Electricity sector in Russia

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Main article: Energy in Russia

The electricity sector in Russia describes electricity in Russia. In the year 2008 electricity as gross production was produced with gas 48%, coal and peat 19%, hydro electricity 16% and nuclear power 16%.

History[edit]

The electric power industry has been a state monopoly since Soviet times. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Unified Energy System of Russia RAO UES was founded as state-owned (50%) company. From 1992-2008 it was the largest electric power holding company. After power outages such as the one in Moscow 2005, privatization started in 2006. RAO UES merged into UES FGC in 2008, besides spinning off more than 2 dozen companies. Price increase followed, 3-4 times the margin set by regulatory authorities.[1] In November 2011, then prime minister Vladimir Putin tasked the Ministry for Economic Development (Russia), the Ministry of Energy (Russia) and the 'Federal Tariffs Service' to draft a government resolution restricting the profitability of electric utilities. This "restricted the ability of electric utilities to make money from providing services other than supplying electricity"[1] As of 2013, Russia had no wholesale electricity market. The Ministry for Energy of Russia, concerned with price increases envisions a wholesale market under bi-lateral contracts between consumers and specific power plants. Inter RAO and Gazprom Energy Holding were lobbying for a different one.[1]

Consumption[edit]

Power end use (TWh and %)[2]
Russia World Russia %
1990 827 9,708 8.5%
1995 618 10,859 5.7%
2000 609 12,665 4.8%
2004 646 14,415 4.4%
2005 650 15,064 4.3%
2006 682 15,712 4.3%
2007 701 16,487 4.3%
2008 726 16,819 4.3%
Note: Gross use of electricity 2008: Russia 1,038 TWh, the world 20,181 TWh

In 2008 the end use of electricity was 4.3% (726 TWh) of the world total (16,819 TWh).[2] In 2008 the gross production of electricity was 5.1% (1,038 TWh) of the world total (20,181 TWh).[3]

Mode of production[edit]

Gross production of electricity by power source in Russia (TWh)[3][4]
Production Export Gas Coal/Peat Nuclear Hydro
2004 930 20 421 161 145 176
2008 1,038 18 495 197 163 167
2008 47.7% 19% 15.7% 16.1%
Note: The end use (2008) Russia 726 TWh.

According to the IEA the Russian gross production of electricity was 1,038 TWh in 2008 and 930 TWh in 2004 giving the 4 th top position among the world producers in 2008. Top ten countries produced 67 % of electricity in 2008. The top producers were: 1) United States 21.5% 2) China 17.1% 3) Japan 5.3% 4) Russia 5.1% 5) India 4.1% 6) Canada 3.2% 7) Germany 3.1% 8) France 2.8% 9) Brazil 2.3% and 10) South Korea 2.2%. The rest of the world produced 33%.[3][4]

Gas[edit]

The share of natural gas fuelled electricity was 48% of the gross electricity production in 2008 in Russia (495 TWh / 1,038 TWh.[3]

Coal and peat[edit]

The share of coal and peat electricity was 19% of the gross electricity production in 2008 in Russia (187 TWh / 1,038 TWh).[3]

Nuclear power[edit]

In 2008 Russian federation was 4 th top in the nuclear electricity production with 163 TWh (6% of the world total). According to the IEA 15.7% of Russian domestic electricity was generated by nuclear power in 2008. The top producers were the United States 838 TWh, second France 439 TWh and third Japan 258 TWh followed by Russia 163 TWh, South Korea 151 TWh, Germany 148 TWh, Canada 94 TWh, Ukraine 90 TWh, China 68 TWh, Sweden 64 TWh.[3]

In 2009 Russia had in total 31 nuclear reactors [5] and installed capacity in 2008 23 GW.[3]

Nuclear reactor construction and export[edit]

In 2006 Russia had exported nuclear reactors to Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Lithuania, Slovak Republic and Ukraine. In Russia, the average construction time was in 1) 1965-1976 57 months and 2) 1977-1993 72–89 months, but the four plants that have been completed since then have taken around 180 months (15 years), due to increased opposition following the Chernobyl accident and the political changes after 1992.[6]

Hydro power[edit]

In 2008 hydroelectricy was produced 167 TWh with 47 GW capacity. Russia had 5 th top position and 5.1% production of the world total hydro electricity. The top producers were 1) China 585 TWh, 2) Canada 383 TWh 3) Brazil 370 TWh 4) United States 282 TWh. The use of other renewable sources for electricity in 2008 was not significant in Russian Federation according to the statistics of IEA in terms of electricity volume in 2008.[3]

Power stations[edit]

Kyoto carbon allowances[edit]

The revenues from Kyoto allowances via Joint Implementation projects sales can be significant – in the billions of euros in the cases of Russia. If a number of (relatively strict) criteria were filled JI projects could be implemented during the Kyoto protocol agreement, for which no international third-party checking or UN approval was needed. According to Transparency International a lack of regulation in carbon trading poses the risk of fraud. In 2009 it was not in all cases clear which government organisations had the authority to sell the surplus and how transparently and accountably such transfers of public wealth were carried out.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Larisa Makeeva; Elena Kudryavtseva (June 2013). "The Russian electric power industry: still in transition". Russian Survey. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures 2010, The Swedish Energy Agency Table 58 (Source IEA)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h IEA Key stats 2010 pages electricity 27 gas 13,25 fossil 25 nuclear 17
  4. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2006
  5. ^ Al Gore Our Choice, A plan to solve the climate crises, Bloomsbury 2009 pages 156, 159
  6. ^ The Economics of Nuclear Power Greenpeace 5.12.2007
  7. ^ Global Corruption Report 2009, Corruption and the Private Sector Transparency International 2009 page 45