An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one electric motor or more, using electrical energy stored in batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration.
Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engine technology and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles. The energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s brought a short-lived interest in electric cars, though those cars did not reach mass marketing as today's electric cars experience it. Since the mid-2000s, the production of electric cars is experiencing a renaissance due to advances in battery and power management technologies and concerns about increasingly volatile oil prices and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
As of May 2013[update], series production highway-capable models available in some countries include the Buddy, Mitsubishi i MiEV, Chery QQ3 EV, JAC J3 EV, Nissan Leaf, Smart ED, Wheego Whip LiFe, Mia electric, BYD e6, Bolloré Bluecar, Renault Fluence Z.E., Ford Focus Electric, BMW ActiveE, Tesla Model S, Honda Fit EV, RAV4 EV second generation, Renault Zoe, Roewe E50, and Mahindra e2o. The world's top-selling highway-capable all-electric cars are the Nissan Leaf, with global sales of more than 49,000 units through December 2012, and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, with global sales of more than 27,000 vehicles through December 2012, including more than 3,000 minicab MiEVs sold in Japan, and almost 10,000 units rebadged as Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero and sold in the European market. Pure electric car sales in 2012 were led by Japan with a 28% market share of global sales, followed by the United States with a 26% share, China with 16%, France with 11%, and Norway with 7%.
Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they have no tailpipe, and therefore do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power at the point of operation; reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the onboard source of power, depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation to charge the batteries; and less dependence on foreign oil, which for the United States and other developed or emerging countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price volatility and supply disruption. Also for many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest in Africa, high oil prices have an adverse impact on their balance of payments, hindering their economic growth.
Despite their potential benefits, widespread adoption of electric cars faces several hurdles and limitations. As of 2013[update], electric cars are significantly more expensive than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. However, battery prices are coming down with mass production and are expected to drop further. Other factors discouraging the adoption of electric cars are the lack of public and private recharging infrastructure and the driver's fear of the batteries running out of energy before reaching their destination (range anxiety) due to the limited range of existing electric cars. Several governments have established policies and economic incentives to overcome existing barriers, promote the sales of electric cars, and fund further development of electric vehicles, more cost-effective battery technology and their components. The US has pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants for electric cars and batteries. China has announced it will provide US$15 billion to initiate an electric car industry within its borders. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to reduce the net purchase price of electric cars and other plug-ins.
Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle (EV); the term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to road-going automobiles powered by electricity. While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are generally referred to by a different name: an electric car powered by sunlight is a solar car, and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle (BEV). Most often, the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles.
Electric cars enjoyed popularity between the late 19th century and early 20th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Advances in internal combustion technology, especially the electric starter, soon rendered this advantage moot; the greater range of gasoline cars, quicker refueling times, and growing petroleum infrastructure, along with the mass production of gasoline vehicles by companies such as the Ford Motor Company, which reduced prices of gasoline cars to less than half that of equivalent electric cars, led to a decline in the use of electric propulsion, effectively removing it from important markets such as the United States by the 1930s. However, in recent years, increased concerns over the environmental impact of gasoline cars, higher gasoline prices, improvements in battery technology, and the prospect of peak oil, have brought about renewed interest in electric cars, which are perceived to be more environmentally friendly and cheaper to maintain and run, despite high initial costs, after a failed reappearance in the late-1990s.
1890s to 1910s: Early history 
Before the pre-eminence of internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many speed and distance records. Among the most notable of these records was the breaking of the 100 km/h (62 mph) speed barrier, by Camille Jenatzy on April 29, 1899 in his 'rocket-shaped' vehicle Jamais Contente, which reached a top speed of 106 km/h (66 mph). Before the 1920s, electric automobiles were competing with petroleum-fueled cars for urban use of a quality service car.
Proposed as early as 1896 in order to overcome the lack of recharging infrastructure, an exchangeable battery service was first put into practice by Hartford Electric Light Company for electric trucks. The vehicle owner purchased the vehicle from General Electric Company (GVC) without a battery and the electricity was purchased from Hartford Electric through an exchangeable battery. The owner paid a variable per-mile charge and a monthly service fee to cover maintenance and storage of the truck. The service was provided between 1910 to 1924 and during that period covered more than 6 million miles. Beginning in 1917 a similar service was operated in Chicago for owners of the Milburn Light Electric cars who also could buy the vehicle without the batteries.
In 1897, electric vehicles found their first commercial application in the U.S. as a fleet of electrical New York City taxis, built by the Electric Carriage and Wagon Company of Philadelphia. Electric cars were produced in the US by Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Fritchle, Studebaker, Riker, and others during the early 20th century.
Despite their relatively slow speed, electric vehicles had a number of advantages over their early-1900s competitors. They did not have the vibration, smell, and noise associated with gasoline cars. They did not require gear changes, which for gasoline cars was the most difficult part of driving. Electric cars found popularity among well-heeled customers who used them as city cars, where their limited range was less of a disadvantage. The cars were also preferred because they did not require a manual effort to start, as did gasoline cars which featured a hand crank to start the engine. Electric cars were often marketed as suitable vehicles for women drivers due to this ease of operation.
In 1911, the New York Times stated that the electric car has long been recognized as "ideal" because it was cleaner, quieter and much more economical than gasoline-powered cars. Reporting this in 2010, the Washington Post commented that "the same unreliability of electric car batteries that flummoxed Thomas Edison persists today."
1950s to 1990s: Pollution and energy problems 
Some European nations during World War II experimented with electric cars, but the technology stagnated. Several ventures were established to build electric cars, such as the Henney Kilowatt. In 1955, the U.S. Air Pollution Control Act helped address the growing emissions problems and this law was later amended to establish regulatory standards for automobiles. In 1959, American Motors Corporation (AMC) and Sonotone Corporation planned a car to be powered by a "self-charging" battery. It was to have sintered plate nickel-cadmium batteries. Nu-Way Industries also showed an experimental electric car with a one-piece plastic body that was to begin production in early-1960.
Concerns with rapidly decreasing air quality caused by automobiles prompted the U.S. Congress to pass the Electric Vehicle Development Act of 1966 that provided for electric car research by universities and laboratories. By the late-1960s, the U.S. and Canada Big Three automakers each had electric car development programs. The much smaller AMC partnered with Gulton Industries to develop a new battery based on lithium and use an advanced speed controller. Although a nickel-cadmium battery was used for an all-electric 1969 Rambler American station wagon, other "plug-in" vehicles were developed with Gulton that included the Amitron and the similar Electron.
The energy crises of the 1970s and 80s brought about renewed interest in the perceived independence that electric cars had from the fluctuations of the hydrocarbon energy market. In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1, and S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan lithium-batteryAltra EV miniwagon, and Toyota RAV4 EV. These cars were eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market.
1990s to present: Revival of interest 
The global economic recession in the late 2000s led to increased calls for automakers to abandon fuel-inefficient SUVs, which were seen as a symbol of the excess that caused the recession, in favor of small cars, hybrid cars, and electric cars. California electric car maker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on the Tesla Roadster, which was first delivered to customers in 2008. As of March 2012[update], Tesla had sold more than 2,250 Roadsters in at least 31 countries. The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched for fleet customers in Japan in July 2009, and for individual customers in April 2010, followed by sales to the public in Hong Kong in May 2010, and Australia in July 2010 via leasing. Retail customer deliveries of the Nissan Leaf in Japan and the United States began in December 2010, followed in 2011 by several European countries and Canada.
In the 2011 State of the Union address, U.S. President Barack Obama expressed an ambitious goal of putting 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the roads in the U.S. by 2015. The objective include "reducing dependence on oil and ensuring that America leads in the growing electric vehicle manufacturing industry."
The Smart electric drive, Wheego Whip LiFe, Mia electric, Volvo C30 Electric, and the Ford Focus Electric were launched for retail customers during 2011. The BYD e6, released initially for fleet customers in 2010, began reatail sales in Shenzhen, China in October, 2011. The Bolloré Bluecar was released in December 2011 and deployed for use in the Autolib' carsharing service in Paris. Leasing to individual and corporate customers began in October 2012 and is limited to the Île-de-France area. In February 2011, the Mitsubishi i MiEV became the first electric car to sell more than of more than 10,000 units, including the models badged in Europe as Citroën C-Zero and Peugeot. The record was registered by Guinness World Records. Several months later, the Nissan Leaf overtook the i MiEV as the best selling all-electric car ever.
Models released to the market in 2012 include the BMW ActiveE, Coda, Renault Fluence Z.E., Tesla Model S, Honda Fit EV, Toyota RAV4 EV, and Renault Zoe. The Nissan Leaf passed the milestone of 50,000 units sold worldwide in February 2013.
Comparison with internal combustion engine vehicles 
An important goal for electric vehicles is overcoming the disparity between their costs of development, production, and operation, with respect to those of equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs).
The up-front purchase price of electric cars is significantly higher than conventional internal combustion engine cars, even after considering government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles available in several countries. The primary reason is the high cost of car batteries. The high purchase price is hindering the mass transition from gasoline cars to electric cars. According to a survey taken by Nielsen for the Financial Times in 2010, around three quarters of American and British car buyers have or would consider buying an electric car, but they are unwilling to pay more for an electric car. The survey showed that 65% of Americans and 76% of Britons are not willing to pay more for an electric car above the price of a conventional car.
The electric car company Tesla Motors uses laptop battery technology for the battery packs of its electric cars, which are 3 to 4 times cheaper than dedicated electric car battery packs of other auto makers. Dedicated battery packs cost $700–$800 per kilowatt hour, while battery packs using small laptop cells cost about $200. This could drive down the cost of electric cars that use Tesla's battery technology such as the Toyota RAV4 EV, Smart ED and Tesla Model X which announced for 2014. As of June 2012[update], and based on the three battery size options offered for the Tesla Model S, the New York Times estimated the cost of automotive battery packs between US$400 to US$500 per kilowatt-hour.
Electric cars have expensive batteries that must be replaced but otherwise incur very low maintenance costs, particularly in the case of current lithium-based designs. The documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car? shows a comparison between the parts that require replacement in gasoline powered cars and EV1s, with the garages stating that they bring the electric cars in every 5,000 mi (8,000 km), rotate the tires, fill the windshield washer fluid and send them back out again.
Running costs 
The cost of charging the battery depends on the price paid per kWh of electricity - which varies with location. As of November 2012, a Nissan Leaf driving 500 mi (800 km) per week is estimated to cost US$600 per year in charging costs in Illinois, U.S.
