Plurality-at-large is used in the remainder of England and Wales, and was historically used in the multi-member parliamentary constituencies before their abolition. It also campaigns for improvements to public elections and representative democracy, and is a regular commentator on all aspects of representation, public participation and democratic governance in the United Kingdom.
The ERS was founded in January 1884 as the Proportional Representation Society by the Victorian naturalist, archaeologist and polymath John Lubbock. The founding members included academics, barristers, and an equal number of Conservative and Liberal MPs. Famous early members included Charles Dodgson (better known as Lewis Carroll), C.P. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian and Thomas Hare, inventor of the Single Transferable Vote. Alongside its sister organisation, Proportional Representation Society of Ireland, the Society succeeded in getting STV introduced in local and then national elections in Ireland, and in numerous religious, educational and professional organisations.
After World War II the Society suffered from financial problems and a lack of public appetite for reform. When Fianna Fáil put to a referendum a proposal to revert to First Past the Post twice (1959 and 1968), the Society, under the leadership of Enid Lakeman, led a successful campaign to keep the STV system in Ireland
In 1973 STV was introduced in Northern Ireland for elections to local councils and to the new Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Society and its staff were called upon to advise in the programme of education set up by the government to raise public awareness.
Interest in proportional representation revived sharply in Britain after the February 1974 general election. From then on the Society was able to secure a higher public profile for its campaigns. In 1983 the Society was recognised by the United Nations Economic and Social Council as a Non-Governmental Organisation with Consultative Status.
The Society has campaigned successfully for the introduction of STV for local elections in Scotland, and led the call for a referendum on the voting system in the wake of the United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal as part of the Vote for a Change campaign. It is a founding member of the Votes at 16 Coalition.
The Society was later a principal funder of the YES! To Fairer Votes campaign in the unsuccessful bid for a Yes vote in the 2011 referendum on the Alternative Vote. Its Chief Executive, Katie Ghose, served as the campaign's chair.
Police & Crime Commissioners
In 2012, the Society exposed government mishandling of their flagship policy of elected Police and Crime Commissioners - which led to the lowest turnout in British peacetime history.
In August 2012 the Society predicted turnout could be as low as 18.5% and outlined steps the salvage the elections, mobilising support from both candidates and voters. The Government did not change tack, dubbing the prediction a "silly season story". Following the result, the Society branded the Government's approach to elections as a "comedy of errors", views that were reiterated by Shadow Home Secretary Yvette Cooper.
The Society led bids to change the Government's approach to introduction of Individual Electoral Registration, which the New Statesman dubbed "the biggest political scandal you’ve never heard of". Electoral Commission sources estimated as many as 10 million voters could disappear from the electoral roll under government plans, predominantly poor, young or black, and more liable to vote Labour. The Society succeeded in securing changes to the legislation.
The Society argues that there is a democratic deficit in the European Union. A 2014 report recommended several ways to make the EU more accountable. These included: better scrutiny of EU legislation by the British Parliament, a voting system which gives voters more influence over individual candidates (e.g. Single Transferable Vote) and recruitment of party candidates with a wider ranges of views on the EU.
The Society has three closely related organisations:
- Electoral Reform Services Limited (ERS, formerly Electoral Reform Ballot Services): A company established in 1988 to provide an independent balloting and polling service to organisations conducting elections and polls. The service is widely used by trade unions, political parties, building societies and companies when balloting their members or shareholders in ways defined by the law and their internal management. In many cases these organisations are forbidden from conducting their ballots internally in an attempt to ensure that the ballots are conducted impartially.
- Electoral Reform International Services (ERIS): A company established in 1991 to provide assistance in conducting elections worldwide. Activities include advice, training and election monitoring.
- What we stand for http://www.electoral-reform.org.uk/what-we-stand-for/
- The Influence of the Method of Election upon the Constitution of Local Authorities, London: PRS, 
- George Hallett in a letter to Clerk of the Alberta Legislative Assembly, July, 1924, Provincial Archives of Alberta
- Dunleavy, Patrick; Travers, Tony; Gilson, Chris (13 November 2012). "The LSE’s simple guide to UK voting systems". London School of Economics. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- (Sinnott, Richard, 1999. ‘The electoral system’, pp. 99–126 in John Coakley and Michael Gallagher (eds), Politics in the Republic of Ireland, 3rd ed. London: Routledge and PSAI Press.)
- "Parliament in crisis: When will MPs start to listen to the people?". TheGuardian.com. Guardian News and Media. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Curtis, Polly; Kollewe, Julia (3 May 2011). "AV referendum: full details of donations to yes and no campaigns". TheGuardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Police and crime commissioner candidates warn of turnout". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Beckford, Martin (18 August 2012). "Turnout of 18% predicted for police commissioner election 'shambles'". Telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Yvette Cooper MP, 16 November 2012, http://www.labour.org.uk/police-and-crime-commissioner-elections-shambles
- Hasan, Mehdi (6 October 2011). "Electoral registration: the biggest political scandal you’ve never heard of". New Statesman. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Wintour, Patrick (15 September 2011). "Shocked MPs told electoral plan could remove 10m voters". TheGuardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Electoral Reform Society Blog, An important victory for voters, but no time for complacency, 16 May 2012 http://www.electoral-reform.org.uk/blog/an-important-victory-for-voters-but-no-time-for-complacency
- Close the Gap — Tackling Europe's Democratic Deficit.
- Official website
- Electoral Reform Services
- Electoral Reform International Services
- Electoral Reform Society companies grouped at OpenCorporates