Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode and are for the following conditions:

  • A temperature of 298.15 K (25 °C);
  • An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam;
  • A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa.
  • An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent).

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam.

Half-reaction (V)[note 1] Ref.
Oxidant is in equilibrium with Reductant
& -9
Zz 9
Sr+ + e is in equilibrium with Sr  -4.10 −4.10 [1]
Ca+ + e is in equilibrium with Ca  -3.8 −3.8 [1]
Pr3+ + e is in equilibrium with Pr2+  -3.1 −3.1 [1]
N32N2(g) + H+ + e is in equilibrium with HN3(aq)  -3.09 −3.09 [2][3]
Li+ + e is in equilibrium with Li(s)  -3.0401 −3.0401 [3][4]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with 2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH  -3.04 −3.04 [2]
Cs+ + e is in equilibrium with Cs(s)  -3.026 −3.026 [3]
Ca(OH)2 + 2e is in equilibrium with Ca + 2 OH-  -3.02 −3.02 [1]
Er3+ + e is in equilibrium with Er2+  -3.0 −3.0 [1]
Ba(OH)2 + 2e is in equilibrium with Ba + 2 OH-  -2.99 −2.99 [1]
Rb+ + e is in equilibrium with Rb(s)  -2.98 −2.98 [3]
K+ + e is in equilibrium with K(s)  -2.931 −2.931 [3]
Ba2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ba(s)  -2.912 −2.912 [3]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e is in equilibrium with La(s) + 3OH  -2.90 −2.90 [3]
Fr+ + e is in equilibrium with Fr  -2.9 −2.9 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sr(s)  -2.899 −2.899 [3]
Sr(OH)2 + 2e is in equilibrium with Sr + 2 OH-  -2.88 −2.88 [1]
Ca2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ca(s)  -2.868 −2.868 [3]
Eu2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Eu(s)  -2.812 −2.812 [3]
Ra2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ra(s)  -2.8 −2.8 [3]
Ho3+ + e is in equilibrium with Ho2+  -2.8 −2.8 [1]
Bk3+ + e is in equilibrium with Bk2+  -2.8 −2.8 [1]
Yb2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Yb  -2.76 −2.76 [1]
Na+ + e is in equilibrium with Na(s)  -2.71 −2.71 [3][5]
Mg+ + e is in equilibrium with Mg  -2.70 −2.70 [1]
Nd3+ + e is in equilibrium with Nd2+  -2.7 −2.7 [1]
Mg(OH)2 + 2e is in equilibrium with Mg + 2 OH-  -2.690 −2.690 [1]
Sm2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sm  -2.68 −2.68 [1]
Be2O32- + 3 H2O + 4e is in equilibrium with 2 Be + 6 OH-  -2.63 −2.63 [1]
Pm3+ + e is in equilibrium with Pm2+  -2.6 −2.6 [1]
Dy3+ + e is in equilibrium with Dy2+  -2.6 −2.6 [1]
No2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with No  -2.50 −2.50 [1]
HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4e is in equilibrium with Hf + 4 OH-  -2.50 −2.50 [1]
Th(OH)4 + 4e is in equilibrium with Th + 4 OH-  -2.48 −2.48 [1]
Md2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Md  -2.40 −2.40 [1]
Tm2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Tm  -2.4 −2.4 [1]
La3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with La(s)  -2.379 −2.379 [3]
Y3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Y(s)  -2.372 −2.372 [3]
Mg2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Mg(s)  -2.372 −2.372 [3]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e is in equilibrium with Zr(s) + 4OH  -2.36 −2.36 [3]
Pr3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Pr  -2.353 −2.353 [1]
Ce3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ce  -2.336 −2.336 [1]
Er3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Er  -2.331 −2.331 [1]
Ho3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ho  -2.33 −2.33 [1]
H2AlO3- + H2O + 3e is in equilibrium with Al + 4 OH-  -2.33 −2.33 [1]
Nd3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Nd  -2.323 −2.323 [1]
Tm3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Tm  -2.319 −2.319 [1]
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e is in equilibrium with Al(s) + 3OH  -2.31 −2.31
Sm3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Sm  -2.304 −2.304 [1]
Fm2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Fm  -2.30 −2.30 [1]
Am3+ + e is in equilibrium with Am2+  -2.3 −2.3 [1]
Dy3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Dy  -2.295 −2.295 [1]
Lu3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Lu  -2.28 −2.28 [1]