The EV1 energy use was about 11 kW·h/100 km (0.40 MJ/km; 0.18 kW·h/mi). The 2011/12 Nissan Leaf uses 21.25 kW·h/100 km (0.765 MJ/km; 0.3420 kW·h/mi) according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. These differences reflect the different design and utility targets for the vehicles, and the varying testing standards. The energy use greatly depends on the driving conditions and driving style. Nissan estimates that the Leaf's 5-year operating cost will be US$1,800 versus US$6,000 for a gasoline car in the US According to Nissan, the operating cost of the Leaf in the UK is 1.75 pence per mile (1.09p per km) when charging at an off-peak electricity rate, while a conventional petrol-powered car costs more than 10 pence per mile (6.25p per km). These estimates are based on a national average of British Petrol Economy 7 rates as of January 2012, and assumed 7 hours of charging overnight at the night rate and one hour in the daytime charged at the Tier-2 daytime rate.
The following table compares out-of-pocket fuel costs estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency according to its official ratings for fuel economy (miles per gallon gasoline equivalent in the case of plug-in electric vehicles) for series production all-electric passenger vehicles rated by the EPA by May 2013, versus EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid, (Chevrolet Volt), gasoline-electric hybrid car (Toyota Prius third generation), and EPA's average new 2013 vehicle, which has a fuel economy of 23 mpg-US (10 L/100 km; 28 mpg-imp).
|Comparison of fuel efficiency and costs for all the electric cars rated by the EPA for the U.S. market by April 2013
against EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid, hybrid electric vehicle and 2013 average gasoline-powered car in the U.S.
(Fuel economy and operating costs as displayed in the Monroney label)
|Cost to drive
|Scion iQ EV||2013||All-electric||121 mpg-e
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(24 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
The 2013 iQ EV is the most fuel
efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all
fuel types considered in all years.
|Chevrolet Spark EV||2014||All-electric||119 mpg-e
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|128 mpg-e||109 mpg-e||n.a.||$500||See (1)|
|Honda Fit EV||2013||All-electric||118 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(26 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|Fiat 500e||2013||All-electric||116 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|122 mpg-e||108 mpg-e||$0.87||$500||See (1)|
|Nissan Leaf||2013||All-electric||115 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|129 mpg-e||102 mpg-e||$0.87||$500||See (1)|
|Mitsubishi i||2012-13||All-electric||112 mpg-e
(30 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(27 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|Smart electric drive||2013||All-electric||107 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(36 kW-hrs/100 mi)
Ratings correspond to both
convertible and coupe models.
|Ford Focus Electric||2012-13||All-electric||105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(31 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|BMW ActiveE||2011||All-electric||102 mpg-e
(33 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|107 mpg-e||96 mpg-e||$0.99||$600||See (1)|
|Nissan Leaf||2011-12||All-electric||99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(37 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|Tesla Model S||2013||All-electric||95 mpg-e
(35 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|94 mpg-e||97 mpg-e||$1.05||$650||See (1)
Model with 60kWh battery pack
|Tesla Model S||2012||All-electric||89 mpg-e
(38 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(38 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(37 kW-hrs/100 mi)
Model with 85kWh battery pack
|Toyota RAV4 EV||2012||All-electric||76 mpg-e
(44 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|78 mpg-e||74 mpg-e||$1.32||$850||See (1)|
|2013||Electricity only||98 mpg-e
(35 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|-||-||$1.05||$900||See (1) and (2)
Most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid car.
The 2013 Volt has a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 62 mpg-e
(City 63 mpg-e, Hwy 61 mpg-e).
|Gasoline only||37 mpg||35 mpg||40 mpg||$2.57|
|50 mpg||51 mpg||48 mpg||$1.74||$1,050||See (2)
Most fuel efficient hybrid electric car,
together with the Prius c.
|Ford Taurus FWD
(Average new car)
|2013||Gasoline only||23 mpg||19 mpg||29 mpg||$3.79||$2,300||See (2)
Other 2013 models achieving
23 mpg include the Chrysler 200,
and the Toyota Venza.
|Notes: All estimated fuel costs based on 15,000 miles annual driving, 45% highway and 55% city.
(1) Values rounded to the nearest $50. Electricity cost of $0.12/kw-hr (as of November 30, 2012). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kW-hr.
(2) Premium gasoline price of US$3.81 per gallon (used by the Volt), and regular gasoline price of US$3.49 per gallon (as of November 30, 2012).
Mileage costs 
Most of the mileage-related cost of an electric vehicle can be attributed to the maintenance of the battery pack, and its eventual replacement, because an electric vehicle has only around 5 moving parts in its motor, compared to a gasoline car that has hundreds of parts in its internal combustion engine. To calculate the cost per kilometer of an electric vehicle it is therefore necessary to assign a monetary value to the wear incurred on the battery. With use, the capacity of a battery decreases. However, even an 'end of life' battery which has insufficient capacity has market value as it can be re-purposed, recycled or used as a spare.
The Tesla Roadster's very large battery pack is expected to last seven years with typical driving and costs US$12,000 when pre-purchased today. Driving 40 miles (64 km) per day for seven years or 102,200 miles (164,500 km) leads to a battery consumption cost of US$0.1174 per 1 mile (1.6 km) or US$4.70 per 40 miles (64 km). The company Better Place provides another cost comparison as they anticipate meeting contractual obligations to deliver batteries as well as clean electricity to recharge the batteries at a total cost of US$0.08 per 1 mile (1.6 km) in 2010, US$0.04 per mile by 2015 and US$0.02 per mile by 2020. 40 miles (64 km) of driving would initially cost US$3.20 and fall over time to US$0.80.
In 2010 the U.S. government estimated that a battery with a 100 miles (160 km) range would cost about US$33,000. Concerns remain about durability and longevity of the battery.
Total cost of ownership 
A 2010 report by J.D. Power and Associates states that it is not entirely clear to consumers the total cost of ownership of battery electric vehicles over the life of the vehicle, and "there is still much confusion about how long one would have to own such a vehicle to realize cost savings on fuel, compared with a vehicle powered by a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE). The resale value of HEVs and BEVs, as well as the cost of replacing depleted battery packs, are other financial considerations that weigh heavily on consumers’ minds."
A study published in 2011 by the Belfer Center, Harvard University, found that the gasoline costs savings of plug-in electric cars over their lifetimes do not offset their higher purchase prices. The study compared the lifetime net present value at 2010 purchase and operating costs for the US market with no government subidies. The study estimated that a PHEV-40 is US$5,377 more expensive than a conventional internal combustion engine, while a battery electric vehicle is US$4,819 more expensive. But assuming that battery costs will decrease and gasoline prices increase over the next 10 to 20 years, the study found that BEVs will be significantly cheaper than conventional cars (US$1,155 to US$7,181 cheaper). PHEVs, will be more expensive than BEVs in almost all comparison scenarios, and more expensive than conventional cars unless battery costs are very low and gasoline prices high. Savings differ because BEVs are simpler to build and do not use liquid fuel, while PHEVs have more complicated power trains and still have gasoline-powered engines.
Range and recharging time 
Most cars with internal combustion engines can be considered to have indefinite range, as they can be refueled very quickly. Electric cars often have less maximum range on one charge than cars powered by fossil fuels, and they can take considerable time to recharge. This is a reason that many automakers marketed EVs as "daily drivers" suitable for city trips and other short hauls. The average American drives less than 40 miles (64 km) per day; so the GM EV1 would have been adequate for the daily driving needs of about 90% of U.S. consumers. Nevertheless, people can be concerned that they would run out of energy from their battery before reaching their destination, a worry known as range anxiety.
The Tesla Roadster can travel 245 miles (394 km) per charge; more than double that of prototypes and evaluation fleet cars currently on the roads. The Roadster can be fully recharged in about 3.5 hours from a 220-volt, 70-amp outlet which can be installed in a home. But using a European standard 220-volt, 16-amp outlet a full charge will take more than 15 hours.
However, most vehicles also support much faster charging, where a suitable power supply is available. Therefore for long distance travel, in the US and elsewhere, there has been the installation of DC Fast Charging stations with high-speed charging capability from three-phase industrial outlets so that consumers could recharge the 100-200+ mile battery of their electric vehicle to 80 percent in about 30 minutes. A nationwide fast charging infrastructure is currently being deployed in the US that by 2013 will cover the entire nation. DC Fast Chargers are going to be installed at 45 BP and ARCO locations and will be made available to the public as early as March 2011. The EV Project will deploy charge infrastructure in 16 cities and major metropolitan areas in six states. Nissan has announced that 200 of its dealers in Japan will install fast chargers for the December 2010 launch of its Leaf EV, with the goal of having fast chargers everywhere in Japan within a 25 mile radius. Although charging at these stations is still relatively time consuming compared to refueling, in practice it often meshes well with a normal driving pattern, where driving is usually done for a few hours before stopping and resting and drink or eating; this gives the car a chance to be charged.
Another way automakers can extend the short range of electric vehicles is by building them with battery switch technology. An EV with battery switch technology and a 100 miles (160 km) driving range will be able to go to a battery switch station and switch a depleted battery with a fully charged one in 59.1 seconds giving the EV an additional 100 miles (160 km) driving range. The process is cleaner and faster than filling a tank with gasoline and the driver remains in the car the entire time, but because of the high investment cost, its economics are unclear. As of late 2010 there were only 2 companies with plans to integrate battery switching technology to their electric vehicles: Better Place and Tesla Motors. Better Place operated a battery-switch station in Japan until November 2010 and announced a commitment to open four battery switch stations in California, USA.
A similar idea is that of the range-extension trailer which is attached only when going on long trips. The trailers can either be owned or rented only when necessary.
Air pollution and carbon emissions 
Electric cars contribute to cleaner air in cities because they produce no harmful pollution at the tailpipe from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. The clean air benefit is usually local because, depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted depends on the emission intensity of the power source used to charge the vehicle, the efficiency of the said vehicle and the energy wasted in the charging process.
For mains electricity the emission intensity varies significantly per country and within a particular country it will vary depending on demand, the availability of renewable sources and the efficiency of the fossil fuel-based generation used at a given time. Charging a vehicle using renewable energy yields very low carbon footprint (only that to produce and install the generation system e.g. wind power).
- United States
An EV recharged from the US grid electricity in 2008 emits about 115 grams of CO2 per kilometer driven (6.5 oz(CO2)/mi), whereas a conventional US-market gasoline powered car emits 250 g(CO2)/km (14 oz(CO2)/mi) (most from its tailpipe, some from the production and distribution of gasoline).
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published in 2012 a report with an assessment of average greenhouse gas emissions resulting from charging plug-in car batteries considering the full life-cycle (well-to-wheel analysis) and according to fuel and technology used to generate electric power by region in the U.S. The study used the Nissan Leaf all-electric car to establish the analysis's baseline. The UCS study expressed the results in terms of miles per gallon instead of the conventional unit of grams of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The study found that in areas where electricity is generated from natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric or other renewable sources, the potential of plug-in electric cars to reduce greenhouse emissions is significant. On the other hand, in regions where a high proportion of power is generated from coal, hybrid electric cars produce less CO2 emissions than plug-in electric cars, and the best fuel efficient gasoline-powered subcompact car produces slightly less emissions than a plug-in car. In the worst-case scenario, the study estimated that for a region where all energy is generated from coal, a plug-in electric car would emit greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to a gasoline car rated at a combined city/highway fuel economy of 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp). In contrast, in a region that is completely reliant on natural gas, the plug-in would be equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated at 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) combined.
