Razor

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For other uses, see Razor (disambiguation).
Razor

A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the removal of unwanted body hair through the act of shaving. Kinds of razors include straight razors, Disposable razor and electric razors.

While the razor has been in existence since before the Bronze Age (the oldest razor like-object has been dated to 18,000 B.C.[1]), its modern counterpart was invented in the 18th century, and the 1930s saw the invention of electric razors. In the 21st century, the safety razor – electric or not – is most commonly used by both men and women, but other kinds still exist.[2]

History[edit]

Bronze razor.

Razors have been identified from many Bronze Age cultures. These were made of bronze or obsidian and were generally oval in shape, with a small tang protruding from one of the short ends.[3]

Various forms of razors were used throughout history, which are different in appearance but similar in use to modern straight razors. In prehistoric times clam shells, shark teeth, and flint were sharpened and used to shave with. Drawings of such blades were found in prehistoric caves. Some tribes still use blades made of flint to this day. Excavations in Egypt have unearthed solid gold and copper razors in tombs dating back to the 4th millennium BC. The Roman historian Livy reported that the razor was introduced in ancient Rome in the 6th century BC. by legendary king Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. Priscus was ahead of his time because razors did not come to general use until a century later.[4]

The first modern straight razor complete with decorated handles and hollow ground blades was constructed in Sheffield, in England, the centre of the cutlery industry, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Benjamin Huntsman produced the first superior hard steel grade, through a special crucible process, suitable for use as blade material in 1740, though it was first rejected in England. Huntsman's process was adopted by the French sometime later; albeit reluctantly at first because of nationalist sentiments. The English manufacturers were even more reluctant than the French to adopt the process and only did so after they saw its success in France.[4] Sheffield steel, a highly polished steel, also known as Sheffield silver steel and famous for its deep gloss finish, is considered a superior quality steel and is still used to this day in France by such manufacturers as Thiers Issard.[5]

Razor (top) and nail cutter with bone handle (bottom) found in a grave of the Hallstatt culture.

In the 18th and 19th centuries the wealthy had servants to shave them or could frequent barbershops. Daily shaving was not a widespread practice in the 19th century so some people never shaved. The custom of shaving every day among American men is a 20th-century innovation which was started after World War I. Men were required to shave daily so their gas masks would fit properly and this became much easier with the advent of the disposable safety razor which was standard issue during the war.[6] In the 19th century, cutlers in Sheffield, England and Solingen, Germany produced a variety of razors.

Razor made of bronze from the first Iron Age

Straight razors were the most common form of shaving before the 20th century and remained common in many countries until the 1950s.[2] Barbers were specially trained to give customers a thorough and quick shave, and a collection of straight razors ready for use was a common sight in most barbershops. Barbers still have them, but they use them less often.

Straight razors eventually fell out of fashion. Their first challenger was manufactured by King C. Gillette: a double-edged safety razor with replaceable blades. Gillette's idea was the use of the "loss leader" concept, in which the razors were sold at a loss, but the replacement blades earned a high margin and provided continuous sales. They were immensely successful because of advertising campaigns and slogans denigrating the straight razor's effectiveness and questioning its safety.

These new safety razors did not require any serious tutelage to use.[7] The blades were extremely hard to sharpen, and were meant to be thrown away after one use, and rusted quickly if not discarded. They also required a smaller initial investment, though they cost more over time. Despite its long-term advantages, the straight razor lost significant market share. And as shaving became less intimidating and men began to shave themselves more, the demand for barbers providing straight razor shaves decreased.[2]

Around 1960, stainless steel blades which could be used more than once became available, reducing the cost of safety-razor shaving. The first such blades were made by the Wilkinson firm, famous maker of ceremonial swords, in Sheffield. Soon Gillette, Schick, and other manufacturers were making stainless-steel blades.

These were followed by multiple-blade cartridges and disposable razors. For each type of replaceable blade, there is generally a disposable razor.

In the 1930s, electric razors became available. These can rival the cost of a good straight razor, although the whole straight-razor shaving kit can exceed the cost of even an expensive electric razor.