Tb3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Tb  -2.28 −2.28 [1]
Gd3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Gd  -2.279 −2.279 [1]
H2 + 2e is in equilibrium with 2H-  -2.23 −2.23 [1]
Es2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Es  -2.23 −2.23 [1]
Pm2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pm  -2.2 −2.2 [1]
Tm3+ + e is in equilibrium with Tm2+  -2.2 −2.2 [1]
Dy2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Dy  -2.2 −2.2 [1]
Ac3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ac  -2.20 −2.20 [1]
Yb3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Yb  -2.19 −2.19 [1]
Cf2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Cf  -2.12 −2.12 [1]
Nd2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Nd  -2.1 −2.1 [1]
Ho2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ho  -2.1 −2.1 [1]
Sc3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Sc(s)  -2.077 −2.077 [6]
AlF63- + 3e is in equilibrium with Al + 6 F-  -2.069 −2.069 [1]
Am3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Am  -2.048 −2.048 [1]
Cm3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Cm  -2.04 −2.04 [1]
Pu3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Pu  -2.031 −2.031 [1]
Pr2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pr  -2.0 −2.0 [1]
Er2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Er  -2.0 −2.0 [1]
Eu3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Eu  -1.991 −1.991 [1]
Lr3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Lr  -1.96 −1.96 [1]
Cf3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Cf  -1.94 −1.94 [1]
Es3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Es  -1.91 −1.91 [1]
Pa4+ + e is in equilibrium with Pa3+  -1.9 −1.9 [1]
Am2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Am  -1.9 −1.9 [1]
Th4+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Th  -1.899 −1.899 [1]
Fm3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Fm  -1.89 −1.89 [1]
Np3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Np  -1.856 −1.856 [1]
Be2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Be  -1.847 −1.847 [1]
H2PO2- + e is in equilibrium with P + 2 OH-  -1.82 −1.82 [1]
U3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with U  -1.798 −1.798 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sr/Hg  -1.793 −1.793 [1]
H2BO3- + H2O + 3e is in equilibrium with B + 4 OH-  -1.79 −1.79 [1]
ThO2 + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Th + 2 H2O  -1.789 −1.789 [1]
HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Hf + H2O  -1.724 −1.724 [1]
HPO32- + 2 H2O + 3e is in equilibrium with P + 5 OH-  -1.71 −1.71 [1]
SiO32- + H2O + 4e is in equilibrium with Si + 6 OH-  -1.697 −1.697 [1]
Al3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Al(s)  -1.662 −1.662 [1]
Ti2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ti(s)  -1.63 −1.63 [5]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Zr(s) + 2H2O  -1.553 −1.553 [7]
Zr4+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Zr(s)  -1.45 −1.45 [7]
Ti3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ti(s)  -1.37 −1.37 [8]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ti(s) + H2O  -1.31 −1.31
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with 2TiO(s) + H2O  -1.23 −1.23
Zn(OH)42- + 2e is in equilibrium with Zn(s) + 4OH  -1.199 −1.199 [7]
Mn2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Mn(s)  -1.185 −1.185 [7]
Fe(CN)64- + 6H+ + 2 e is in equilibrium with Fe(s) + 6HCN(aq)  -1.16 −1.16 [9]
Te(s) + 2e is in equilibrium with Te2-  -1.143 −1.143 [10]
V2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with V(s)  -1.13 −1.13 [10]
Nb3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Nb(s)  -1.099 −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with SnH4(g)  -1.07 −1.07
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Si(s) + 2H2O  -0.91 −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with B(s) + 3H2O  -0.89 −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e is in equilibrium with Fe(s) + 2OH  -0.89 −0.89 [9]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH  -0.86 −0.86 [9]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Ti(s) + H2O  -0.86 −0.86