The study found that for 45% of the U.S. population, a plug-in electric car will generate lower CO2 emissions than a gasoline-powered car capable of a combined fuel economy of 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp), such as the Toyota Prius. Cities in this group included Portland, Oregon, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York City, and Salt Lake City, and the cleanest cities achieved well-to-wheel emissions equivalent to a fuel economy of 79 mpg-US (3.0 L/100 km; 95 mpg-imp). The study also found that for 37% of the population, the electric car emissions will fall in the range of a gasoline-powered car rated at a combined fuel economy between 41 to 50 mpg-US (5.7 to 4.7 L/100 km; 49 to 60 mpg-imp), such as the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Lexus CT200h. Cities in this group include Phoenix, Arizona, Houston, Miami, Columbus, Ohio and Atlanta, Georgia. An 18% of the population lives in areas where the power supply is more dependent on burning carbon, and emissions will be equivalent to a car rated at a combined fuel economy between 31 to 40 mpg-US (7.6 to 5.9 L/100 km; 37 to 48 mpg-imp), such as the Chevrolet Cruze and Ford Focus. This group includes Denver, Minneapolis, Saint Louis, Missouri, Detroit, and Oklahoma City. The study found that there are no regions in the U.S. where plug-in electric cars will have higher greenhouse gas emissions than the average new compact gasoline engine automobile, and the area with the dirtiest power supply produces CO2 emissions equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp).
The following table compares well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for series production plug-in electric cars from major carmakers available in the U.S. market by April 2012. For comparison purposes, emissions for the average gasoline-powered new car are also included. Total emissions include the emissions associated with the production, transmission and distribution of electricity used to charge the vehicle.
|Comparison of EPA's full life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions
for series production plug-in electric cars available in the U.S. market by April 2012
(Emissions as estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
fueleconomy.gov website for model years 2011 and 2012)
combined fuel economy
|Cleaner electric grids||U.S. national
|Dirtier electric grids|
|Mitsubishi i-MiEV||62 mi (100 km)||112 mpg-e
(30 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|80 g/mi (50 g/km)||100 g/mi (62 g/km)||160 g/mi (99 g/km)||200 g/mi (124 g/km)||230 g/mi (143 g/km)||270 g/mi (168 g/km)||290 g/mi (180 g/km)|
|Ford Focus Electric||76 mi (122 km)||105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|80 g/mi (50 g/km)||110 g/mi (68 g/km)||170 g/mi (106 g/km)||210 g/mi (131 g/km)||250 g/mi (155 g/km)||280 g/mi (174 g/km)||310 g/mi (193 g/km)|
|BMW ActiveE||94 mi (151 km)||102 mpg-e
(33 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|90 g/mi (56 g/km)||110 g/mi (68 g/km)||180 g/mi (112 g/km)||220 g/mi (137 g/km)||250 g/mi (155 g/km)||290 g/mi (180 g/km)||320 g/mi (199 g/km)|
|Nissan Leaf||73 mi (117 km)||99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|90 g/mi (56 g/km)||120 g/mi (75 g/km)||190 g/mi (118 g/km)||230 g/mi (143 g/km)||260 g/mi (162 g/km)||300 g/mi (186 g/km)||330 g/mi (205 g/km)|
|Chevrolet Volt||35 mi (56 km)||94 mpg-e
(36 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|170 g/mi (106 g/km)(1)||190 g/mi (118 g/km)(1)||230 g/mi (143 g/km)(1)||260 g/mi (162 g/km)(1)||290 g/mi (180 g/km)(1)||310 g/mi (193 g/km)(1)||330 g/mi (205 g/km)(1)|
|Smart ED||63 mi (101 km)||87 mpg-e
(39 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|100 g/mi (62 g/km)||130 g/mi (81 g/km)||210 g/mi (131 g/km)||260 g/mi (162 g/km)||300 g/mi (186 g/km)||350 g/mi (218 g/km)||380 g/mi (236 g/km)|
|Coda||88 mi (142 km)||73 mpg-e
(46 kW-hrs/100 miles)
|120 g/mi (76 g/km)||160 g/mi (99 g/km)||250 g/mi (155 g/km)||300 g/mi (186 g/km)||350 g/mi (218 g/km)||410 g/mi (255 g/km)||440 g/mi (273 g/km)|
|Gasoline only||22 mpg||Total emissions: 500 g/mi (311 g/km)
Upstream: 100 g/mi (62 g/km) and tailpipe: 400 g/mi (249 g/km)
|Note (1) EPA assumed for the Chevrolet Volt that 64% of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle's operation is powered by electricity and the rest is powered from gasoline, and as a result, out of the total emissions shown, 87 g/mi correspond to tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe emissions are zero for all other electric vehicles included, and the emissions shown account upstream GHG emissions.|
- United Kingdom
A study made in the UK in 2008 concluded that electric vehicles had the potential to cut down carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40%, even taking into account the emissions due to current electricity generation in the UK and emissions relating to the production and disposal of electric vehicles.
The savings are questionable relative to hybrid or diesel cars (according to official British government testing, the most efficient European market cars are well below 115 grams of CO2 per kilometer driven, although a study in Scotland gave 149.5gCO2/km as the average for new cars in the UK), but since UK consumers can select their energy suppliers, it also will depend on how 'green' their chosen supplier is in providing energy into the grid.
In a worst-case scenario where incremental electricity demand would be met exclusively with coal, a 2009 study conducted by the World Wide Fund for Nature and IZES found that a mid-size EV would emit roughly 200 g(CO2)/km (11 oz(CO2)/mi), compared with an average of 170 g(CO2)/km (9.7 oz(CO2)/mi) for a gasoline-powered compact car. This study concluded that introducing 1 million EV cars to Germany would, in the best-case scenario, only reduce CO2 emissions by 0.1%, if nothing is done to upgrade the electricity infrastructure or manage demand.
- Emissions during production
A 2011 report prepared by Ricardo found that hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current conventional vehicles, but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle. The initial higher carbon footprint is due mainly to battery production. As an example, the study estimated that 43 percent of production emissions for a mid-size electric car are generated from the battery production.
Acceleration and drivetrain design 
Electric motors can provide high power-to-weight ratios, and batteries can be designed to supply the large currents to support these motors.
Although some electric vehicles have very small motors, 15 kW (20 hp) or less and therefore have modest acceleration, many electric cars have large motors and brisk acceleration. In addition, the relatively constant torque of an electric motor, even at very low speeds tends to increase the acceleration performance of an electric vehicle relative to that of the same rated motor power internal combustion engine. Another early solution was American Motors’ experimental Amitron piggyback system of batteries with one type designed for sustained speeds while a different set boosted acceleration when needed.
Electric vehicles can also use a direct motor-to-wheel configuration which increases the amount of available power. Having multiple motors connected directly to the wheels allows for each of the wheels to be used for both propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing traction. In some cases, the motor can be housed directly in the wheel, such as in the Whispering Wheel design, which lowers the vehicle's center of gravity and reduces the number of moving parts. When not fitted with an axle, differential, or transmission, electric vehicles have less drivetrain rotational inertia. Housing the motor within the wheel can increase the unsprung weight of the wheel, which can have an adverse effect on the handling of the vehicle.
A gearless or single gear design in some EVs eliminates the need for gear shifting, giving such vehicles both smoother acceleration and smoother braking. Because the torque of an electric motor is a function of current, not rotational speed, electric vehicles have a high torque over a larger range of speeds during acceleration, as compared to an internal combustion engine. As there is no delay in developing torque in an EV, EV drivers report generally high satisfaction with acceleration.
The gearless design is the least complex, but high acceleration requires high torque from the motor, which requires high current and results in Joule heating. This is because the internal wiring of the motor has electrical resistance, which dissipates power as heat when a current is put through it, in accordance to Ohm's Law. While the torque of the electric motor is not dependent on its rotational speed, the output power of the motor is the product of both the torque and the rotational speed, which means that more power is lost in proportion to the output power when the motor is turning slowly. In effect, the drive train becomes less efficient the slower the vehicle moves.
In the single gear design, this problem is mitigated by using a gear ratio that allows the motor to turn faster than the wheel, which translates low torque and high rotational speed of the motor into high torque and low rotational speed of the wheels, giving equal or better acceleration without compromising efficiency as much. However, since the motor does have a top speed at which it can operate, the trade-off is lower top speed for the vehicle. If a higher top speed is desired, the trade-off is lower acceleration and lower efficiency at slow speeds.
The use of a multiple-speed transmission allows the vehicle to operate efficiently at both high and low speeds, but comes with more complexity and cost.
For example, the Venturi Fetish delivers supercar acceleration despite a relatively modest 220 kW (295 hp), and top speed of around 160 km/h (100 mph). Some DC motor-equipped drag racer EVs, have simple two-speed manual transmissions to improve top speed. The Tesla Roadster 2.5 Sport can accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in 3.7 seconds with a motor rated at 215 kW (288 hp). The Tesla Model S Performance currently holds the world record for the quickest production electric car to do 402 m (1⁄4 mi), which it did in 12.37 seconds at 178.3 km/h (110.8 mph). And the Wrightspeed X1 prototype created by Wrightspeed Inc is the worlds fastest street legal electric car to accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph), which it does in 2.9 seconds.
Energy efficiency 
Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat. On the other hand, electric motors are more efficient in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle, and electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and some of the energy lost when braking is captured and reused through regenerative braking, which captures as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking. Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles have on-board efficiency of around 80%.
Production and conversion electric cars typically use 10 to 23 kW·h/100 km (0.17 to 0.37 kW·h/mi). Approximately 20% of this power consumption is due to inefficiencies in charging the batteries. Tesla Motors indicates that the vehicle efficiency (including charging inefficiencies) of their lithium-ion battery powered vehicle is 12.7 kW·h/100 km (0.21 kW·h/mi) and the well-to-wheels efficiency (assuming the electricity is generated from natural gas) is 24.4 kW·h/100 km (0.39 kW·h/mi).
Cabin heating and cooling 
Electric vehicles generate very little waste heat and resistance electric heat may have to be used to heat the interior of the vehicle if heat generated from battery charging/discharging can not be used to heat the interior.
While heating can be simply provided with an electric resistance heater, higher efficiency and integral cooling can be obtained with a reversible heat pump (this is currently implemented in the hybrid Toyota Prius). Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) junction cooling is also attractive for its simplicity — this kind of system is used for example in the Tesla Roadster.
Because electric cars' cabin climate control system does not depend on an internal combustion engine running, to avoid impacting the electric car range some models allow the cabin to be already at the correct temperature at the time the car is next to be used. For example, the Nissan Leaf and the Mistubishi i-MiEV can be pre-heated when the vehicle is plugged in to reduce the impact on range due to cabin heating.
