Electro-Motive Diesel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc.
Type Private (subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation)
Industry Railroad
Power Generation
Predecessor(s) Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation
Founded Cleveland, Ohio, United States (August 31, 1922 (1922-08-31))
Founder(s) Harold L. Hamilton
Paul Turner
Headquarters La Grange, Illinois[note 1], United States of America
Products Locomotives
Diesel engines
OEM parts
Services Locomotive maintenance
Locomotive management
Training
Owner(s) Caterpillar Inc.
Employees 3260 (2008)
Parent Progress Rail Services Corporation
Website www.emdiesels.com

Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., also referred to as "EMD", is owned by Caterpillar through its wholly owned subsidiary Progress Rail Services Corporation. The company designs, manufactures and sells diesel-electric locomotives and diesel power engines under the Electro-Motive Diesel brand.[2] EMD offers an extensive range of locomotive products in the rail industry.[3]

Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. traces its roots to the Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation, founded in 1922. In 1930, General Motors Corporation purchased the Winton Engine Co. and Winton's primary customer of gasoline engines, the Electro-Motive Company (a gasoline-electric car manufacturer), combining the two to form GM's Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941.

In 2005, GM sold EMD to Greenbriar Equity Group LLC and Berkshire Partners LLC, which formed Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., to facilitate the purchase. On August 2, 2010, Progress Rail Services Corporation completed the purchase of Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire, et al. making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation.

EMD's headquarters, engineering facilities and parts manufacturing operations are physically located in McCook, Illinois.[note 1] EMD's final assembly operations were located in London, Ontario, Canada, until the plant's closure in February 2012; a new assembly site was opened in late 2011 in Muncie, Indiana. EMD operates a traction motor maintenance, rebuild and overhaul facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

As of 2008, EMD employed approximately 3,260 people.[4] In 2010 EMD held approximately 30 percent of the market for diesel-electric locomotives in North America.[5]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner founded the Electro-Motive Engineering Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1922, soon renaming it to Electro-Motive Company (EMC).[6][7] In 1923, EMC sold two gasoline-powered rail motor cars, one to the Chicago Great Western and the other to the Northern Pacific. EMC subcontracted the body construction to St. Louis Car Company and the prime mover to Winton Engine Company. The motorcars were delivered in 1924 and worked well, fortunate for the fledgling company, because the sales were conditional on satisfactory performance. In 1925, EMC entered full-scale production, selling 27 railcars.

Harold L. Hamilton was one of the original pioneers of the internal-combustion locomotive industry. Starting his railroading career as a fireman on the Southern Pacific Railroad, he became a locomotive engineer on passenger and freight trains. He eventually became a manager with the Florida East Coast Railway. On leaving railroading for an automotive marketing position in Denver, Hamilton, aware of early electric propulsion experiments, the needs of railroads, and his most recent exposure to heavy vehicles, recognized and integrated the idea of more efficient (over steam) internal combustion power with railroading. Financing himself, he quit his truck sales position, set up shop in a hotel with his partner and a designer, and created a product in 1923 that eventually became the successful version of diesel-electric railway propulsion.

In 1930 General Motors (GM), seeing the opportunity to develop the diesel engine, purchased the Winton Engine Company, and after checking the Winton Engine Company's books, decided to purchase its primary customer, EMC, which GM soon renamed to Electro-Motive Corporation (EMC).[6][7][8] Advancing from railcars, EMC began building multi-car diesel streamliners for the Union Pacific Railroad, among others. By 1935, GM felt confident enough to invest in a new factory on 55th Street in McCook, Illinois, west of Chicago, which remains the corporate headquarters.[9][note 1] By the end of the 1930s, EMC had a diesel engine powerful and reliable enough for locomotive use.

