Electricity sector in Pakistan
Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 20 independent power producers that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.
For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Pakistan's electricity producers are now seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors which indicates it to be one of the key unresolved issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country faces growing shortages.
As of 2013 massive long-standing electricity shortages continued with long-standing failure to provide reliable service and rampant corruption being met by public protests, unauthorized connections, and refusal by consumers to pay for intermittent service. Electricity generation in Pakistan has shrunk by up to 50% in recent years due to an over-reliance on fossil fuels. In 2008, availability of power in Pakistan falls short of the population's needs by 15% Pakistan was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007 when production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. Load Shedding and power blackouts have become severe in Pakistan in recent years. The main problem with Pakistan's poor power generation is rising political instability, together with rising demands for power and lack of efficiency. Provincial and federal agencies, who are the largest consumers, often do not pay their bills. China, India, Central Asia, and Iran have been offering to export electricity to Pakistan at subsidized rates but the government of Pakistan has not yet responded to the offers for unknown reasons.
- Electricity – total installed capacity: 21,103 MW (2012)
- Electricity – Sources (2013)
- fossil fuel – 13,637 MW – 65% of total
- hydro – 6,654 MW – 31% of total
- nuclear – 812 MW – 4% of total
There are four major power producers in country: WAPDA (Water & Power Development Authority), KESC (Karachi Electric Supply Company), IPPs (Independent Power Producers) and PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission).
The break-up of the installed capacity of each of these power producers (as of Jan-2012) is as follows:
- Tarbela 3478 MW
- Mangla 1000 MW
- Ghazi – Barotha 1450 MW
- Warsak 243 MW
- Chashma 184 MW
- Dargai 20 MW
- Rasul 22 MW
- Shadi-Waal 18 MW
- Nandi pur 14 MW
- Kurram Garhi 4 MW
- Renala 1 MW
- Chitral 1 MW
- Jagran (AK) 30 MW
- Khankhwar 72 MW
- AllaiKhwar 121 MW
- Total Hydel 6,654 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, Shahdra 59 MW
- Steam Power Station, Faisalabad 132 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, Faisalabad 244 MW
- Gas Power Station, Multan 195 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Muzaffargarh 1350 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Guddu 1655 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, Kotri 174 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Jamshoro 850 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Larkana 150 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Quetta 35 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, Panjgur 39 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Pasni 17 MW
- Total Thermal 4811 MW
WAPDA’s total hydel and thermal capacity is 11,272 MW. Hydel electricity generated by WAPDA varies between two extremities, i.e., between minimum of 2,414 MW and maximum of 6,761 MW depending upon the river flow.
Karachi Electric Supply Company
- Thermal Power Station, Korangi 316 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, Korangi 80 MW
- Gas Turbine Power Station, SITE 100 MW
- Thermal Power Station, Bin Qasim 1260 MW
KESC total generation capacity is 1756 MW.
Independent Power Producers (IPPs)
- Hub Power Project 1292 MW
- AES Lalpir Ltd, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 362 MW
- AES Pak Gen, Mahmood Kot Muzaffargar 365 MW
- Altern Energy Ltd, Attock 29 MW
- Fauji Kabirwala Power Company, Khanewal 157 MW
- Gul Ahmad Energy Ltd, Korangi 136 MW
- Habibullah Coastal Power Limited 140 MW
- Japan Power Generation, Lahore 120 MW
- Kohenoor Energy Limited, Lahore 131 MW
- Liberty Power Limited, Ghotki 232 MW
- Rousch Power, Khanewal 412 MW
- Saba Power Company, Sheikhupura 114 MW
- Southern Electric Power Company Limited, Raiwind 110 MW
- Tapal Energy Limited, Karachi 126 MW
- Uch Power Limited, Dera Murad Jamali, Nasirabad 586 MW
- Attock Gen Limited, Morgah Rawalpindi 165 MW
- Atlas Power, Sheikhupura 225 MW
- Engro Energy Limited, Karachi —– MW
- Kot Addu Power Company Limited (Privatized) 1638 MW
- Saif Power Plant Qadirabad, Sahiwal 225 MW
- Sitara Energy 80 MW
- Nishat Chunian Power 200 MW
- Nishat Power Limited 200 MW
Total generation capacity of IPPs is 7070 MW.