Some electric cars, for example the Citroën Berlingo Electrique, use an auxiliary heating system (for example gasoline-fueled units manufactured by Webasto or Eberspächer) but sacrifice "green" and "Zero emissions" credentials. Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar power, most simply and effectively by inducting outside air to avoid extreme heat buildup when the vehicle is closed and parked in the sunlight (such cooling mechanisms are available as aftermarket kits for conventional vehicles). Two models of the 2010 Toyota Prius include this feature as an option.
The safety issues of BEVs are largely dealt with by the international standard ISO 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:
- On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery
- Functional safety means and protection against failures
- Protection of persons against electrical hazards.
Risk of fire 
||It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2013.|
In the United States, General Motors ran in several cities a training program for firefighters and first responders to demonstrate the sequence of tasks required to safely disable the Chevrolet Volt’s powertrain and its 12 volt electrical system, which controls its high-voltage components, and then proceed to extricate injured occupants. The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an airbag control module. GM also made available an Emergency Response Guide for the 2011 Volt for use by emergency responders. The guide also describes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information. Nissan also published a guide for first responders that details procedures for handling a damaged 2011 Leaf at the scene of an accident, including a manual high-voltage system shutdown, rather than the automatic process built-in the car's safety systems. As of August 2012[update], no fires after a crash have been reported in the U.S. associated with the Volt, the Leaf or the Tesla Roadster.
- Chevrolet Volt
As a result of a crashed tested Chevolet Volt that caught fire in June 2011 three weeks after the testing, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ( NHTSA) issued a statement saying that the agency does not believe the Volt or other electric vehicles are at a greater risk of fire than gasoline-powered vehicles. "In fact, all vehicles – both electric and gasoline-powered – have some risk of fire in the event of a serious crash." The NHTSA announced in November 2011 that it was working with all automakers to develop postcrash procedures to keep occupants of electric vehicles and emergency personnel who respond to crash scenes safe. General Motors said the fire would have been avoided if GM's protocols for deactivating the battery after the crash had been followed, and also stated that they "are working with other vehicle manufacturers, first responders, tow truck operators, and salvage associations with the goal of implementing industrywide protocols."
In further testing of the Volt's batteries carried out by NHTSA in November 2011, two of the three tests resulted in thermal events, including fire. Therefore the NHTSA opened a formal safety defect investigation on November 25, 2011, to examine the potential risks involved from intrusion damage to the battery in the Chevrolet Volt. As opposed to the Volt’s battery, the Nissan Leaf's pack is shielded from damage by a layer of steel reinforcement. Also, Nissan clarified that the Nissan Leaf, unlike the Volt, has an air cooled battery pack that does not need to be disabled after a crash. The Leaf was designed with a battery safety system that is activated in a crash that involves the airbags. The airbag control unit sends a signal mechanically to the battery and disconnects the high voltage from the vehicle. Both the Tesla Roadster and the Ford Focus Electric have liquid-cooling systems, and the Focus battery is enclosed in a steel case. After the initial Volt fire, the NHTSA examined the Leaf and other electric vehicles and said its testing “has not raised safety concerns about vehicles other than the Chevy Volt.”
On January 5, 2012, General Motors announced that it would offer a customer satisfaction program to provide modifications to the Chevrolet Volt to reduce the chance that the battery pack could catch fire days or weeks after a severe accident. General Motors explained the modifications will enhance the vehicle structure that surround the battery and the battery coolant system to improve battery protection after a severe crash. The safety enhancements consist of strengthen an existing portion of the Volt’s vehicle safety structure to further protect the battery pack in a severe side collision; add a sensor in the reservoir of the battery coolant system to monitor coolant levels; and add a tamper-resistant bracket to the top of the battery coolant reservoir to help prevent potential coolant overfill. On January 20, 2012, the NHTSA closed the Volt's safety defect investigation related to post-crash fire risk. The agency concluded that "no discernible defect trend exists" and also found that the modifications recently developed by General Motors are sufficient to reduce the potential for battery intrusion resulting from side impacts. The NHTSA also said that "based on the available data, NHTSA does not believe that Chevy Volts or other electric vehicles pose a greater risk of fire than gasoline-powered vehicles." The agency also announced it has developed interim guidance to increase awareness and identify appropriate safety measures regarding electric vehicles for the emergency response community, law enforcement officers, tow truck operators, storage facilities and consumers.
All 12,400 Chevrolet Volts produced until December 2011, including all Amperas in stock at European dealerships, will receive the safety enhacements. Since production was halted during the holidays, the enhacements will be in place when production resumes in early 2012. Sales will continue and dealers will modified the Volts they have in stock, either before or after they are sold. General Motors sent a letter to Volt owners indicating that Chevrolet will contact them with more details about the service effort scheduled to begin in February 2012.
- Fisker Karma
In December 2011, Fisker Automotive recalled the first 239 Karmas delivered to the U.S. due to a risk of battery fire caused by coolant leak. Of the 239 cars, less than fifty have been delivered to customers, the rest were in dealerships. In the report filed by Fisker Automotive with the NHTSA, the carmaker said some hose clamps were not properly positioned, which could allow a coolant leak and an electrical short could possibly occur if coolant enters the battery compartment, causing a thermal event within the battery, including a possible fire. In May 2012 a Fisker Karma was involved in a home fire that also burnt two other cars in Fort Bend County, Texas. The chief fire investigator said the Karma was the origin of the fire that spread to the house, but the exact cause is still unknown. The plug-in hybrid electric car was not plugged in at the time the fire started and it was reported that the Karma's battery was intact. The carmaker release a public statement saying that "...there are conflicting reports and uncertainty surrounding this particular incident. The cause of the fire is not yet known and is being investigated." Fisker Automotive also stated that the battery pack "does not appear to have been a contributing factor in this incident." The NHTSA is conducting a field inquiry of the incident, and is working with insurance adjusters and Fisker to determine the fire’s cause.
A second fire incident took place in August 2012 when a Karma caught fire while stopped at a parking lot in Woodside, California. According to Fisker engineers, the area of origin for the fire was determined to be outside the engine compartment, as the fire was located at the driver’s side front corner of the car. The evidence suggested that the ignition source was not the lithium-ion battery pack, new technology components or unique exhaust routing. The investigation conducted by Fisker engineers and an independent fire expert concluded that the cause of the fire was a low temperature cooling fan located at the left front of the Karma, forward of the wheel. An internal fault caused the fan to fail, overheat and started a slow-burning fire. Fisker announced a voluntary recall on all Karmas sold to replace the faulty fan and install an additional fuse.
- BYD e6
In May 2012, after a high-speed car crashed into a BYD e6 taxi in Shenzhen, China, the electric car caught fire after hitting a tree and all three occupants died in the accident. The Chinese investigative team concluded that the cause of the fire were "electric arcs caused by the short-circuiting of high voltage lines of the high voltage distribution box ignited combustible material in the vehicle including the interior materials and part of the power batteries." The team also noted that the battery pack did not explode; 75% of the single cell batteries did not catch on fire; and no flaws in the safety design of the vehicle were identified.
- Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid
In September 2012 Chrysler temporarily suspended a demonstration program that was conducting with 109 Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrids and 23 Chrysler Town & Country plug-in hybrids. All units deployed in the program were recalled due to damage sustained by three separate pickup trucks when their 12.9 kWh battery packs overheated. The carmaker plans to upgrade the battery packs with cells that use a different lithium-ion chemistry before the vehicles go back on service. Chrysler explained that no one was injured from any of the incidents, and the vehicles were not occupied at the time, nor any of the minivans were involved in any incident, but they were withdrawn as a precaution. The carmaker reported that the demonstration fleet had collectively accumulated 1.3 million miles (2.1 million km) before the vehicles were recalled. The demonstration is a program jointly funded by Chrysler and the U.S. Department of Energy that includes the first-ever factory-produced vehicles capable of reverse power flow. The experimental system would allow fleet operators to use their plug-in hybrids to supply electricity for a building during a power outage, reduce power usage when electric rates are high or even sell electricity back to their utility company.
- Fires related to Hurricane Sandy flood
In separate incidents during the storm and flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on the night of October 29, 2012, one Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid and 16 Fisker Karmas caught fire while being parked at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal. The vehicles were partially submerged by flash floods caused by the hurricane. In the case of the Toyota's incident, a Prius PHV burned and two other Prii, a conventional hybrid and a plug-in, just smoldered. A Toyota spokeswoman said the fire “likely started because saltwater got into the electrical system.” She also clarified that the incident affected only three cars out of the 4,000 Toyotas that were at the terminal during the storm, including more than 2,128 plug-in or hybrid models. Fisker Automotive spokesman said that the Karmas were not charging at the time of the fire and there were no injuries. After an investigation by Fisker engineers, witnessed by NHTSA representatives, the company said that the origin of the fire was "residual salt damage inside a Vehicle Control Unit submerged in seawater for several hours. Corrosion from the salt caused a short circuit in the unit, which led to a fire when the Karma's 12-Volt battery fed power into the circuit." The company explained that Sandy's heavy winds spread that fire to other Karmas parked nearby, and also ruled out the vehicles' lithium-ion battery packs as a cause of, or a contributing factor to, the fire.
- Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Outlander P-HEV
In March 2013 Mitsubishi Motors reported two separate incidents with lithium-ion batteries used in its plug-in electric cars, one with a Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric car and the other with Outlander P-HEV plug-in hybrid. The battery packs are produced by GS Yuasa, the same company that supplies the batteries for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, whose entire fleet was grounded in January 2013 for battery problems. The lithium-ion battery of an i-MiEV caught fire at the Mizushima battery pack assembly plant on March 18 while connected to a charge-discharge test equipment. Three days later, the battery pack of an Outlander P-HEV at a dealership in Yokohama overheated and melted some of the battery cells, after the vehicle had been fully charged and stood for one day. Nobody was injured in either incident. Mitsubishi did not issue arecall but halted production and sales of the two models until it determines the causes of the battery problems. The carmaker advised owners of the Outlander plug-in hybrid to drive only on gasoline mode for the time being. In the case of the i-MiEV, the problem is related with a change in GS Yuasa manufacturing process, and Mitsubishi called fleet-vehicle operators with i-MiEVs whose batteries were made under the same process as those that overheated and is working on a possible fix.
Vehicle safety 
Great effort is taken to keep the mass of an electric vehicle as low as possible to improve its range and endurance. However, the weight and bulk of the batteries themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle, reducing range and leading to longer braking distances; it also has less interior space. However, in a collision, the occupants of a heavy vehicle will, on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits despite having a negative effect on the car's performance. An accident in a 2,000 lb (900 kg) vehicle will on average cause about 50% more injuries to its occupants than a 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) vehicle. In a single car accident, and for the other car in a two car accident, the increased mass causes an increase in accelerations and hence an increase in the severity of the accident. Some electric cars use low rolling resistance tires, which typically offer less grip than normal tires. Many electric cars have a small, light and fragile body, though, and therefore offer inadequate safety protection. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in America had condemned the use of low speed vehicles and "mini trucks," referred to as neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) when powered by electric motors, on public roads.