The 567, named for its displacement-per-cylinder of 567 in³ (bore 8½ inches, stroke 10 inches), was a two-cycle (or two-stroke) Roots-blown, Uniflow-scavenged, Unit-injected engine with overhead camshafts and four exhaust valves per cylinder. It was built as a V-6, V-8, V-12 and V-16. Charles F. Kettering and the General Motors Research Corporation were in charge of its development. The technology was first used in passenger locomotives, but EMC's eye was on freight service. Passenger trains made little money for the railroads, but replacement of steam engines with reliable diesel units could help railroads save money in a money-losing service. It also gave EMC experience and future contacts for capturing the ultimate prize: freight service.

The company built a four-unit freight locomotive demonstrator, the EMD FT, and began a tour of the continent's railroads. The tour was a success. Western railroads, in particular, saw that the diesels could free them from dependence on scarce water supplies for steam locomotives. By 1940 EMC was producing a locomotive a day, with 600 in service.

General Motors merged EMC and part of Winton Engine to create the Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941. All GM locomotives built prior to 1941 were built by EMC.[8] Winton's nonlocomotive products (large submarine, marine, and stationary diesel engines) continued under the title of the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division for another twenty years.

1940-60[edit]

Burlington Northern EMD F3

World War II temporarily slowed EMD locomotive production; the diesel engines were instead required in Navy ships, but in 1943, locomotive production regained momentum. More locomotives were needed to haul wartime supplies. The war was, in the end, a godsend for EMD. It was allowed to continue to develop and sell the diesel freight locomotive. Its competitors, principally the American Locomotive Company (Alco) and the Baldwin Locomotive Works, were allowed minimal developmental work with diesel road locomotives. They were ordered to produce mainly diesel switchers and steam locomotives to pre-existing designs as fast as possible. This delayed EMD's competition and dealt them a fatal blow. By the end of the war, EMD's diesel production was in full swing, with new passenger EMD E-units and the new improved freight locomotive the EMD F3 following in late 1946. Baldwin Locomotive was crippled by its incorrect belief that people desired travel on trains pulled by steam locomotives. To meet post-war demands, EMD opened another locomotive production facility in 1948 at Cleveland, Ohio.

By the early 1950s, the majority of American railroads had decided to transition from steam to diesel power, known as dieselization. While other builders had entered the diesel locomotive field, whether old steam builders like Baldwin, Alco and Lima, or newer competitors like Fairbanks-Morse (also a producer of Navy diesels in the war), EMD's extra years of experience told. Most railroads ordered a few units from several builders in their first, trial purchase, but the second, volume order usually went to EMD. Most of these were sales of its freight F-Unit platform. The economic arguments for diesel passenger power over steam were a bit shakier than those for freight service, but it hardly mattered— passenger service was more a matter of rolling advertisements and publicity machines than actual profit by this late date.

EMD GP7 (left) and E9A (right)

In 1949, EMD opened a new plant in London, Ontario, Canada, which was operated by subsidiary General Motors Diesel (GMD), producing existing EMD as well as unique GMD designs for the Canadian domestic and export markets. That same year, EMD introduced a new, revolutionary locomotive, the EMD GP7. Called a road switcher type, its design was that of an expanded diesel switcher, with the diesel engine, main generator and other equipment in a covered, but easily removed, hood (thus the other name for these locomotives, hood units). This hood being narrower than the locomotive, the crew had visibility in both directions from a cab placed near one end. The structural strength in the road-switcher was in the frame, rather than in a carbody as in earlier locomotives. The maintenance ease of this new type of locomotive won over the railroads quickly. Nearly all locomotives produced in the United States for domestic use since the 1960s have been hood units.[10][11][12]

EMD's competition was unable to keep pace. Lima failed first, merging with Baldwin and engine builder Hamilton in Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton, but the Baldwin-led company did not endure. Fairbanks-Morse, after producing a series of innovative locomotives that sold poorly, left the locomotive field (the company remains in business, in its original markets). Then, only Alco remained, aided by the industrial might of General Electric, which manufactured the electrical gear used in Alco diesel-electric locomotives. GE entered the locomotive market in the early 1950s with the introduction of gas turbine-electric locomotives. By 1956 GE was marketing its own line of diesel-electrics in its Universal series as export locomotives. The U25B started GE's domestic line of diesel-electric road locomotives.[13][14]

