Electricity sector in Denmark
The electricity sector in Denmark relies on fossil energy and new renewable energy: wind power, biogas, biomass and waste. Danish average consumption of electricity pro person was 0.8 GWh less than EU 15 average in 2008. Denmark invested in the wind power development in the 1970s and has been the top wind power country of the world ever since. Danish consumption of wind electricity has been highest in the world pro person: 1,218 kWh in 2009. Denmark produced more wind power per person in 2009 than Spain or the UK produced nuclear power.
Danish electricity market is a part of the Nord Pool Spot power exchange.
According to Nordel annual statistics Denmark's total electricity consumption totaled 36,392 TWh in 2006. Consumption increased about 3% in the period from 2001 to 2006 (in the same time-frame Sweden saw a 3% reduction, Norway a 2% reduction and Finland a 10% increase).
As of 2009[update] Danish consumption of wind-generated electricity topped the world per person: 1,218 kWh. The renewable electricity-sources may give some protection against high annual changes. Electricity consumption fell in Denmark only 4% in the 2009-2008 recession (while falling 7.1% in Sweden, 7.9% in Finland and 8.6% in the UK; in Iceland consumption fell only 0.9%). Danish average consumption of electricity per person was 0.8 GWh less than the EU 15 average of 7.4 GW in 2008.
 Electricity pro person and by power source
|Electricity pro person in Denmark (kWh/ hab.) |
|Use||Production||Import/Export||Imp./Exp. %||Fossil||Nuclear||Nuc. %||Other RE*||Bio+waste||Wind||Non RE use*||RE %*|
|* Other RE is waterpower, solar and geothermal electricity and windpower until 2008
* Non RE use = use – production of renewable electricity
*RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: EU calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.
 Mode of production
The total installed power capacity was 12.5 GW in 2001 and in the end of 2006 12.7 GW including 9.5 GW thermal power and 3.1 GW wind power. Denmark has almost no hydropower. Current power system data are provided by Energinet.dk.
 Power stations
Main power producing companies operating in the Danish market are Dong Energy and Vattenfall. The current market structure was designed in 2003–2006 by a number of mergers and transactions. In January 2003, DONG acquires a 64% share in the regional power company EnergiGruppen Jylland, which owned 3.1% of the electricity producer Elsam. At the same year Elsam acquired 78.8% of retail sales operator NESA and later took a full control of the company. At the same time, NESA owned 36% in other electricity producer Energy E2. In 2004, EnergiGruppen Jylland increased its stake in Elsam to 24% and on 10 December 2004 DONG and Elsam announce announced their planned merger. DONG increased its stake in Elsam to 64.7% while Swedish power producer Vattenfall had acquired a blocking stake of 35.3%.
In 2005, DONG purchased municipal utilities Københavns Energi and Frederiksberg Forsyning, including their 34% and 2.26% stakes in Energi E2. In May 2005, DONG and Vattenfall agreed split of assets in Elsam and Energi E2. Vattefall received Amager Power Station, Fyn Power Station, Nordjylland Power Station, two decentralised gas-fired plants in Zealand, a portfolio of Danish and international wind activities, and a 30% stake in a German wind development for exchange of Vattenfall's 35% stake in Elsam and 40% stake in the Avedøre 2 Power Station. The agreement and merger of DONG, Elsam, NESA, Københavns Energi, and Frederiksberg Forsyning to form Dong Energy was approved by the European Commission in 2006 and consequently became in force on 2 July 2006.
|High voltage grid of Denmark|
Denmark has two separated transmission systems, of which the eastern one is synchronous with Nordic (former NORDEL) and the western one with the synchronous grid of Continental Europe. The Great Belt Power Link connecting two systems was commissioned only in July 2010 and started commercial operations in August 2010. It was inaugurated on 7 September 2010.
The Danish transmission system is owned and operated by Energinet.dk. Energinet.dk was created by a merger of power grid operators Eltra, Elkraft System and Elkraft Transmission, and by natural gas transmission system operator Gastra. The merger took place on 24 August 2005 with retrospective effect from 1 January 2005. Eltra and Elkraft were communally owned by the respective region's distribution companies. The high-voltage transmission assets were transferred to the Danish State and later to Energinet.dk at no cost. Since 1997, Elkraft and Eltra operated as fully unbundled companies from the power generating companies.
The Danish power grid is connected to Norway, Sweden and Germany having 2,510 MW and 2,870 MW of export and import capacities in 2007 respectively. The actual import and export capacities were typically 60% of the nominal capacities. Studies showed inefficient markets in 2006.
 See also
- Capacity for Competition, Investing for an Efficient Nordic Electricity Market Report, The Nordic competition authorities 1/2007; Capacity and electricity consumption page 58
- Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures 2009 and 2010 2009 T25 and 2010 T49
- Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source (kWh/person), Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23, 2007 T25, 2008 T26, 2009 T25 and 2010 T49.
- Shahan, Zachary. Denmark Aiming for 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 Clean Technica, 28 November 2011. Accessed: 29 November 2011.
- "Our milestones". Dong Energy. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Gellert, Bjarne Christian. Electricity interconnections Energinet.dk, 22 August 2011. Accessed: 6 December 2011.
- "The Queen plugged in the Great Belt Power Link" (Press release). Energinet.dk. 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- "History". Energinet.dk. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
- Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Denmark. 2006 Review (PDF). OECD/IEA. 2006. p. 25. ISBN 92-64-10971-4.
- Regulatory reform in Denmark. OECD. 2000. p. 267. ISBN 978-92-64-17665-2.