Hazard to pedestrians 
At low speeds, electric cars produced less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines. Blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence electric cars and hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard. Tests have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired. At higher speeds, the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.
The Government of Japan, the U.S. Congress, and the European Parliament passed legislation to regulate the minimum level of sound for hybrids and plug-in electric vehicles when operating in electric mode, so that blind people and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which direction they are approaching. The Nissan Leaf was the first electric car to use Nissan's Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians system, which includes one sound for forward motion and another for reverse. As of March 2013[update], most of the hybrids and plug-in electric cars available in the United States make warning noises using a speaker system. The Tesla Model S is one of the few electric-drive cars without warning sounds, because Tesla Motors is awaiting the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration final rule.
Differences in controls 
Presently most EV manufacturers do their best to emulate the driving experience as closely as possible to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission that motorists are familiar with. Most models therefore have a PRNDL selector traditionally found in cars with automatic transmission despite the underlying mechanical differences. Push buttons are the easiest to implement as all modes are implemented through software on the vehicle's controller.
Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present the modes "P" and "N" will still be provided on the selector. In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode.
In some cars the motor will spin slowly to provide a small amount of creep in "D", similar to a traditional automatic.
When the foot is lifted from the accelerator of an ICE, engine braking causes the car to slow. An EV would coast under these conditions, and applying mild regenerative braking instead provides a more familiar response. Selecting the L mode will increase this effect for sustained downhill driving, analogous to selecting a lower gear.
Finding the economic balance of range against performance, energy density, and accumulator type versus cost challenges every EV manufacturer.
While most current highway-speed electric vehicle designs focus on lithium-ion and other lithium-based variants a variety of alternative batteries can also be used. Lithium based batteries are often chosen for their high power and energy density but have a limited shelf-life and cycle lifetime which can significantly increase the running costs of the vehicle. Variants such as Lithium iron phosphate and Lithium-titanate attempt to solve the durability issues with traditional lithium-ion batteries.
Other battery technologies include:
- Lead acid batteries are still the most used form of power for most of the electric vehicles used today. The initial construction costs are significantly lower than for other battery types, and while power output to weight is poorer than other designs, range and power can be easily added by increasing the number of batteries.
- NiCd - Largely superseded by NiMH
- Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
- Nickel iron battery - Known for its comparatively long lifetime and low power density
Several battery technologies are also in development such as:
- Zinc-air battery
- Molten salt battery
- Zinc-bromine flow batteries or Vanadium redox batteries can be refilled, instead of recharged, saving time. The depleted electrolyte can be recharged at the point of exchange, or taken away to a remote station.
Travel range before recharging 
The range of an electric car depends on the number and type of batteries used. The weight and type of vehicle, and the performance demands of the driver, also have an impact just as they do on the range of traditional vehicles. The range of an electric vehicle conversion depends on the battery type:
An alternative to quick recharging is to exchange the drained or nearly drained batteries (or battery range extender modules) with fully charged batteries, similar to how stagecoach horses were changed at coaching inns. Batteries could be leased or rented instead of bought, and then maintenance deferred to the leasing or rental company, and ensures availability.
Several companies are attempting to implement this business model, and Better Place was the first to deploy an electric vehicle network in Israel, and it will be followed by similar recharging networks in Denmark and Hawaii. Around 100 Renault Fluence Z.E.s were delivered in Israel and allocated among the Better Place employees in January 2012. Retail customers deliveries are scheduled to begin in the second quarter of 2012.
Vehicle-to-grid: uploading and grid buffering 
A Smart grid allows BEVs to provide power to the grid, specifically:
- During peak load periods, when the cost of electricity can be very high. These vehicles can then be recharged during off-peak hours at cheaper rates while helping to absorb excess night time generation. Here the batteries in the vehicles serve as a distributed storage system to buffer power.
- During blackouts, as an emergency backup supply.
Battery life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership, as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on the type of battery technology and how they are used — many types of batteries are damaged by depleting them beyond a certain level. Lithium-ion batteries degrade faster when stored at higher temperatures.
The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the cost and availability of batteries with high specific energy, power density, and long life, as all other aspects such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost-competitive with internal combustion engine components. Diarmuid O'Connell, VP of Business Development at Tesla Motors, estimates that by the year 2020 30% of the cars driving on the road will be battery electric or plug-in hybrid.
Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn has predicted that one in 10 cars globally will run on battery power alone by 2020. Additionally a recent report claims that by 2020 electric cars and other green cars will take a third of the total of global car sales.
Other methods of energy storage 
Experimental supercapacitors and flywheel energy storage devices offer comparable storage capacity, faster charging, and lower volatility. They have the potential to overtake batteries as the preferred rechargeable storage for EVs. The FIA included their use in its sporting regulations of energy systems for Formula One race vehicles in 2007 (for supercapacitors) and 2009 (for flywheel energy storage devices).
Solar cars 
Solar cars are electric cars that derive most or all of their electricity from built in solar panels. After the 2005 World Solar Challenge established that solar race cars could exceed highway speeds, the specifications were changed to provide for vehicles that with little modification could be used for transportation.
Batteries in BEVs must be periodically recharged (see also Replacing, above).
Unlike vehicles powered by fossil fuels, BEVs are most commonly and conveniently charged from the power grid overnight at home, without the inconvenience of having to go to a filling station. Charging can also be done using a street or shop charging station.
The electricity on the grid is in turn generated from a variety of sources; such as coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and others. Power sources such as roof top photovoltaic solar cell panels, micro hydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns regarding global warming.
US Charging Standards 
Around 1998 the California Air Resources Board classified levels of charging power that have been codified in title 13 of the California Code of Regulations, the U.S. 1999 National Electrical Code section 625 and SAE International standards. Three standards were developed, termed Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 charging.
|Level||Original definition||Coulomb Technologies' definition||Connectors|
|Level 1||AC energy to the vehicle's on-board charger; from the most common U.S. grounded household receptacle, commonly referred to as a 120 volt outlet.||120 V AC; 16 A (= 1.92 kW)||SAE J1772 (16.8 kW),
|Level 2||AC energy to the vehicle's on-board charger;208 - 240 volt, single phase. The maximum current specified is 32 amps (continuous) with a branch circuit breaker rated at 40 amps. Maximum continuous input power is specified as 7.68 kW (= 240V x 32A*).||208-240 V AC;
12 A - 80 A (= 2.5 - 19.2 kW)
|SAE J1772 (16.8 kW),
IEC 62196 (44 kW),
Magne Charge (Obsolete),
IEC 60309 16 A (3.8 kW)
IEC 62198-2 Type2 same as VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2, also known as the Mennekes connector (43.5 kW)IEC 62198-2 Type3 also known as Scame
|Level 3||DC energy from an off-board charger; there is no minimum energy requirement but the maximum current specified is 400 amps and 240 kW continuous power supplied.||very high voltages (300-600 V DC); very high currents (hundreds of Amperes)||Magne Charge (Obsolete)
CHΛdeMO (62.5 kW), SAE J1772 Combo, IEC 62196 Mennekes Combo
.* or potentially 208V x 37A, out of the strict specification but within circuit breaker and connector/cable power limits. Alternatively, this voltage would impose a lower power rating of 6.7 kW at 32A.
More recently the term "Level 3" has also been used by the SAE J1772 Standard Committee for a possible future higher-power AC fast charging standard. To distinguish from Level 3 DC fast charging, this would-be standard is written as "Level 3 AC". SAE has not yet approved standards for either AC or DC Level 3 charging.
As of June 2012[update], some electric cars provide charging options that do not fit within the older California "Level 1, 2, and 3 charging" standard, with its top charging rate of 40 Amps. For example, the Tesla Roadster may be charged at a rate up to 70 Amps (16.8 kW) with a wall-mounted charger.
For comparison in Europe the IEC 61851-1 charging modes are used to classify charging equipment. The provisions of IEC 62196 charging modes for conductive charging of electric vehicles include Mode 1 (max. 16A / max. 250V a.c. or 480V three-phase), Mode 2 (max. 32A / max. 250V a.c. or 480V three-phase), Mode 3 (max. 63A (70A U.S.) / max. 690V a.c. or three-phase) and Mode 4 (max. 400A / max. 600V d.c.).
Most electric cars have used conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging after the California Air Resources Board settled on the SAE J1772-2001 standard as the charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June 2001. In Europe the ACEA has decided to use the Type 2 connector from the range of IEC_62196 plug types for conductive charging of electric vehicles in the European Union as the Type 1 connector (SAE J1772-2009) does not provide for three-phase charging.
Another approach is inductive charging using a non-conducting "paddle" inserted into a slot in the car. Delco Electronics developed the Magne Charge inductive charging system around 1998 for the General Motors EV1 and it was also used for the Chevrolet S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles.
Regenerative braking 
Charging time 
More electrical power to the car reduces charging time. Power is limited by the capacity of the grid connection, and, for level 1 and 2 charging, by the power rating of the car's on-board charger. A normal household outlet is between 1.5 kW (in the US, Canada, Japan, and other countries with 110 volt supply) to 3 kW (in countries with 230V supply). The main connection to a house may sustain 10, 15 or even 20 kW in addition to "normal" domestic loads - though it would be unwise to use all the apparent capability - and special wiring can be installed to use this. As examples of on-board chargers, the Nissan Leaf at launch has a 3.3 kW charger and the Tesla Roadster can accept up to 16.8 kW (240V at 70A) from the High Power Wall Connector. These power numbers are small compared to the effective power delivery rate of an average petrol pump, about 5,000 kW. Even if the electrical supply power can be increased, most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge rate ("1C"), because high charge rates have an adverse effect on the discharge capacities of batteries. Despite these power limitations, plugging in to even the least-powerful conventional home outlet provides more than 15 kilowatt-hours of energy overnight, sufficient to propel most electric cars more than 70 kilometres (43 mi) (see Energy efficiency above).
Faster charging 
Some types of batteries such as Lithium-titanate, LiFePO4 and even certain NiMH variants can be charged almost to their full capacity in 10–20 minutes. Fast charging requires very high currents often derived from a three-phase power supply. Careful charge management is required to prevent damage to the batteries through overcharging.
Most people do not usually require fast recharging because they have enough time, six to eight hours (depending on discharge level) during the work day or overnight at home to recharge. BEV drivers frequently prefer recharging at home, avoiding the inconvenience of visiting a public charging station.
In Europe, the electricity supply in every household is both: 240 Volts (1-phase: L1, L2 or L3) and 400 Volts (3-phase: L1,L2,L3). The average modern house has a 100 Ampere service coming in from the electricity supplier. Older properties may only have a 63A service. This means that power is supplied to electric vehicles at around 240V x 16A = 3.84 kW or with 400VAC x 63A = 25.2 kW and takes most available electric cars around 4 hours (1-phase) or less than 30 minutes (3-phase) to fully charge (provided the battery management system can handle it). Charging an electric car in a European household (3-phase) is still 17 times faster than in a USA household.