The 567 engine was continuously improved and upgraded. The original six-cylinder 567 produced 600 hp (450 kW), the V-12 1,000 hp (750 kW), and the V-16 1,350 hp (1,010 kW). EMD began turbocharging the 567 around 1958; the final version, the 567D3A (built from October, 1963, to about January, 1966) produced 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) in its V-16 form.[15]

1960–1985[edit]

EMD SD40-2

In late 1965, EMD introduced the enlarged 645 engine. Power ratings were 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-12 nonturbocharged, 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) V-12 turbocharged, 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) V-16 nonturbocharged, and 3,000 hp (2,200 kW) V-16 turbocharged. In late 1965 EMD built their first twenty cylinder engine, a turbocharged 3,600 hp (2,700 kW) V20 for the EMD SD45. The final variant of the sixteen cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 hp (2,600 kW).[15]

In 1972, EMD introduced modular control systems with the Dash-2 line; the EMD SD40-2 became one of the most successful diesel locomotive designs in history. A total of 3,945 SD40-2 units were built; if the earlier SD40 class locomotives are included, the total increases to 5,752 units.[16][17][18]

EMD introduced their new 710 engine in 1984 with the 60 Series locomotives (EMD SD60 and EMD GP60), the EMD 645 engine continued to be offered in certain models (such as the 50 Series) until 1988. The 710 is produced as an eight-, twelve-, sixteen-, and twenty-cylinder engine for locomotive, marine and stationary applications. Concurrently with the introduction of the 710, EMD's control systems on locomotives changed to microprocessors, with computer-controlled wheel slip prevention, among other systems.[19][20]

1985–2000[edit]

EMD SD70MAC

After the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 1989, EMD decided to consolidate all locomotive production at the GMD plant in London, Ontario, a development which ended locomotive production at the La Grange, Illinois plant in 1991,[note 1] although the Illinois facility continued to produce engines and generators.[citation needed] EMD's North American market share dropped below that of its main competitor General Electric in the 1980s.[1][21]

In the late 1980s and 1990s EMD introduced AC induction motor drive in EMD locomotives using Siemens technology.[22] In the early 1990s, EMD introduced the radial steering truck, which reduced wheel and track wear. In the 1990s, locomotive power increased to 6,000 hp (4,500 kW) from a single, sixteen-cylinder 265H prime mover in the EMD SD90MAC-H locomotive.

In 1998, EMD introduced the four-stroke 265H-Engine. Instead of completely replacing the 710 series engine, the H-engine continues to be concurrently produced alongside EMD's two stroke engines, although mainly for export. Post-1995 710 engines have electronically controlled unit injectors (EUIs) in the same position and space as the former (1938–1995) unit injectors (UIs).

In 1999, Union Pacific placed the largest single order for diesel locomotives in North American railroad history when they ordered 1,000 units of the EMD SD70M. Union Pacific's fleet of SD70Ms has since been expanded by more than 450 additional units. In addition, Union Pacific also owns nearly 500 EMD SD70ACe's, a number of which have been painted in "Fallen Flags" (acquired/merged railroads) commemorative liveries. All of these locomotives are 710G-powered.

2000-present[edit]

EMD SD70M-2

The year 2004 saw CSX Transportation take order of the first SD70ACe locomotives, which were claimed[who?] to be more reliable, fuel efficient, and maintainable than its predecessor AC locomotive, the SD70MAC. The model also met the EPA Tier 2 emission requirements using the two-stroke 710 diesel engine.