Straight razors[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Straight razor.
A straight razor manufactured by DOVO

Straight razors with open steel blades, also commonly known as cut-throats, were the most commonly used razors before the 20th century.

Straight razors consist of a blade sharpened on one edge. The blade can be made of either stainless steel, which is slower to hone and strop, and holds an edge longer, or high carbon steel, which hones and strops quickly, but has a less durable edge. At present, stainless-steel razors are harder to find than carbon steel, but both remain in production.

The blade rotates on a pin through its tang between two protective pieces called scales: when folded into the scales, the blade is protected from damage, and the user is protected. Handle scales are made of various materials, including mother-of-pearl, celluloid, bone, plastic and wood. Once made of ivory, this has been discontinued, although fossil ivory is used occasionally.

Disposable blade straight razors[edit]

These razors, sometimes referred to as shavettes, are similar in use and appearance to straight razors, but use disposable blades, either standard double edged or specially made single edge.

Disposable bladed straights are used in the same way as straight razors but do not require stropping and honing.

Although the blades of disposable razors wear quickly, useful blade life can be more than doubled with proper care, including drying the blade after use.[8][unreliable source?]

Safety razors[edit]

Main article: Safety razor
A modern double-edged safety razor.
Collection of modern cartridge razors

The first safety razor protected the skin from all but the very edge of the blade and was invented in 1762 by a Frenchman, Jean-Jacques Perret,[9] who was inspired by the joiner's plane. Perret's design was essentially a straight razor with its blade surrounded by a wooden sleeve. Around 1875 a new design with a smaller blade placed on top of a handle was marketed by the Kampfe Brothers[9] as "the best available shaving method on the market that won’t cut a user, like straight steel razors."

In 1901, the American inventor King Camp Gillette, with the assistance of William Nickerson, invented a safety razor with disposable blades. Gillette realized that a profit could be made by selling an inexpensive razor with disposable blades. This has been called the Razor and blades business model, and has become a very common practice for a wide variety of products.

Many other brands of safety razors have come and gone. Much of the competition was based on designing blades that would fit only one style of razor until the blade shape was more or less standardized.

There are also safety razors that are made of inexpensive materials that are meant to be wholly disposable. One device was invented in 1963 by American entertainer and inventor Paul Winchell.[10]

The term safety razor was first used in 1880[citation needed] and described a basic razor with a handle attached to a head where a removable blade may be placed. The edge was then protected by a comb patterned on the head which is used to protect the skin. In the more modern-day produced safety razors, the comb is now more commonly replaced by a safety bar. There are two types of safety razors, the single edged and the double-edged. The single-edged razor is essentially a 4 cm long segment of a straight razor. The double-edged safety razor is a razor with a slant bar that can be used on both sides, with two open edges. The blade on the double-edged safety razor is slightly curved to allow for a smoother and cleaner shave.

Electric razors[edit]

Foil-type cordless razor.
Rotary razor

The electric razor (also known as the electric dry shaver) has a rotating or oscillating blade. The electric razor usually does not require the use of shaving cream, soap, or water. The razor may be powered by a small DC motor, which is either powered by batteries or mains electricity. Many modern ones are powered using rechargeable batteries. Alternatively, an electro-mechanical oscillator driven by an AC-energized solenoid may be used. Some very early mechanical shavers had no electric motor and had to be powered by hand, for example by pulling a cord to drive a flywheel.

The first electric razor was patented in 1928 by the American manufacturer Col. Jacob Schick. The Remington Rand Corporation developed the electric razor further, first producing the Remington brand of razor in 1937. Another important inventor was Prof. Alexandre Horowitz, from Philips Laboratories in the Netherlands, who invented the very successful concept of the revolving (rotary) electric razor. It has a shaving head consisting of cutters that cut off the hair entering the head of the razor at skin level. The major manufacturers introduce new improvements to the hair cutting mechanism of their products each few years. Each manufacturer sells several different generations of cutting mechanism at the same time, and for each generation, several models with different features and accessories to reach various price points. The improvements to the cutting mechanisms tend to 'trickle-down' to lower priced models over time.