Hobbyists, conversions, and racing 
Hobbyists often build their own EVs by converting existing production cars to run solely on electricity. There is a cottage industry supporting the conversion and construction of BEVs by hobbyists. Universities such as the University of California, Irvine even build their own custom electric or hybrid-electric cars from scratch.
Short-range battery electric vehicles can offer the hobbyist comfort, utility, and quickness, sacrificing only range. Short-range EVs may be built using high-performance lead–acid batteries, using about half the mass needed for a 100 to 130 km (60 to 80 mi) range. The result is a vehicle with about a 50 km (30 mi) range, which, when designed with appropriate weight distribution (40/60 front to rear), does not require power steering, offers exceptional acceleration in the lower end of its operating range, and is freeway capable and legal. But their EVs are expensive due to the higher cost for these higher-performance batteries. By including a manual transmission, short-range EVs can obtain both better performance and greater efficiency than the single-speed EVs developed by major manufacturers. Unlike the converted golf carts used for neighborhood electric vehicles, short-range EVs may be operated on typical suburban throughways (where 60–80 km/h / 35-50 mph speed limits are typical) and can keep up with traffic typical on such roads and the short "slow-lane" on-and-off segments of freeways common in suburban areas.
Faced with chronic fuel shortage on the Gaza Strip, Palestinian electrical engineer Waseem Othman al-Khozendar invented in 2008 a way to convert his car to run on 32 electric batteries. According to al-Khozendar, the batteries can be charged with US$2 worth of electricity to drive from 180 to 240 km (110 to 150 mi). After a 7-hour charge, the car should also be able to run up to a speed of 100 km/h (60 mph).
Japanese Professor Hiroshi Shimizu from Faculty of Environmental Information of the Keio University created an electric limousine: the Eliica (Electric Lithium-Ion Car) has eight wheels with electric 55 kW hub motors (8WD) with an output of 470 kW and zero emissions, a top speed of 370 km/h (230 mph), and a maximum range of 320 km (200 mi) provided by lithium-ion batteries. However, current models cost approximately US$300,000, about one third of which is the cost of the batteries.
In 2008, several Chinese manufacturers began marketing lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries directly to hobbyists and vehicle conversion shops. These batteries offered much better power-to-weight ratios allowing vehicle conversions to typically achieve 75 to 150 mi (120 to 240 km) per charge. Prices gradually declined to approximately US$350 per kW·h by mid-2009. As the LiFePO4 cells feature life ratings of 3,000 cycles, compared to typical lead acid battery ratings of 300 cycles, the life expectancy of LiFePO4 cells is around 10 years. This has led to a resurgence in the number of vehicles converted by individuals. LiFePO4 cells do require more expensive battery management and charging systems than lead acid batteries.
Electric drag racing is a sport where electric vehicles start from standstill and attempt the highest possible speed over a short given distance. They sometimes race and usually beat gasoline sports cars. Organizations such as NEDRA keep track of records world wide using certified equipment.
Currently available electric cars 
Highway capable 
As of February 2013[update], the number of mass production highway-capable all-electric passenger cars available in the market is limited to about 20 models. Most electric vehicles in the world roads are low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) or electric quadricycles. Pike Research estimated there were almost 479,000 NEVs on the world roads in 2011. As of November 2012[update], the top selling NEV is the Global Electric Motorcars (GEM) family of vehicles, with global sales of more than 46,000 units since 1998. The two largest NEV markets in 2011 were the United States, with 14,737 units sold, and France, with 2,231 units. The Renault Twizy all-electric heavy quadricycle, launched in Europe in March 2012 and with global sales of 9,020 units through December 2012, became the best selling plug-in electric vehicle in Europe for 2012. The top selling markets were Germany with 2,413 units, France with 2,232 units, and Italy with 1,545 units sold in 2012.
As of December 2012[update], more than 100,000 highway-capable all-electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles have been sold worldwide since 2008. The leading electric vehicle manufacturer is the Renault-Nissan Alliance with global sales of 67,723 all-electric vehicles since December 2010, which includes the Nissan Leaf, the Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility van, Renault Fluence Z.E., the Renault Zoe, and the Renault Twizy urban quadricycle. The alliance sold 43,829 all-electric vehicles during 2012. Ranking second is Mitsubishi Motors with global sales of around 27,200 all-electric vehicles since July 2009, and its all-electric line up includes the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, the rebadged Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-Zero, and the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV utility van. Tesla Motors is the third best selling all-electric vehicle manufacturer, with more than 5,000 electric cars sold since February 2008, including almost 2,500 Tesla Roadsters and about 2,650 Tesla Model S sold through December 2012.
|Top selling highway-capable electric cars and light
utility vehicles produced since 2008 through April 2013(1)
|Nissan Leaf||Dec 2010||> 62,000||Apr 2013|
|Mitsubishi i MiEV||Jul 2009||~ 25,500||Mar 2013|
|Tesla Model S||Jun 2012||~ 9,650||Apr 2013|
|Renault Kangoo Z.E.||Oct 2011||8,760||Apr 2013|
|Chery QQ3 EV||Mar 2010||5,758||Jan 2013(2)|
|JAC J3 EV||2010||4,068||Dec 2012|
|Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV||Dec 2011||3,953||Mar 2013|
|Renault Fluence Z.E.||2011||3,487||Apr 2013|
|Renault Zoe||Dec 2012||2,530||Apr 2013|
|Tesla Roadster||Mar 2008||~ 2,500||Dec 2012|
|Smart electric drive||2009||> 2,200||Dec 2012|
|Bolloré Bluecar||Dec 2011||2,151||Apr 2013|
|BYD e6||May 2010||2,124||Dec 2012|
|Notes: (1) The REVAi/G-Wiz i and REVA L-ion, with less than 5,000 units sold
between 2001 and 2012 is not included because it is considered a heavy
quadricycle or NEV in some countries while a regular electric car in others.
(2) Only sales since 1 January 2012 through 31 January 2013.
The world's top selling highway-capable electric car ever is the Nissan Leaf, released in December 2010, with global sales of 49,117 units through December 2012, followed by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family, with global sales of about 24,000 cars sold or exported since 2009 through December 2012, which includes 5,017 Peugeot iOns and 4,977 Citroën C-Zeros rebadged and sold in the European market. The third best selling highway-capable all-electric vehicle is the Renault Kangoo Z.E. utility van, with global sales of 6.665 units since October 2011 through December 2012.
There are also several pre-production models and plug-in conversions of existing internal combustion engine models undergoing field trials or are part of demonstration programs, such as the Audi A1 e-tron, Hyundai BlueOn, Mercedes A-Class E-Cell, Tata Indica Vista EV and Volkswagen Golf blue-e-motion. Models scheduled for market launch in 2013 and 2014 include the Fiat 500e, Scion iQ EV, Chevrolet Spark EV, Volkswagen e-Up!, Detroit Electric SP.01, BMW i3, Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive, Tesla Model X, and Infiniti LE.
Electric cars by country 
As of December 2012[update], Japan and the United States are the largest highway-capable electric car country markets in the world, followed by several Western European countries and China. Pure electric car sales in 2012 were led by Japan with a 28% market share of global sales, followed by the United States with a 26% share, China with 16%, France with 11%, and Norway with 7%. In Japan, more than 28,000 all-electric cars electric cars have been sold through December 2012, with sales led by the Nissan Leaf with about 21,000 units sold since 2010. Around 27,000 all-electric cars have been sold in the U.S. since 2008, and sales are led by the Nissan Leaf, with 19,512 units sold through December 2012.
Since 2010, a total of 37,380 electric-drive passenger cars have been sold in Western European countries through December 2012, with yearly sales climbing from 1,614 all-electric cars in 2010 to 11,563 electric cars during 2011, to reach 24,203 plug-in electric cars in 2012. The market share of plug-in electric cars rose from 0.09% of all new car sales in the region in 2011 to 0.2% in 2012.
Sales during these two years were led by the Nissan Leaf with 6,938 units, followed by the Peugeot iOn with 5,017 units, and the Citroën C-Zero with 4,977 cars sold. When electric vehicles with range extender plug-in hybrids are considered, the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera ranks second after the Leaf with 5,572 units delivered in Europe since late 2011 through December 2012. The top selling models in the region in 2011 were the Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2,608) followed by its rebadged versions the Peugeot iOn (1,926) and the Citroën C-Zero (1,830). The Opel/Vauxhall Ampera was Europe's top selling electric-drive car in 2012 with 5,210 units representing a market share of 21.5% of the region's electric passenger car segment. The Nissan Leaf ranked second with 5,029 electric cars sold for a market share of 20.8%. The top selling country markets in 2011 were France (2,630), Norway (2,240), Germany (2,154), and the United Kingdom (1,082). In 2012, the leading countries were France (5,663), the Netherlands (5,093), Norway (4,679), and Germany (2,956). Sales in Germany, the Netherlands and Norway include plug-in hybrids. As of December 2012[update], the leading countries in terms of EV penetration of the total auto fleet are Norway with 4 electric car per 1,000 automobiles registered in the country, Estonia with 1 electric car for every 1,000 cars, and the Netherlands with a penetration of 0.6 electric cars per 1,000 registered cars.
Since July 2009, more than 28,000 all-electric cars have been sold in Japan through December 2012, representing a market share of 0.16% of total new car sales in the country. The Nissan Leaf is the market leader with about 21,000 units sold since December 2010, followed by the Mitsubishi i MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009, with cumulative sales of 7,233 i-MiEVs through December 2012. Considering plug-in hybrids and electric utility vans, there were more than 41,000 plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country through December 2012. This figure includes 3,234 Minicab MiEV electric utility vehicles sold since December 2011, and 9,500 Toyota Prius PHVs sold between January and October 2012.
- United States
As of December 2012[update], around 27,000 all-electric cars have been sold in the U.S. since 2008, led by the Nissan Leaf, with 19,512 units sold through December 2012, followed by the Tesla Model S with 2,650 units sold through December 2012, the Tesla Roadster, which sold around 1,800 units until sales ended in the country in December 2011, the Ford Focus Electric (693), BMW ActiveE (671), Mitsubishi i MiEV (668), and Smart electric drive (530). The Mini E was available between June 2009 and December 2011, and 500 units were leased. Other all-electric highway-capable available in the country and sold in low volumes are the Wheego Whip, Honda Fit EV, and Toyota RAV4 EV.
As of August 2012[update], 32% of total electric car sales in the country took place in California, and Pike Research predicts that California will continue leading EV sales at least until 2020, with 25% of all plug-in electric cars sold in the U.S. California leadership arises from being the most populous state and also the largest U.S car market with about 10% of all new car sales. Furthermore, the state provides the Clean Vehicle Rebate in addition to the federal tax credit, and also has an air quality mandate that requires automakers to sell a combined 7,500 zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) between 2012 and 2014. As of February 2013[update], the California Air Resources Board reported that 9,559 pure electric vehicle and 8,842 plug-in hybrid owners had applied for the clean vehicle rebate since January 2011.
