Electress

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An Electress (German: Kurfürstin, Latin: electrix) was the consort of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the Empire's greatest princes.

The Golden Bull of 1356 established by Emperor Charles IV settled the number of Electors at seven. However, three of these were Roman Catholic archbishops, and so had no formal consorts; while of the four secular Electors, one was King of Bohemia, and his consort was always known by the more prestigious title of "Queen of Bohemia". The consorts usually referred to as Electresses, therefore, were:

To these were added, in 1623 and 1692 respectively:

In the final years of the Empire, several Electors were added, who however only held their offices for less than three years before the Empire's final dissolution. The consorts of these last Electors were:

There was also an Elector of Baden, but the only ruler to use this title was married morganatically and so his spouse did not share his title.

The rulers of Hesse-Kassel continued to use the title of "Elector" until the annexation of the principality by Prussia in 1866.

Persons using or entitled to use the title of "Electress" are listed below. Spouses of Electors in morganatic or unequal marriages are given in a separate table at the bottom of the page.

Electresses[edit]

Electresses Palatine (senior line)[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband
Wittelsbach Dynasty
Elizabeth John I, Count of Namur 1340 1350 1356 1382 Rupert I
Beatrice William I, Duke of Berg 1360 1385 16 Feb 1390 1395
Elizabeth Frederick V, Burggrave of Nuremberg 1358 27 Jun 1374 6 Jan 1398 18 May 1410 26 Jul 1411 Rupert III
Matilda Amadeo, Prince of Achaea 1390 30 Nov 1417 30 Dec 1436 14 May 1438 Louis III
Margaret Amadeus VIII of Savoy 7 Aug 1420 18 Oct 1445 13 Aug 1449 30 Sep 1479 Louis IV
Margaret Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 7 Nov 1456 21 Feb 1474 12 Dec 1476 25 Feb 1501 Philip
Sibylle Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 16 Jun 1489 23 Feb 1511 18 Apr 1519 Louis V
Dorothea ChristinavonDaenemarkCoxcie.jpg Christian II of Denmark 10 Nov 1520 26 Sep 1535 16 Mar 1544 26 Feb 1556 20 Sep 1580 Frederick II
Line of Simmern
Marie MarieBrandKulmPfalz.JPG Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 13 Oct 1519 12 Jun 1537 12 Feb 1559 31 Oct 1567 Frederick III
Amalia Gumprecht IV, Count of Neuenahr c. 1540 25 Apr 1569 26 Oct 1576 10 Apr 1602
Elisabeth Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse 13 Feb 1539 8 Jul 1560 26 Oct 1576 14 Mar 1582 Louis VI
Anne Edzard II, Count of East Frisia 26 June 1562 12 Jul 1583 22 Oct 1583 21 Apr 1621
Louise Juliana William I of Orange 31 Mar 1576 12 Jun 1593 19 Sep 1610 15 Mar 1644 Frederick IV
Elizabeth
Queen of Bohemia
Gerard van Honthorst 007.jpeg James I of England 19 Aug 1596 14 Feb 1613 23 Feb 1623
deposition
14 Feb 1662 Frederick V
House of Wittelsbach – Bavaria
Elisabeth Renata Charles III of Lorraine 9 Oct 1574 6 Feb 1595 23 Feb 1623 4 Jan 1635 Maximilan I
Maria Anna Joachim von Sandrart 008.jpg Emperor Ferdinand II 13 Jan 1610 15 Jul 1635 1648 25 Sep 1665
Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband

Electresses of Bavaria[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband
Wittelsbach Dynasty
Elisabeth Renata Charles III, Duke of Lorraine 9 Oct 1574 6 Feb 1595 23 Feb 1623 4 Jan 1635 Maximilan I
Maria Anna Joachim von Sandrart 008.jpg Emperor Ferdinand II 13 Jan 1610 15 Jul 1635 27 Sep 1651 25 Sep 1665
Henriette Adelaide HenrietteAdelheidSavoyenBayern.jpeg Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy 6 Nov 1636 8/11 Dec 1650 27 Sep 1651 13 Jun 1676 Ferdinand Maria
Maria Antonia Benjamin von Block 002.jpg Emperor Leopold I 1669 15 Jul 1685 24 Dec 1692 Maximilian II
Teresa Kunegunda Troy Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska.jpg Jan Sobieski of Poland 4 Mar 1676 2 Jan 1695 26 Feb 1726 10 Mar 1730
Maria Amalia
Holy Roman Empress 1742–1745
Maria AmaliaBayern.jpg Emperor Joseph I 22 Oct 1701 5 Oct 1722 26 Feb 1726 20 Jan 1745 11 Dec 1756 Charles Albert
Maria Anna Sophia Maria Anna of Saxony.JPG Augustus III of Poland 29 Aug 1728 9 Jul 1747 30 Dec 1777 17 Feb 1797 Maximilian III
Elizabeth Maria Augusta Kurfüstin Elisabeth Auguste am Spinett.jpg Joseph Charles of Sulzbach 17 Jan 1721 17 Jan 1742 30 Dec 1777 17 Aug 1794 Charles Theodore
Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este Maria Leopoldine of Austria Este with sons.jpeg Ferdinand of Austria 10 Dec 1776 15 Feb 1795 16 Feb 1799 23 Jun 1848
Frederica Caroline Wilhelmina Karoline Königin von Bayern.jpg Charles Louis of Baden 13 Jul 1776 9 Mar 1797 16 Feb 1799 1 Jan 1806
became Queen of Bavaria
13 Nov 1841 Maximilian IV