In 2005, Norfolk Southern took the first delivery of the new SD70M-2, the successor of the older SD70M locomotive. Like its sister locomotive, the SD70ACe, the SD70M-2 meets the EPA Tier 2 requirements and uses the same engine. EMD is certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004.[23]

In June 2004, The Wall Street Journal published an article indicating EMD was being put up for sale. On January 11, 2005, Reuters published a story indicating a sale to "two private U.S. equity groups" was likely to be announced "this week". Confirmation came the following day, with a press release issued by General Motors, stating it had agreed to sell EMD to a partnership led by Greenbriar Equity Group LLC and Berkshire Partners LLC. The newly spun-off company was called Electro-Motive Diesel, Incorporated, retaining the EMD name. The sale closed on April 4, 2005.[24]

On June 1, 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it had agreed to buy Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire et al. for $820 million. Caterpillar's wholly owned subsidiary, Progress Rail Services Corporation, completed the transaction on August 2, 2010, making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation.[3] Although Caterpillar announced that John S. Hamilton would continue in his roles of president and CEO of EMD after the close of the transaction, Mr. Hamilton left EMD for unspecified reasons in late August 2010.[25]

Manufacturing and assembly facilities[edit]

EMD currently maintains major facilities in McCook, Illinois,[note 1] and Muncie, Indiana in the United States, Sete Lagoas, Brazil and San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The company operated a manufacturing facility in London, Ontario, Canada until its closure in 2012.

EMD La Grange (McCook)[edit]

Postcard depiction of the plant circa late 1930s.
(Denver Zephyr train inset top left)

Since its ground breaking in 1935, the La Grange facility has been the headquarters for EMD. In addition to the corporation's administrative offices, La Grange houses design engineering, emissions testing, rebuild operations, and manufacturing of major components, including prime mover engines, traction alternators, electrical cabinets, and turbochargers. The La Grange facility includes three main buildings, with over 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space. Ancillary buildings are used to provide maintenance and testing capabilities. EMD La Grange is ISO 9001:2008 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.

EMD London[edit]

The EMD London plant opened in 1950 as part of General Motors Diesel Division (GMDD) to produce locomotives. The facility was at times used to produce a variety of products in the General Motors family, including transit buses, and military vehicles.[26] Situated on a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site, the EMD London facility included two main buildings and multiple ancillary buildings with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space, as well as a locomotive test track. London was the primary site for the assembly, painting and testing of EMD locomotives. The facility also manufactured components, such as locomotive underframes, traction motors, truck assemblies, and locomotive equipment racks. EMD London was ISO 9001:2000 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.

EMD London's Canadian location was useful for General Motors' when attempting to procure Canadian federal contracts.[26]

In January 2012, 450 Canadian Auto Workers union workers were locked out of the EMD London facility, after refusing to ratify EMD's proposed new contract which included a pay cut of 50% for some workers - labour costs at the Canadian plant were much greater than in some of the company's US plants. In February 2012 Progress Rail announced the closure of the plant; Caterpillar's actions were criticised in Canada; the company stated it would relocate production to other sites in North and South America, including the un-unionised plant in Muncie.[27][28][29][30] At the time of closure the plant employed approximately 775 people directly.[31]

EMD San Luis Potosí[edit]

On April 14, 2010, Electro-Motive opened a facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico for the maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul of traction motors and other electrical equipment.[32]

EMD Muncie[edit]

In October 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it is investing US$50 million to acquire and to renovate an existing 740,000-square-foot (69,000 m2) building for assembly of EMD branded locomotives and to build a locomotive test track on a 75-acre (0.30 km2) site located in Muncie, Indiana. The Muncie facility allows EMD to supply locomotives to publicly funded passenger rail agencies that require their rail equipment to be assembled in the United States. (see Buy America Act (1983).)[33][34]

On July 25, 2011, it was announced that production at the facility was planned to begin by the end of the year, with 125 workers having been hired and plans to add more.[35] On October 28, the plant was officially opened,[36] and the first locomotive produced at the plant, a Ferromex SD70ACe #4092, was rolled out.[37]

Subcontractors and licensees[edit]

Victorian Railways S class (EMD A7) locomotive, built by Australian licensee Clyde Engineering