Early versions of electric razors were meant to be used on dry skin only. Many recent electric razors have been designed to allow for wet/dry use, which also allows them to be cleaned using running water or an included cleaning machine, reducing cleaning effort. Some patience is necessary when starting to use a razor of this type, as the skin usually takes some time to adjust to the way that the electric razor lifts and cuts the hairs. Moisturizers designed specifically for electric shaving are available.

Philips, Panasonic, Braun, Remington are some of the best selling electric razors in the market today. They are constantly coming up with new technology and products to appeal to their huge market worldwide.[11]

Battery-powered electric razors[edit]

The standard AA-size Ni-Cd battery (600 mAh) is soldered in place, deterring user replacement.

Since at least the mid-1960s,[12] battery operated electric razors have been available using rechargeable batteries sealed inside the razor's case, previously nickel cadmium or more recently nickel metal hydride. Some modern shavers use Lithium-ion batteries that do not suffer from memory effect. Sealed battery shavers either have built-in or external charging devices. Some shavers may be designed to plug directly into a wall outlet with a swing out or pop-up plug, or have a detachable AC cord. Other shavers have recharging base units which plug into an AC outlet, which provide DC power at the base contacts (eliminating the need for the AC to DC converter to be inside the razor, reducing the risk of electric shock).

Some models, generally marketed as "travel razors" (or "travel shavers"), use removable rechargeable or disposable batteries, usually size AA or AAA. This offers the option of purchasing batteries while traveling instead of carrying a charging device.

Other razors[edit]

A single-edge razor blade was manufactured prior to the advent of the double edge razor, for various applications where the blade is required to be hand-held. Single-edge blades are often a more rigid carbon steel and much thicker. They are used both for shaving and for carpentry for detailed work, sanding, and scraping (in a specialized holder), in mechanical drawing for paper cutting, in plumbing and finish work for grouting and cleaning, for removing paint from flat surfaces such as panes of glass, and in many other applications. There are two different grades of single-edge blades, those used for shaving, which are usually stainless steel with a very sharp edge, and industrial-grade blades used in tools, which are usually non-stainless steel and have a tougher but not as sharp edge. Both types are of the same form factor. Razors are also sometimes used in bread production to slash the surface of an unbaked loaf; in this usage, they are referred to using the French word lame.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). World History. Mc Graw Hill. p. 25. ISBN 0-07-860702-7. 
  2. ^ a b c Kids. ohiokids.org. Retrieved on 2012-09-14.
  3. ^ Warwichshire Country Council: New Prehistoric Archaeology Objects
    "Even further away in time, during the Bronze Age, we now have evidence of people taking care of their appearance. This leaf-shaped bronze razor was found near Bidford on Avon and is one of only a few of this type of Bronze Age razor to be found in this country."
  4. ^ a b razor. Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved on 2012-09-14.
  5. ^ Frequently Asked Questions Answered – Even Before You Ask Them Straight Razor or Safety Razor?. classicshaving.com Retrieved on 2012-09-14.
  6. ^ howstuffworks: Why Men Shave: "Even with these developments, however, men preferred beards. Beware may result in loss of ear(s). This may be because shaving with a straight razor is a somewhat dangerous activity better left to a professional. Unless you live in a city and are wealthy, being able to find and afford a shaving professional is difficult. And so, all the way up to the 20th century, beards were fashionable and most men wore them. But during World War I in the United States, that all changed. DO NOT give to children under the age of 22. And there were two reasons for that change:..."
  7. ^ Corey Greenberg (2005-01-30). How to get that perfect shave. msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-14.
  8. ^ "Extend the Life of Your Razor Blades". 
  9. ^ a b Waremakers. "Guide to Razors", retrieved on 28 March 2014.
  10. ^ Paul Winchell invented the first disposable razor.. Mickey News (2004-01-08). Retrieved on 2012-09-14.
  11. ^ Electric razor, Ratings. "Electric razor Ratings". Electric razor ratings. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Electric Shaver Museum. Pedewei.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved on 2012-09-14.