Accounting for plug-in hybrid electric cars, the United States, as of December 2012[update], has the largest fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the world, with more than 70,000 highway-capable plug-in electric cars sold since 2010, of which, 17,800 units were delivered during 2011, and more than 53,000 during 2012. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid is the top selling electric-drive car, with 31,458 units sold through December 2012. During 2011, all-electric cars (10,064 sold) oversold plug-in hybrids (7,671 sold), but increased Volt sales, together with the introduction of the Prius PHV and the Ford C-Max, allowed plug-in hybrids to take the lead over pure electric cars during 2012, with 38,584 PHEVs sold versus 14,251 BEVs. During the first quarter of 2013 a total of 17,813 PEVs were sold in the U.S., representing 0.53% share of total new car sales in the quarter. Sales were led by the Tesla Model S more than 4,750 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 4,244 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 3,539 cars.
As of March 2013[update], there are 27,800 electric vehicles in China, with a significant share of electric buses. A total of 5,579 electric vehicles were sold in China during 2011, including passenger and commercial vehicles. Sales in 2012 reached 12,791 units, which includes 11,375 all-electric vehicles and 1,416 plug-in hybrids, representing 0.07% of the country's total new car sales. The top selling pure electric car in China for 2012 was the Chery QQ3 EV city car, with 5,305 units sold, followed by the JAC J3 EV with 2,485 units, and the BYD e6 with 2,091 cars. Sales during the first quarter of 2013 totaled 3,175 units, including 2,874 pure electric vehicles and 301 plug-in hybrids.
Since January 2010, more than 14,600 highway-capable all-electric vehicles have been registered in France through December 2012. Of these, 8,477 are electric cars and 6,129 are electric utility vans. Electric car sales increased from 184 cars in 2010, through 2,630 units 2011, to 5,663 units in 2012. Sales of all-electric cars in 2012 increased 115% from 2011, and captured a market share of 0.3% of new car sales in the country. In addition, 3,651 electric utility vans were registered in 2012, up from 1,683 in 2011, and 980 in 2010; increasing the total of highway-capable electric vehicles registered during 2012 to 9,314 units, and making France the leading European EV market in 2012. Also, a total of 666 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012, with sales led by the Toyota Prius PHV with 413 registrations and the Opel Ampera with 190.
Electric car sales in the French market for 2011 were led by the Citroën C-Zero with 645 units followed by the Peugeot iOns with 639 vehicles, and the Bolloré Bluecar with 399 electric cars. During 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bluecar with 1,543 units, the C-Zero with 1,409, and the iOn with 1,335, together representing 76% of all electric car sales that year. Cumulative sales since 2010 are led by the Peugeot iOn, with 2,078 units, followed by the Citroën C-Zero with 2,007, and the Bolloré Bluecar, with 1,942 units, of which, 1,750 are allocated for the Autolib' car sharing service. The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012, representing a market share of 82% of the segment. A total of 3,652 Kangoo ZEs have been registered in France through December 2012. The Renault Twizy electric quadricycle, launched in March 2012, sold 2,232 units during 2012, surpassing the Bolloré Bluecar, the top selling highway-capable electric car, and ranking as the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Kangoo Z.E.
During the first quarter of 2013, registrations of pure electric cars reached 2,248 units, led by the Renault Zoe with 1,599 units representing 71% of total EV sales. Registrations of all-electric utility vans reached 1,275 units, led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 1,051 units.
Norway, with 10,005 plug-in electric cars registered through December 2012, is the country with the largest EV ownership per capita in the world, with Oslo recognized as the EV capital of the world. A total of 2,240 cars were sold in 2011, up from 722 in 2010. Sales in 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family with 1,477 units including 1,050 i-MiEVs, 217 Peugeot iOns and 210 Citroën C-Zeros, together representing 66% of electric car sales in Norway that year. During 2012 a total of 4,679 plug-in electric cars were registered, including 318 plug-in hybrids and 59 electric vans. Electric-drive car sales in 2012 represented a 3.1% market share of passenger car sales in the country, up from 1.6% in 2011. Registrations in 2012 include 300 used electric vehicles imported, representing 1.0% of total used imports in the country.
Sales in 2012 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 2,487 units registered (including 189 used Leafs imported), and representing 53% of PEV sales in that year, reaching cumulative sales of 2,860 units since its launch in September 2011. Norway is the only country in the world where an electric car has ranked among the top 10 best selling cars, as the Nissan Leaf ranked 9th in October new car sales, and ended 2012 in the 13th place, representing a market share of 1.7% of all new car sales in the country, up from 0.3% in 2011.
A total of 7,497 electric cars have sold in Germany since January 2010 through December 2012. During 2011, a total of 2,154 electric cars were registered in the country, and sales for 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family with 683 i-MiEVs, 208 Peugeot iOns and 200 Citroën C-Zeros, representing 50.6% of all electric car sales in 2011. A total of 2,956 electric-drive cars were registered in Germany during 2012, a 37.2% increase over 2011 sales. Plug-in electric car sales represented a 0.10% market share of the 3,082,504 new passenger vehicles sold in the country in 2012, and most sales in the country were made by corporate and fleet customers. Sales through September 2012 were led by the Opel Ampera extended-range electric car with 707 units, followed by the Citroën C-Zero with 360 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 294 units. In addition, a total of 2,413 Renault Twizys were sold during 2012, making Germany the top selling European market for the electric quadricycle. Plug-in electric car registrations during the first quarter of 2013 reached 1032 units.
The German government does not provide any subsidies or bonus to the sales of electric cars but instead funds research in the area of electric mobility. The only existing incentive for electric vehicles and plug-ins is the exemption from the annual circulation tax for a period of five years from the date of their first registration.
As of December 2012[update], the fleet of electric cars in the Netherlands reached 6,275 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger vehicles, of which, 4,341 are range extending EVs or plug-in hybrids. The number of registered electric cars grew from 68 in 2009, to 395 in 2010 through 1,182 in 2011. During 2012, a total of 5,093 plug-in electric cars were registered in the country, representing a market share of 1% of new car sales during 2012, and allowing the country to rank as the second best selling European EV market behind France. When buses, trucks, motorcycles and other types of electric vehicles are accounted for, 7,410 electric vehicles have been registered in the country through December 2012. A total of 1,441 plug-in elctric cars were sold during the first quarter of 2013, of which 99 were pure electric cars and 1,342 plug-in hybrids.
Sales of plug-in hybrid cars took the lead over all-electric cars during 2012. The Opel Ampera is the best selling electric-drive car in the Netherlands, with 2,696 units sold in 2012. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranks second, with 1,184 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 306 units sold during the year. Considering sales of the Fisker Karma (140), plug-in hybrids represent 85% of all electric-drive cars sold in 2012. As of December 2012[update], the Nissan Leaf is the top selling all-electric car in the country, with 265 units sold in 2012, and cumulative sales of 559 units since its introduction by mid-2011.
- United Kingdom
More than 4,432 electric-drive cars have been registered in the UK through December 2012. Since 2006 a total of 1,096 electric cars were registered in the U.K. through December 2010, and a total of 1,082 units were sold during 2011, up from 138 units in 2010. During 2012, a total of 1,262 all-electric cars were registered in the UK, led by the Nissan Leaf with 699 units. Registrations during this period climb to 2,254 when sales of plug-in electric vehicles eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant are accounted for, with the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranking second after the Leaf with 470 units, followed by the Vauxhall Ampera with 455 units sold in 2012. In addition, 279 Renault Kangoo Z.E. electric vans and 252 Renault Twizy electric quadricycles were sold through September 2012. As of December 2012[update], the top selling electric car in the UK is the Nissan Leaf with 1,334 units sold since its introduction in March 2011, and during 2012 accounted for 55% of total sales of the all-electric car segment.
Government subsidy 
Several countries have established grants and tax credits for the purchase of new electric cars depending on battery size. The U.S. offers a federal income tax credit up to US$7,500, and several states have additional incentives. The U.K. offers a Plug-in Car Grant up to a maximum of GB£5,000 (US$7,600).
As of April 2011, 15 European Union member states provide economic incentives for the purchase of new electrically chargeable vehicles, which consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Electrically powered automobiles|
- FIA Formula E Championship
- The Greenpower Challenge - EV racing for young people
- Compressed air car
- Electric car use by country
- Electric boat
- Electric bus
- Electric motorcycles and scooters
- Electric vehicle conversion
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
- List of electric cars currently available
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries
- Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States
- Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
- Solar Golf Cart
- Tesla electric car
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- Todd Woody (2012-07-25). "Tesla Hits Accelerator Despite Q2 Revenue Miss". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-07-25. Sales of more than 2,350 Roadster as of 30 June 2012[update]
- Tesla Motors (2012-11-05). "Tesla Q3 report: $50M revenues, $111M GAAP net loss, 253 Model S delivered in Q3". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-11-06.Sales during the 3Q 2012: 68 Roadsters and 253 Model S.
- Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Europe 18 à fin Oct. (2010-2012) 2012" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Europe 18 through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-06. Only pure electric cars are reported.
- Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-01-14. See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers. A total of 53,172 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Sales of the Fisker Karma, Coda and Wheego are not included, as these carmakers does not report monthly sales on a regular basis.
- "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing". HybridCARS.com. 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- "August 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com. 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Autoactu.com. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2013-05-15. See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2013/2012/2011."
- "BYD Delivered Only 33 Units of e6, 417 F3DM in 2010". ChinaAutoWeb. 2011-02-23.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-01-14). "China Full Year 2012: Ford Focus triumphs". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
- David Ferris (2013-03-04). "India’s Only Electric Car Revamped to Woo Drivers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
- Guinness World Records (2012). "Best-selling electric car". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2013-01-22. The Leaf surpassed the Mitsubishi i MiEV as the best selling all-electric car in history in 2011.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-02-10). "Europe Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 models & Top 60 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-13. Between 2011 and 2012 a total of 5,017 Peugeot iOns, 4977 Citroën C-Zeros and 4,244 Mitsubishi i MiEVs were sold in Europe.
- Renault (2013-01-18). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2013-01-19. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" to download the file, and open the tab "Sales by Model".
- "Plug-in Vehicle Tracker: What's Coming, When". Plug In America. Retrieved 2012-01-15.
- Paul Stenquist (2013-04-01). "A New Electric Car With an Old Name". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
- The Nikkei (2013-01-18). "Nissan Leaf Price To Get Y280,000 Haircut In April". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Retrieved 2013-02-12. 21,000 Leafs have been sold through December 2012.
