Electricity sector in Germany

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Main article: Energy in Germany
Electricity by source in 2014
Nuclear: 45 TWh (17.1%) Brown Coal: 69.7 TWh (26.5%) Hard Coal: 50.9 TWh (19.3%) Natural Gas: 16.6 TWh (6.3%) Wind: 26.7 TWh (10.1%) Solar: 18.3 TWh (7.0%) Biogas: 25.6 TWh (9.7%) Hydro: 10.5 TWh (4.0%)Circle frame.svg
  •   Nuclear: 45 TWh (17.1%)
  •   Brown Coal: 69.7 TWh (26.5%)
  •   Hard Coal: 50.9 TWh (19.3%)
  •   Natural Gas: 16.6 TWh (6.3%)
  •   Wind: 26.7 TWh (10.1%)
  •   Solar: 18.3 TWh (7.0%)
  •   Biogas: 25.6 TWh (9.7%)
  •   Hydro: 10.5 TWh (4.0%)
Generated electricity during the first six months of 2014 in terrawatt-hours[1]
Electricity production in the area of current Germany including former states, data from EIA

The electricity sector in Germany in the year 2013: fossil fuel power produced 57%, nuclear power produced 15.5% and renewable energy 24% (including wind + solar + hydro + biomass, geothermal power is negligible in Germany). Germany has defined a planned policy of phasing-out nuclear power by 2022. Comparing 2013 to 2003, nuclear power production has declined by 40%. Its share has declined from 27% to 15% of total power production, substituted with a rise in renewable electricity: wind power, biomass and solar power, while the use of fossil fuels declined from 62% to 57% over the same time and overall production increased by 5%.[2]

Consumption[edit]

Germany produced power per person in 2008 equal to EU15 average (EU15: 7,409 kWh/person) and 77% of the OECD average (8,991 kWh/person).[3]

Electricity trade in Germany[edit]

Germany, the largest exporter of electricity with 10% of the overall exports, reinforced its position as a net exporter by 20% during the year 2010[4]

Electricity per person and by power source[edit]

Electricity per person in Germany* (kWh/inhabitant)[3]
Use Production Export Exp. % Fossil Nuclear Nuc. % Other RE* Bio+waste Wind Non RE use* RE %
2004 7,445 7,476 32 0.4% 4,603 2,025 27.2% 654 194 6,597 11.4%
2005 7,468 7,523 55 0.7% 4,674 1,977 26.5% 670 201 6,597 11.7%
2006 7,528 7,727 199 2.6% 4,796 1,706 22.7% 856 369 6,303 16.3%
2008 7,450 7,693 243 3.3% 4,635 1,804 24.2% 873 381 6,196 16.8%
2009 7,051 7,200 149 2.1% 4,314 1,644 23.3% 288* 491 461* 5,811 17.6%
* This data for Germany is extracted from the international column of a Swedish report
* Other RE is waterpower, solar and geothermal electricity and wind power until 2008
* Non RE use = use – production of renewable electricity
* RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: European Union calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.

Mode of production[edit]

Gas powered Nossener Brücke station, Dresden

According to the IEA the gross production of electricity was 631 TWh in 2008 which gave the 7 th position among the world top producers in 2010. The top seven countries produced 59% of electricity in 2008. The top producers were: 1) United States 21.5% 2) China 17.1% 3) Japan 5.3% 4) Russia 5.1% 5) India 4.1% 6) Canada 3.2% and 7) Germany 3.1 %[5]

Coal[edit]

Power mix in 2008 included 291TWh coal (46% of total 631 TWh). Germany was in 4 th position for coal-produced power after China (2,733 TWh), USA (2,133 TWh) and India (569 TWh).[5]

Nuclear power[edit]

Germany has defined a firm active phase-out policy of nuclear power. Eight nuclear power plants were shut down after the Fukushima accident for ever. All nuclear power plants will be phased out by the end of 2022. According to BMU this is an opportunity for future generations.[6]

Siemens is the only significant nuclear constructor in Germany and nuclears share was 3% of their business in 2000.[7] In 2006 the large international bribes of Siemens in the energy and telecommunication business were revealed. The case was investigated e.g. in Nigeria, the United States, Greece and South Korea.[8]

