Electorate of Württemberg

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For other uses, see Württemberg (disambiguation).
Electorate of Württemberg
Kurfürstentum Württemberg
Vassal of Holy Roman Empire of the medival period

1803–1806
Flag Coat of arms
Electorate of Württemberg
Capital Stuttgart
Languages Swabian German
Religion Roman Baptist Lutheran Protestant
Government Monarchy
Elector of Württemberg
 -  1803-1806 Friedrich I, Elector of Württemberg
Historical era Modern Ages
 -  Raised to Prince-elector 1803
 -  Raised to Kingdom of Württemberg 1806
Today part of  Germany

The Electorate of Württemberg was a State of the Holy Roman Empire on the right bank of the Rhine. In 1803, Napoleon raised the duchy to the Electorate of Württemberg of the Holy Roman Empire however soon afterward when he abolished the Empire in 1806, the Electorate was elevated to the Kingdom of Württemberg.[1] Frederick I of Württemberg, a prince whose model was Frederick the Great, took part in the war against the French First Republic in defiance of his people's wishes. When the French again invaded and devastated the country he retired to Erlangen, where he remained until after the conclusion of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801.

Following the German Mediatisation with France, signed in March 1802, he ceded his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, receiving in return nine free imperial cities, among them Reutlingen and Heilbronn and other territories, amounting altogether to about 850 square miles and containing about 124000 inhabitants. In 1803 he accepted from Napoleon the title of Prince-elector. These new districts were separate and not incorporated with the Duchy of Württemberg. They were known as New Württemberg and were ruled without a Diet.

In 1805 Württemberg took up arms on the side of First French Empire, and Peace of Pressburg in December 1805, the elector was rewarded with various Further Austria possessions in Swabian Circle and with other nearby lands. On 1 January 1806, Frederick assumed the title of King of Württemberg.[2] Frederick abrogated the constitution and united the old and new Württemberg. Subsequently he placed church property under state control. He also joined the Confederation of the Rhine and received further territory.

History[edit]

Charles Eugene left no legitimate heirs and was succeeded by his two brothers, Louis Eugene (died 1795), who was childless, and Frederick Eugene (died 1797). Frederick Eugene served in the army of Frederick the Great, to whom he was related by marriage, and then managed his family's estates around Montbéliard. He educated his children in the Protestant faith as francophones, and all of the subsequent Württemberg royal family were descended from him. Thus, when his son Frederick II became duke in 1797, Protestantism returned to the ducal household, and the royal house adhered to this faith thereafter.

During Frederick Eugene's short reign, the French Republic invaded Württemberg, and compelled the duke to withdraw his troops from the imperial army and to pay reparations. Though he ruled for only two years, Frederick II Eugene effectively saved the independence of the dukedom. Through his children's marriages, he made remarkable connections across Europe, including the Russian, Austrian and British royal families.

Frederick II (1754–1816), a prince who modeled himself on Frederick the Great, took part in the war against France in defiance of the wishes of his people and, when the French again invaded and devastated the country, he retired to Erlangen, where he remained until after the conclusion of the peace of Lunéville on 9 February 1801.

By a private treaty with France, signed in March 1802, he ceded his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, receiving, in return, nine imperial towns, among them Reutlingen and Heilbronn, and some other territories, amounting altogether to about 850 square miles (2,200 km²) and containing about 124,000 inhabitants. He also accepted from Napoleon in 1803 the title of elector. Subsequently, the duchy was elevated to an electorate, the Electorate of Württemberg (1803–1805). The new districts were not incorporated with the duchy, but remained separate. They were known as "New Württemberg" and were ruled without a diet. Other areas were acquired in 1803–1806 as part of the German Mediatisation process.

In 1805, Württemberg took up arms on the side of France and, by the Treaty of Pressburg in December 1805, the elector received as reward various Austrian possessions in Swabia and other lands in the area (Vorderösterreich).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Germany, the German Confederation". Friesian.com. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  2. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 858.

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Württemberg". Encyclopædia Britannica 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 856–59.