The company also entered into subcontracting and licensing arrangements, both for whole locomotives, and diesel and electrical drivetrains (genset plus traction motors and control electronics)

In Europe licensees included Henschel (Germany), 1950s-80s which manufactured locomotives for export to African, South Asian, and Scandinavian counties as well as Austria;[38][39] NOHAB (Sweden), 1950s-70s,[38][40] and after NOHAB's closure Kalmar Verkstad (KVAB) (Sweden), 1980s.[40] When the KVAB and Henschel factories were acquired by ABB Group in 1990 EMD-license manufacture ended.[40]

In Belgium EMD-engined locomotives were manufactured by Société Anglo-Franco-Belge, and then by La Brugeoise et Nivelles in the 1950s and 60s.[41][42]

In Spain MACOSA and its successors assembled and manufactured EMD locomotives including standard EMD export designs as well as variants for the domestic market,[43] as of 2011 EMD-engined diesels are still manufactured in Spain as the Vossloh Euro series.

Đuro Đaković of Croatia (Yugoslavia) also held a license from EMD and manufactured locomotives for the Yugoslav Railways.[44]

By 2000 EMD had produced with its collaborators around 300 locomotives using EMD technology in Scandinavia, 500 in western Europe, and 400 in eastern Europe.[45] Approximately 75% of EMD's European locomotives sold by 2000 were license built in Europe.[45] The company also entered into a collaboration (early 2000s) with Lyudinovsky Locomotive Plant (Russia) (Людиновский тепловозостроительный завод), (now part of Sinara Group) creating a single-body eight axle 3MW (Bo'Bo')'(Bo'Bo')' diesel locomotive ТЭРА1, powered by an EMD 710 16-cylinder engine.[45][46] In the early 2010s the company began a collaboration with Croatian rolling stock company TŽV Gredelj.[47]

Locomotives were also assembled by General Motors Industria Argentina, General Motors South African (Pty) Ltd, and under license by Delta Motor Corporation (South Africa), Equipamentos Villares S.A. (Brazil), and Hyundai (Korea).[48] Bombardier Transportation has also acted as subcontrator, manufacturing units at its plant in Sahagun, Mexico since 1998; with over one-thousand locomotives completed by 2007. The manufacturing agreement continued under Progress Rail ownership.[49]

In Australia Clyde Engineering used EMD components in locally manufactured locomotives beginning in the 1950s,[50] the company was succeeded by Downer Rail (EDI rail division).[51]

In India the Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) has manufactured EMD designs since the late 1990s.[52] In 2010 EMD announced its intention to establish its own manufacturing facility in India, potentially in Bihar through a PPP project with the state government, or in Uttar Pradesh.[53] As of 2011 EMD's cooperative development association with Indian Railways is ongoing.[54]

In China CNR Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Company has manufactured the EMD-designed units China Railways HXN3 (JT56ACe) since 2008.[55]

In 2012 the EMD formed a joint venture with Barloworld, Electro-Motive Diesel Africa (Proprietary) Limited, to supply locomotive and rail related products to the sub-saharan African market.[56] In September 2012, EMD also signed a deal with Bombardier Transportation; Bombardier's factory in Savli, in India, would assemble EMD products for Asian customers.[57]

Maintenance and support facilities[edit]

EMD also provides maintenance services, technical support, parts inventory, and sales and marketing services from many other locations spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, Switzerland, Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.