The installed nuclear power capacity in Germany was 20 GW in 2008 and 21 GW in 2004. The production of nuclear power was 148 TWh in 2008 (6 th top by 5.4% of world total) and 167 TWh in 2004 (4 th top by 6.1% of world total).[5][9]

In 2009 compared to 2004 the nuclear power was produced 19% less and its share had declined smoothly with time from 27% units to 23% units. The share of renewable electricity increased substituting the nuclear power.[3]

Renewable electricity[edit]

Wind turbines in Baltic Sea in 2013. Germany aims to increase renewable electricity from 12 % in 2010 to 50 % in 2030. Both wind power and solar power will be increased.

Renewable electricity in 2010 was 101.7 TWh including wind power 36.5 TWh, biomass and biowaste 33.5 TWh, hydropower 19.7 TWh and photovoltage solar power 12.0 TWh.[10] In the first half of 2012, 25.1% of the German electricity demand was generated by renewable energies.[11]

According to the Öko-Institut the renewable electricity share could be increased from 6% in 2000 to 35% in 2020.[12] According to BMU the share was ca 16% in 2009. Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) provide the power connection and feed-in tariff (since 1991) for the renewable energy. The renewable electricity mix in 2009 included wind power 38 TWh, biomass 25 TWh, hydropower 19 TWh, photovoltage solar power 6 TWh and biowaste 5 TWh, According to BMU the share of renewable electricity increased 7% between 2009 and 2004 and 10% in 2000-2009.[13]

Wind power[edit]

Main wind power providers in Germany up to 2009 were Enercon 60%, Vestas 19% and REpower Systems 9%.[14]

Installed wind power in Germany was 27.214 GW at the end of 2010 and 25.777 GW at the end of 2009. The share of wind power in the end of 2010 was in average 9.4% of electricity need. This was 5 th top in Europe behind Denmark (24% of electricity), Spain (14.4%), Portugal(14%) and Ireland (10.1%).[14]

Grid[edit]

Grid owners included in 2008 RWE, EnBW, Vattenfall and E.ON. According to the European Commission the electricity producers should not own the electricity grid to ensure free electricity competition. The European Commission accused E.ON of the misuse of markets in February 2008. Consequently, E.ON sold its share of the grid network.[15]

In Germany, there exist also a single-phase AC grid operated with 16.7 Hz for power supply of railway lines, see List of installations for 15kV AC railway electrification in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Power stations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2014" (pdf). http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/ (in English). Fraunhofer Institute, Germany. 2014-04-21. p. 5. Archived from the original on 2014-07-22. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  2. ^ AGEB Energiebilanzen
  3. ^ a b c German numbers extracted from Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source (kWh/person), Source: IEA/OECD 2006 T23, 2007 T25, 2008 T26, 2009 T25 and 2010 T49.
  4. ^ .Germany Power Market, Enerdata Yearbook Publication 2011
  5. ^ a b c IEA Key stats 2010 pages electricity 27 gas 13,25 fossil 25 nuclear 17
  6. ^ The path to the energy of the future - safe, affordable and environmentally sound June 2011 BMU Germany
  7. ^ Climate Change and Nuclear Power WWF pages 21, 22
  8. ^ [Siemensin lahjusskandaali paisuu edelleen] yle 23.11.2006
  9. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2006
  10. ^ Renewable energy sources 2010 23 March 2011Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
  11. ^ http://www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/20120726-pi-erneuerbare-energien-liefern-mehr-als-ein-viertel-des-stroms-de/$file/Strom_Erneuerbaren_Energien_1_Halbjahr_2012.pdf Electricity - Renewable Energies in the first half of 2012
  12. ^ Climate Change and Nuclear Power WWF 2000 page 17
  13. ^ Development of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2009 - Graphics and tables BMU 18.3.2010 page10
  14. ^ a b Wind in power 2010 European statistics EWEA February 2011 pages 11, 17
  15. ^ Lehmänkaupat hämmentävät EU:n energianeuvotteluja, Helsingin Sanomat 1.3.2008 B11