- John Voelcker (2012-08-01). "July Plug-In Electric Car Sales: Volt Steady, Leaf Lethargic (Again)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- "Opel Ampera – a Pioneer of Green Mobility Europe’s Most Successful Passenger EV". The European Financial Review. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
- Christopher Bruce (2012-12-12). "Europe's Best Selling Electric Car Is the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera". Autovia. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
- Neil Winton (2012-02-06). "Europe's electric car sales stutter and stall; will 2012 be much better?". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-01-25). "Europe’s electric car market fails to take off". AID. Retrieved 2013-02-13. Sales include range-extenders or plug-in hybrids in several countries.
- Ole Henrik Hannisdahl (2012-01-09). "Eventyrlig elbilsalg i 2011" [Adventurous electric vehicle sales in 2011] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2012-01-14. See table "Elbilsalg i 2011 fordelt på måned og merke" (Electric vehicle sales in 2011, by onth and brand) to see monthly sales for 2011.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2012-01-06). "December 2011 – EV and AFV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
- Autoactu.com. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2013-02-16. See "Répartition des ventes de voitures électriques par modèle sur 2012, 2011 and 2010"
- RAI. "Verkoopstatistieken-nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2013-02-02. Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112") and 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212").
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (2013-01-18). "Best verkochte elektrische auto's 2012 Opel Ampera verkooptopper" [Best selling electric cars in 2012 - Opel Ampera top selling] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
- "Over 10.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 10,000 plug-in cars in Norwegian roads] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2013-01-31). "Neuzulassungen E-Mobilität 2012 - Kaum Zuwachs wegen Twizy" [Registrations E-mobility - Low growth due to Twizy]. Auto Bild (in German). Retrieved 2013-02-14. A total of 2,956 electric-drive cars were registered in Germany during 2012.
- Hans Håvard Kvisle (2012-12-07). "Elbilsalget i Europa og USA" [Electric Vehicle Sales in Europe and the U.S.] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association. Retrieved 2012-12-20. The top leading countries are France, the Netherlands, Norway, Germany and the UK.
- "Estonia goes electric with new car charger network". Reuters. 2013-02-20. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- TMC Press Release (2012-11-08). "Cumulative Sales of TMC Hybrids Top 2 Million Units in Japan". Toyota. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Jim Motavalli (2012-01-12). "The Mini-E's True Believer Gets the Keys to the First BMW ActiveE". PluginCars. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
- Peter Whoriskey (2009-12-24). "Recharging and other concerns keep electric cars far from mainstream". Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- Edmunds.com (2012-11-09). "California leads in green car sales, but there are surprises on the lists". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Pike Research (2012-09-19). "CA Will Lead U.S. Electric Car Sales Until 2020, Report Predicts". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Mike Ramsey and Christina Rogers (2012-11-193). "California Spurs Electric Cars". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Danny King (2012-12-17). "Plug-in hybrids outselling pure EVs in California". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- David Shepardson (2013-01-31). "Low EV sales won't budge California on zero emission rules". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Clean Vehicle Rebate Project Statistics". California Center for Sustainable Energy. March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Stacy C. Davis, Susan W. Diegel, and Robert G. Boundy (July 2012). "Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 31". Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 2012-11-05. See Table 6.4: Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011, pp. 6-7.
- John Voelcker (2013-01-03). "Plug-In Electric Car Sales Triple In 2012 As Buyers, Models Increase". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) (February 2013). "Electric drive vehicle sales figures (U.S. Market) - EV sales". EDTA. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Jerry Hirsch (2012-07-13). "Plug-in hybrid sales soar; all-electric cars stay in low gear". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Green Car Congress (2013-04-04). "Tesla likely Q1 US PEV leader with 4,750+ sales in North America; Nissan surges with LEAF in March in US". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Ma Jie and Yuki Hagiwara (2013-03-20). "In Ghosn We Trust Tested as Nissan Electric Push Falters". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- Ray Jing (2012-01-16). "China sold 8,159 NEVs in 2011". China Automotive Review. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- Cars21.com (2013-02-13). "EV sales increase 103.9% in China in 2012- ELECTRIC CHINA WEEKLY No17". Cars21.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- China Daily (2013-02-28). "China needs electric cars more than hybrid". China Economic Net. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- China Auto Web (2013-03-25). "Chinese EV Sales Ranking for 2012". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
- China Auto Web (2013-04-13). "3,175 Plug-in EVs Were Sold in the First Quarter". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Justin Aschard (2012-11-07). "Novembre 2012 - Ventes de véhicules électriques (CCFA)" [November 2012 - Sales of electric vehicles (CCFA)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-16. See table Bilan annuel des ventes de véhicules électriques (Annual sales of electric vehicles) for detailed sales by category during 2010 and 2011.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" [Record Registrations for 2012] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- Laurent Meillaud (2012-01-14). "2630 voitures électriques immatriculées en 2011" [2630 electric cars registered in 2011] (in French). MSN France. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
- Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" [Electric car sales in France increased 115% in 2011] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- "2012, une année record pour les véhicules électriqueslanguage=French" [2012 a record year for electric vehicles]. Atlante & Cie. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-15). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Hybrid Cars - The balance of 2012 registrations in France] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-09). "Voitures électriques – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Electric Cars - The balance of registrations in France 2012] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- Anthony Buttriss (2013-02-01). "Bluecar: La Voiture Électrique La Plus Immatriculée de France" [Bluecar: The most registered electric car in Fracnce] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-09.
- Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL France à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in France through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 14 units were registered in 2010 and 768 in 2011.
- AVERE-France (2013-04-07). "Le Marché Français des Véhicules Électriques Double !" [The French Market for Electric Vehicles Doubled] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-04-05). "Record pour les immatriculations de voitures électriques en mars" [Record registrations for electric cars in March] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- Renault Press Release (2013-04-02). "Sales results France March 2013". Renault. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 1,051 Kangoo Z.E.s were registered in France during Q1 2013.
- Agence France-Presse (2011-05-15). "Electric cars take off in Norway". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- AVERE (2012-06-07). "Norwegian Parliament extends electric car iniatives until 2018". AVERE. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV). "Statistikk-Ladbare biler i Norge" (in Norwegian). Gronnbil. Retrieved 2012-01-13. See "Anslag nov 2011" on the table at the left.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-01-09). "Norway Full Year 2012: VW Tiguan and Nissan Leaf impress". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- Autobild (2012-01-12). "2011 Full Year Best-Selling Electric Cars in Germany in 2011". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2012-10-31. Cumulative number of registered electric cars was 4,541 as of January 1, 2012.
- BestSellingCars.com (2013-01-03). "2012 (Full Year) Germany: Electric and Hybrid Car Sales". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (October 2012). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im September 2012 nach Marken und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in September 2012 by make and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Mat Gasnier (2012-09-27). "Europe: Renault Twizy sales update". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Laurent J. Masson (2013-04-10). "European electric car sales: Norway’s still leading by far". Motor Nature. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
- John Blau (2010-05-03). "Berlin plugs in electric mobility strategy". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- "Overview of Tax Incentives for Electric Vehicles in the EU". European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2010-04-20. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
- ACEA (February 2010). "Policy support for electrically chargeable vehicles". rai vereniging (RAI Association - Dutch Association of Bicycle and Automobile Industry). Retrieved 2010-05-26. Click under "Overzicht stimuleringsprogrammas elektrische voertuigen (Overview incentive programs electric vehicles) to download the report in pdf format (website in Dutch).
- BOVAG-RAI (2012-10-15). "Mobiliteit in Cijfers -Auto’s 2010/2011" [Mobility in Figures - Cars 2010/2011] (in Dutch). BOVAG-RAI Foundation. Retrieved 2012-10-30. See table 2.8: "Personenautoregistraties (verkopen) naar brandstof" (New Passenger Car Registrations by Type of Fuel Used), pp. 23 for the number of all-electric cars registered between 2007 and 2009. Other years show figures mixed with hybrid electric vehicles.
- ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency (2012-07-23). "Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief - Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012" [Electric transport in the Netherlands in international perspective - Benchmark electric vehicles in 2012] (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid voor Nederland(The Netherlands Government). Retrieved 2012-10-30. Download the pdf file "benchmark-elektrisch-rijden" - See Chapter 5, Table 4, pp. 19
- Agentschap NL - RDW (January 2013). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland (31-12-2012)" [Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands (31-12-2012)] (in Dutch). Agentschap NL. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- Agentschap NL - Ministerie van Economische Zaken - RDW (2013-04-23). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Ontwikkeling elektrisch vervoer (31-03-2013)" [Figures electric transport -Growth of electric vehicles (31-03-2013)] (in Dutch). Agentschap NL. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (April 2011). "Motor Industry Facts 2011". SMMT. Retrieved 2012-01-14. Download the pdf report. Data available by year in Table: AFV Registrations, pp.15.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2013-01-07). "December 2012 – EV and AFV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2013-02-16. A total of 470 Prius PHV were sold in 2012.
- Jon LeSage (2013-01-08). "Toyota Prius Plug-In wins 2012 sales battle in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Mat Gasnier (2013-02-01). "UK Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 All-models ranking!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-16. A total of 635 Leafs were sold in 2011 and 699 in 2012.
- Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2013). "New Car CO2 Report 2013". SMMT. Retrieved 2013-03-17. See Table 5: New car CO2 emissions and registrations by fuel type (pp.8) SMMT reports 1,262 electric cars, 522 range extenders and 470 plug-in hybrids for a total of 2,254 PEVs sold in 2012.
- Richard Bremner (2012-11-06). "Twizy sells well, but EV sales disappoint Renault". AutoCar.com. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
- "State and Federal Incentives for EVs, PHEVs and Charge Stations". Plug In America. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- Paul Hudson (2010-02-28). "£5,000 grant to buy plug-in electric cars". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- "Ultra-low carbon cars: Next steps on delivering the £250 million consumer incentive programme for electric and plug-in hybrid cars". Department for Transport. July 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- Paul Hockenos (2011-07-29). "Europe’s Incentive Plans for Spurring E.V. Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- "Overview of Purchase and Tax Incentives for Electric Vehicles in the EU". European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2011-03-14. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- Michael H. Westbrook."The Electric and Hybrid Electric Car", The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2001, London & SAE, USA. ISBN 0-7680-0897-2
Further reading 
- Witkin, Jim. Building Better Batteries for Electric Cars, The New York Times, March 31, 2011, p. F4. Published online March 30, 2011. Discusses batteries and lithium ion battery.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Electric Vehicle Conversion/Technologies|
|Look up electric car in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020, International Energy Agency (IEA), April 2013
- NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries - Vehicle Owner/General Public
- NHTSA Interim Guidance Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Equipped with High Voltage Batteries - Law Enforcement/Emergency Medical Services/Fire Department
- NOW on PBS investigates if electric cars will bring a new global climate change plan
- Plugging In: A Consumer’s Guide to the Electric Vehicle by the Electric Power Research Institute.
- Shade's of Green - Electric Car's Carbon Emissions Around the Globe, Shrink that Footprint, February 2013.