Engines[edit]

EMD has produced the following series of engines:

  • EMD 567 — no longer in production; 567AC, 567BC, 567C, 567D and "567E" engines may be retrofitted with 645 Power assemblies and other major components, mainly for so-called "life-extension" programs; 567E engines are actually 645E blocks which were originally manufactured with 567 power assemblies
  • EMD 645 — "E- and F-Engines"; currently in production by request; most 645 major assemblies remain in new production for replacement purposes
  • EMD 710 — "G-Engine"; currently in production; unit injectors on pre-1995 engines, electronically-controlled unit injectors on post-1995 engines
  • EMD 265 — "H-Engine"; currently in production, but there have been very few domestic orders in recent years, and most existing 265-powered locomotives in North America have been removed from service and have been scrapped after removing all reusable subsystems and components, possibly for resale overseas

Reporting marks[edit]

The following reporting marks are listed for rolling stock:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Paul D. Schneider (May 1, 2006), "Who built the diesels", trn.trains.com 
  2. ^ "EMD - Company - Company Overview - About Electro-Motive Diesel". www.emdiesel.com. Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20. 
  3. ^ a b "Progress Rail Services Finalizes Electro-Motive Diesel Acquisition" (PDF). www.cat.com (Press release). Caterpillar Inc. 2010-08-02. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20. 
  4. ^ "Company profile from Hoover's - Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc.". www.hoovers.com. Hoovers, Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. "2008 Employees 3,260" 
  5. ^ Tita, Bob (2010-06-04). "Caterpillar expected to make Electro-Motive more competitive". www.ble-t.org. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Archived from the original on 2010-10-29. "Hamilton said Electro-Motive has about 30% of the North American market..." 
  6. ^ a b Solomon, Brian (2006). "The Winton Era". In Pernu, Dennis; Noel, Leah. EMD Locomotives. United States of America: Voyageur Press. pp. 15–18. ISBN 0760323968. 
  7. ^ a b Solomon, Brian (2011). Electro-Motive E-Units and F-Units: The Illustrated History of America's Favorite Locomotives. Voyageur Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780760340073.  At Google Books
  8. ^ a b Brazeau, Mike. "The Electro-Motive Story". GM Heritage Center. Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  9. ^ Wesby, Vernon (1976). History and Progress of the Village of McCook. McCook, IL: Village of McCook. pp. 88–90. 
  10. ^ Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide. Kalmbach Books. pp. 53–56. LCCN 66-22894 Check |lccn= value (help). 
  11. ^ Johnston, Howard; Harris, Ken (2005). Jane’s Train Recognition Guide. HarperCollins Publishing. pp. 416–417. ISBN 978-0-06-081895-1. 
  12. ^ Ross, David, ed. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-7607-9679-5. 
  13. ^ Pinkpank (1973), pp. 137, 207, 163-167, 203-206, 281, 323-324.
  14. ^ Ross (2003), p. 305.
  15. ^ a b Pinkpank (1973), p. 26.
  16. ^ Pinkpank (1973), p. 51-57, 61.
  17. ^ Pinkepank, Jerry A.; Marre, Louis A. (1979). Diesel Spotters Guide Update. Kalmbach Books. pp. 51–52, 54–57. ISBN 0-89024-029-9. 
  18. ^ Johnston (2003), pp. 425.
  19. ^ Johnston (2003), p. 432-433.
  20. ^ Ross (2003), pp. 360-361.
  21. ^ David Lustig (1 July 2006), "US loco market still a two-horse race", www.railwaygazette.com 
  22. ^ Sources:
  23. ^ EMD:ISO Certifications
  24. ^ "Greenbriar Equity Group and Berkshire Partners Complete Acquisition of Electro-Motive from General Motors -- John Hamilton Named President and CEO --". www.emdiesels.com. Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 2005-04-05. Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. "Greenbriar Equity Group LLC, Berkshire Partners LLC and certain related parties today announced the completion of the acquisition of Electro-Motive Division from General Motors." 
  25. ^ "BREAKING: Electro-Motive President John Hamilton resigns". Trains magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co. 2010-08-27. 
  26. ^ a b Neville Britto (24 February 2012), "Canadians gearing up to derail CAT, literally!", logospathosethos.com 