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
- KANUPP 137 MW
- CHASNUPP-1 325 MW
- CHASNUPP-2 340 MW
- KHUSHAB 50 MW
Total electricity generated from PAEC is 852 MW.
The total power generation capacity of Pakistan is 21,143 MW and the electricity demand (as of April 2010) is 14,500 MW and PEPCO is merely generating 10,000 MW.
- Electricity – production: 88.42 TWh (2005)
- Electricity – production by source (2003)
- fossil fuel: 65% of total
- hydro: 31% of total
- nuclear: 4% of total
- Electricity – consumption: 74.62 TWh (2004)
- Electricity – exports: 0%
- Electricity – imports: 0%
- Electricity Consumption per Capita = 430.183 kWh/capita (2006)
Effects of natural and man-made disasters
During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the floods and rainfalls the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, since the plant lies over a geological fault. Due to over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation, some environmental impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact on Pakistan's mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of severe floods have become evident.
- List of power stations in Pakistan
- List of electric supply companies in Pakistan
- Water and Power Development Authority
- Economy of Pakistan
- Private Power and Infrastructure Board
- Pakistan Electric Power Company
- Alternative Energy Development Board
- National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
- Karachi Electric Supply Company
- Pakistan national energy policy
- Rolling blackout
- Jhimpir Wind Power Plant
- Power Sector in Pakistan[dead link]
- "Research Report on Electricity Shortage in Pakistan (Research Methodology)". Scribd.com. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Declan Walsh (May 18, 2013). "Pakistan, Rusting in Its Tracks". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2013. "natural disasters and entrenched insurgencies, abject poverty and feudal kleptocrats, and an economy near meltdown"
- Declan Walsh; Salman Masood (May 27, 2013). "Pakistan Faces Struggle to Keep Its Lights On". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Pakistan’s Ongoing Electricity Shortage". Energy Tribune. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "More Crises in Pakistan: Electricity, Flour, Sugar, Water, Sui Gas Crises – What is the way out? : ALL THINGS PAKISTAN". Pakistaniat.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Power Politics:Pakistan's energy crisis The Economist, 21 May 2012
- "Iran Offers To Export Electricity to Pakistan & India At Subsidised Prices. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Iran offers Pakistan electricity at much lower than RPP rates". GEO.tv. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Renewable Energy Sector[dead link]
- Consumption (per capita) (most recent) by country">"lectricity > Consumption (per capita) (most recent) by country". NationMaster.com. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "Asia Times: Pakistan's nuclear program built on shifting sands". Atimes.com. 23 December 1999. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Archive | Your Source of News on the World Wide Web". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- chandru. "Chashma Power Plant: Chansnupp will continue to be accident prone". Southasiaanalysis.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "The Citizen's Trust". Thecitizenstrust.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Fresh flood warnings issued". PakTribune. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Output After Demand Declines". Businessweek. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Downpours hamper Pakistan flood relief for 15 million – Detail News : Nepal News Portal". The Himalayan Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Anis, Khurrum (11 August 2010). "Pakistan Cuts Qadirpur Gas Field Production After Floods, Reduced Demand". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Kapco power plant may shut down on flood concerns | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Author. "Middle East Report Online | Middle East Research and Information Project". Merip.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- "US bombs flood-devastated Pakistan". Mwcnews.net. 14 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Robert M. Hathaway, editor, and Michael Kugelman, editor, Powering Pakistan, Oxford University Press, USA (January 15, 2010), hardcover, 216 pages ISBN 978-0195476262