Electresses of Saxony[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband
Ascanian Dynasty
Elizabeth Landgrave Otto I of Hesse  ?  ?  ? 6 Dec 1370 15 Nov 1373 Rudolph II
Caecilia Francis of Carrara, Duke of Padua  ? 23 Jan 1367 or 1376 15 May 1388 1430–1434 Wenceslaus I
Anna Balthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia  ? 1387/1389  ? 4 Jul 1395 Rudolph III
Barbara Rupert, Duke of Silesia-Liegnitz  ? 6 Mar 1396 11 Jun 1419 17 May 1435
Euphemia Conrad II of Silesia  ? 14 Jan 1402 11 Jun 1419 12 Nov 1422 1444 Albert
Wettin Dynasty
Katharine Henry II of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1395 8 Feb 1402 6 Jan 1423 4 Jan 1428 1442 Frederick I
Margaret Ernest, Duke of Austria 1416/17 3 Jun 1431 7 Sep 1464 12 Feb 1486 Frederick II
Elizabeth Albert III, Duke of Bavaria 2 Feb 1443 19 Nov 1460 7 Sep 1464 5 Mar 1486 Ernest
Sybille Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Bildnis der Prinzessin Sibylle von Cleve (1526, Klassik Stiftung Weimar).jpg John III, Duke of Cleves 17 Jan 1512 9 Feb 1527 16 Aug 1532 4 Jun 1547
husband deposed
21 Feb 1554 John Frederick I
Agnes Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse 31 May 1527 9 Jan 1541 4 Jun 1547 9 Jul 1553 4 Nov 1555 Maurice
Anna Christian III of Denmark 22 Nov 1532 7 Oct 1548 11 Jul 1553 1 Oct 1585 Augustus
Agnes Hedwig Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau 1573 3 Jan 1586 11 Feb 1586 1616
Sophia SophieBrandSachsen.jpg John George, Elector of Brandenburg 6 Jun 1568 25 Apr 1582 11 Feb 1586 25 Sep 1591 7 Dec 1622 Christian I
Hedwig Frederick II of Denmark 5 Aug 1581 12 Sep 1602 23 Jun 1611 26 Nov 1641 Christian II
Magdalena Sibylla (1) Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia 31 Dec 1586 19 Jul 1607 23 Jun 1611 8 Oct 1656 12 Feb 1659 John George I
Magdalena Sibylla (2) Christian of Brandenburg-Kulmbach-Bayreuth 1 Nov 1612 13 Nov 1638 8 Oct 1656 22 Aug 1680 20 Mar 1687 John George II
Anna Sophia Anna Zofia Duńska.jpg Frederick III of Denmark 1 Sep 1647 9 Oct 1666 22 Aug 1680 12 Sep 1691 1 Jul 1717 John George III
Eleonore Erdmuthe Luise Eleonore Erdmuthe Louise von Sachsen-Eisenach.jpg John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach 13 Apr 1662 17 Apr 1692 27 Apr 1694 9 Sep 1696 John George IV
Christiane Eberhardine
Queen of Poland
Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth.PNG Christian Ernest,
Margrave of Bayreuth
29 Dec 1671 20 Jan 1693 27 Apr 1694 4 Sep 1727 Frederick Augustus I
Maria Josepha
Queen of Poland
Queen Maria Josepha, Wife of King Augustus III of Poland.jpg Emperor Joseph I 8 Dec 1699 20 Aug 1719 1 Feb 1733 17 Nov 1757 Frederick Augustus II
Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa Maria Antonia Walpurgis von Sachsen.jpg Emperor Charles VII 18 July 1724 20 Jun 1747 5 Oct 1763 17 Dec 1763 23 Apr 1780 Frederick Christian
Maria Amalia Augusta H C Brandt Pfalzgräfin Maria Amalie Auguste 1769.jpg Frederick Michael
of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
10 May 1752 29 January 1769 20 Dec 1806
became Queen of Saxony
15 November 1828 Frederick Augustus III
Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Electresses of Brandenburg[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband
Wittelsbach Dynasty
Cunigunde Casimir III of Poland 1334-5 1 Jan 1352 1356 1357 Louis
Ingeborg Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg 1340 15 Feb 1360 17 May 1365 1395
Catherine KatkaLuc Stephansdom.jpg Emperor Charles IV 19 Aug 1342 19 Mar 1366 1373 26 Apr 1395 Otto
Luxemburg Dynasty
Joan Albert I, Duke of Bavaria 1362 29 Sep 1370 1373 1378 31 Dec 1386 Wenceslaus
Mary Mária Thuróczy.jpg Louis I of Hungary 1371 Oct 1385 1388 17 May 1395 Sigismund
Agnes Bolko II of Opole 1360? 1374 1388 18 Jan 1411 1413? Jodocus
Barbara Barbara-von-Cilli.jpg Hermann II, Count of Celje 1390–1395 1406–1408 18 Jan 1411 30 Apr 1415 11 Jul 1451 Sigismund
Hohenzollern Dynasty
Elizabeth Frederick, Duke of Bavaria 1383 18 Sep 1401 30 Apr 1415 20 Sep 1440 13 Nov 1442 Frederick I
Catherine Frederick I, Elector of Saxony 1421 11 June 1441 10 Feb 1470 23 Aug 1476 Frederick II
Anne Frederick II, Elector of Saxony 7 Mar 1437 12 Nov 1458 10 Feb 1470 11 Mar 1486 31 Oct 1512 Albert III
Margaret William III, Duke of Luxembourg 1449 25 Aug 1476 11 Mar 1486 9 Jan 1499 13 Jul 1501 John Cicero
Elizabeth John of Denmark 24 Jun 1485 10 Apr 1502 9 Jan 1499 11 Jul 1535 10 Jun 1555 Joachim I Nestor
Hedwig Sigismund I of Poland 15 Mar 1513 1 Sep 1535 3 Jan 1571 7 Feb 1573 Joachim II Hector
Sabina George of Ansbach 12 May 1529 12 Feb 1548 3 Jan 1571 2 Nov 1575 John George
Elizabeth Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau 15 Sep 1563 6 Oct 1577 8 Jan 1598 8 Nov 1607
Catherine John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin 10 Aug 1549 8 Jan 1570 8 Jan 1598 10 Oct 1602 Joachim Frederick
Eleanor Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia 21 Aug 1583 2 Nov 1603 9 Apr 1607
Anne 3 Jul 1576 30 Oct 1594 18 Jul 1608 23 Dec 1619 30 Aug 1625 John Sigismund
Elizabeth Charlotte Frederick IV, Elector Palatine 19 Nov 1597 24 Jul 1616 23 Dec 1619 1 Dec 1640 26 Apr 1660 George William
Louise Henriette
Duchess of Prussia
Luise Henriette.JPG Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange 7 Dec 1627 7 Dec 1646 18 Jun 1667 Frederick William I
Sophia Dorothea
Duchess of Prussia
Dorothea von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.jpg Philip of Holstein 28 Sep 1636 14 Jun 1668 29 Apr 1688 6 Aug 1689
Sophia Charlotte
Queen in Prussia
Sophie Charlotte von Hannover.jpg Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover 30 Oct 1668 8 Oct 1684 29 Apr 1688 1 Feb 1705 Frederick III (I)
Sophia Louise
Queen in Prussia
Sophie Luise von Mecklenburg-Schwerin.jpg Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 6 May 1685 28 Nov 1708 25 Feb 1713 29 Jul 1735
Sophia Dorothea
Queen in Prussia
Queen Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.jpg George I of Great Britain 16 Mar 1687 28 Nov 1706 25 Feb 1713 31 May 1740 28 Jun 1757 Frederick William II (I)
Elizabeth Christine
Queen of Prussia
Antoine Pesne ; Queen Elisabeth Christine.jpg Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick 8 Nov 1715 12 Jun 1733 31 May 1740 17 Aug 1786 13 Jan 1797 Frederick IV (II)
Frederica Louise
Queen of Prussia
Friederike Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt.jpg Ludwig IX of Hesse 16 Oct 1751 14 Jul 1769 17 Aug 1786 16 Nov 1797 25 Feb 1805 Frederick William III (II)
Louise Augusta Wilhelmina Amalie
Queen of Prussia
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.PNG Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 10 Mar 1776 24 Dec 1793 16 Nov 1797 1806 9 Jul 1810 Frederick William IV (III)
Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband

Electresses Palatine (junior line)[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband
Line of Simmern
Charlotte Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel um 1650.jpg William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel 20 Nov 1627 22 Feb 1650 14 Apr 1657 26 Mar 1686 Charles I Louis
Wilhelmina Ernestine Princess Wilhelmina Ernestine of Denmark.jpg Frederick III of Denmark 20 Jun 1650 20 Sep 1671 28 Aug 1680 26 May 1685 22 Apr 1706 Charles II
Line of Neuburg
Elizabeth Amalia Magdalena Johann Spilberg 002.jpg George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt 20 Mar 1635 3 Sep 1653 26 May 1685 2 Sep 1690 4 Aug 1709 Philip William
Anna Maria Luisa Werff, Adriaen van der - Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici.jpg Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 11 Aug 1667 5 Jun 1691 8 Jun 1716 18 Feb 1743 John William
Line of Sulzbach
Elizabeth Maria Augusta Kurfüstin Elisabeth Auguste am Spinett.jpg Joseph Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Palatinate-Sulzbach 17 Jan 1721 17 Jan 1742 31 Dec 1742 30 Dec 1777
became Electress of Bavaria
17 Aug 1794 Charles IV Theodore
Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband

Electresses of Hanover, Württemberg and Hesse[edit]

Name Image Father Born Married Became
Electress
Ceased to
be Electress
Died Husband
Hanover
Sophia Sophia of Hanover.jpg Frederick V, Elector Palatine 14 Oct 1630 30 Sep 1658 1692 23 Jan 1698 8 Jun 1714 Ernest Augustus
Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline
Queen of Great Britain
Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach by Charles Jervas cropped.jpg John Frederick, Margrave of Ansbach 1 Mar 1683 22 Aug 1705 11 Jun 1727 20 Nov 1737 George II
Sophia Charlotte
Queen of Great Britain
Charlotte Esther Denner 1761.jpg Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 19 May 1744 8 Sep 1761 12 Oct 1814
became Queen of Hanover
17 Nov 1818 George III
Württemberg
Charlotte Augusta Matilda Charlotte Mathilde British Princess Royal Queen of Wurttemberg.jpg George III of the United Kingdom 29 Sep 1766 18 May 1797 25 February 1803 1 Jan 1806
became Queen of Württemberg
5 Oct 1828 Frederick I
Hesse
Wilhelmina Caroline Wilhelmine Carolina of Denmark, electress of Hesse-Kassel.jpg Frederick V of Denmark 10 July 1747 1 Sep 1764 1803 14 Jan 1820 William I
Augusta Christina Frederica Augustevonpreussen.jpg Frederick William II of Prussia 1 May 1780 13 Feb 1797 27 Feb 1821 19 Feb 1841 William II

Morganatic spouses of Electors[edit]

Name Father Born Married Died Husband
Clara Tott  ?  ? 1471 29 Apr 1520 Frederick I, Elector Palatine
Maria Susanna Loysa, Raugravine Christoph Martin von Degenfeld 28 Nov 1634 6 Jan 1658 18 Mar 1677 Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Elizabeth Höllander von Bernau  ? 1659 11 Dec 1679 8 Mar 1702
Violante Maria Theresa, Countess of Thurn and Taxis Count Philipp-Wilhelm of Thurn and Taxis 1 Apr 1683 1729 2 Nov 1734 Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine
Louise Caroline, Countess of Hochberg Ludwig Heinrich Philipp Geyer von Geyersberg 26 May 1768 24 Nov 1787 23 Jun 1820 Charles Frederick of Baden
Emilie Ortlöpp, Countess of Reichenbach Johann Christian Ortlöpp 13 May 1791 8 July 1841 12 Feb 1843 William II, Elector of Hesse
Caroline of Berlepsch, Baroness of Bergen Hermann Ludwig von Berlepsch 1820 28 Aug 1843 1877
Gertrude, Princess of Hanau Johann Gottfried Falkenstein 1805 26 June 1831 1882 Frederick William, Elector of Hesse