  27. ^ Austen, Ian (2012-01-02), "Caterpillar Locks Out Workers in Canada", The New York Times 
  28. ^ "Progress Rail closes EMD plant in London", www.railwaygazette.com (Railway Gazette International), 3 February 2012 
  29. ^ Sian Griffiths (15 February 2012), "Caterpillar feels force of Canada's anger as it closes country's last train plant", www.guardian.co.uk 
  30. ^ James R. Hagerty; Alistair MacDonald (18 March 2012), "As Unions Lose Their Grip, Indiana Lures Manufacturing Jobs", online.wsj.com 
  31. ^ Shruti Date Singh (6 February 2012), "Caterpillar to Close Canadian Locomotive Plant Due to Costs", www.businessweek.com 
  32. ^ "EMD Launches New Traction Motor MRO Facility" (Press release). Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 201-04-14. Archived from the original on 2010-10-29. "Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. today held a ribbon cutting ceremony at its new traction motor maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul (MRO) facility in San Luis Potosí Mexico." 
  33. ^ James B. Kelleher (29 October 2010), "UPDATE 3-Caterpillar unit to build rail locomotives in US", www.reuters.com (Thomson Reuters) 
  34. ^ Tita, Bob (2010-10-29). "CORRECT: UPDATE: Caterpillar To Build Locomotives in Muncie, Ind.". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Archived from the original on 2010-10-29. "Caterpillar Inc. (CAT) said Friday it will open a railroad locomotive assembly plant in Muncie, Ind.,..." 
  35. ^ "Progress Rail Services plans to begin locomotive, production at Muncie, Ind., this fall". Trains Magazine. July 25, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Progress Rail Announces Grand Opening of Muncie, Indiana Locomotive Assembly Operation", www.prnewswire.com (Progress Rail Services), 28 October 2011 
  37. ^ "EMD rolls out its first U.S.-made diesel in almost 20 years". Trains Magazine. 28 October 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Worldwide Historic Overview : The origins – North America's E and F units", www.nohab-gm.hu (NOHAB-GM Foundation) 
  39. ^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", Henschel
  40. ^ a b c Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", NOHAB
  41. ^ Lolke Bijlsma, "GM Locomotives in Europe", Belgium
  42. ^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", SAFB (Societe Anglo Franco Belge), and, BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Metalliques S.A.
  43. ^ "Devis y Macosa, las constructoras valencianas de material ferroviario", www.vialibre-ffe.com (in Spanish) , from VÍA LIBRE, Nº 431, May 2000
  44. ^ Brian Solomon (2006), EMD Locomotives, Voyageur Press, p. 118 
  45. ^ a b c Sources:
  46. ^ "ТЭРА-1", www.tdltz.ru (in Russian) (ТД Людиновотепловоз) 
  47. ^ Gredelj signes export deals amounting to 34 million kunas, TŽV Gredelj, 20 February 2012, "For the company Electro-Motive Diesel – EMD .. TŽV Gredelj will construct 88 bogie frames for locomotives ... this deal is the first concrete result of the recently signed agreement on joint development and promotion with the aforementioned American company, and TŽV Gredelj hopes that the collaboration with EMD will also be successful in the future" 
  48. ^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", GMIC, GMSA, Hyundai, Villares
  49. ^ Sources:
  50. ^ "Diesel Traction (Chapter 7, page 473)". Technology in Australia 1788–1988. www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  51. ^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", EDI
  52. ^ "DLW Official Website : Current products : Locomotives : EMD", www.dlw.indianrailways.gov.in, retrieved 5 February 2012 
  53. ^ Sources:
  54. ^ Jagdish-Kumar (13 October 2011), "EMD & Indian Railways to develop high-power locomotive", www.rail.co 
  55. ^ ""和谐"型大功率交流传动内燃机车下线", news.xinhuanet.com (in Chinese), 2 July 2008 
  56. ^ Sources:
  57. ^ "Bombardier to assemble EMD locomotives for southeast Asia - Railway Gazette". Railway Gazette International. 19 September 2012. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e The plant and headquarters commonly referred to as being in "La Grange, Illinois" are actually within the Chicago suburb McCook, Illinois, but uses a postal address of La Grange.[1]

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]