H2H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with H2(g) + 2OH  -0.8277 −0.8277 [7]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with BiH3  -0.8 −0.8 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Zn(Hg)  -0.7628 −0.7628 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Zn(s)  -0.7618 −0.7618 [7]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e is in equilibrium with 2Ta(s) + 5H2O  -0.75 −0.75
Cr3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Cr(s)  -0.74 −0.74
Au[Au(CN)2]- + e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 2CN-  -0.60 −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ta(s)  -0.6 −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb(s) + 2OH  -0.58 −0.58
Ti2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ti2O3(s) + H2O  -0.56 −0.56
Ga3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Ga(s)  -0.53 −0.53
U4+ + e is in equilibrium with U3+  -0.52 −0.52 [11]
P H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e is in equilibrium with P(white)[note 2] + 2H2O  -0.508 −0.508 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H3PO2(aq) + H2O  -0.499 −0.499 [7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with P(red)[note 2] + 3H2O  -0.454 −0.454 [7]
Fe2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Fe(s)  -0.44 −0.44 [5]
C2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with HOOCCOOH(aq)  -0.43 −0.43
Cr3+ + e is in equilibrium with Cr2+  -0.42 −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Cd(s)  -0.40 −0.40 [5]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with GeO(s) + H2O  -0.37 −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Cu(s) + 2OH  -0.360 −0.360 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb(s) + SO42-  -0.3588 −0.3588 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb(Hg) + SO42-  -0.3505 −0.3505 [7]
Eu3+ + e is in equilibrium with Eu2+  -0.35 −0.35 [11]
In3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with In(s)  -0.34 −0.34 [10]
Tl+ + e is in equilibrium with Tl(s)  -0.34 −0.34 [10]
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with GeH4(g)  -0.29 −0.29
Co2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Co(s)  -0.28 −0.28 [7]
P H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H3PO3(aq) + H2O  -0.276 −0.276 [7]
V3+ + e is in equilibrium with V2+  -0.26 −0.26 [5]
Ni2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ni(s)  -0.25 −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with AsH3(g)  -0.23 −0.23 [10]
AgI(s) + e is in equilibrium with Ag(s) + I-  -0.15224 −0.15224 [7]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Mo(s) + 2H2O  -0.15 −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with SiH4(g)  -0.14 −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sn(s)  -0.13 −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e is in equilibrium with HO2•(aq)  -0.13 −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb(s)  -0.13 −0.13 [5]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with W(s) + 2H2O  -0.12 −0.12
P(red) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with PH3(g)  -0.111 −0.111 [7]
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with HCOOH(aq)  -0.11 −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H2Se(g)  -0.11 −0.11
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with CO(g) + H2O  -0.11 −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sn(s) + H2O  -0.10 −0.10
SnO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with SnO(s) + 2H2O  -0.09 −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e is in equilibrium with W(s) + 3H2O  -0.09 −0.09 [10]
P(white) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with PH3(g)  -0.063 −0.063 [7]
Fe3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Fe(s)  -0.04 −0.04 [9]
C HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with HCHO(aq) + H2O  -0.03 −0.03
H 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H2(g)    0.0000 = 0
AgBr(s) + e is in equilibrium with Ag(s) + Br-  +0.07133 [7]
S4O62- + 2e is in equilibrium with 2S2O32-  +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e is in equilibrium with 3Fe(s) + 4H2O  +0.085 [12]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e is in equilibrium with 2NH4OH(aq)  +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with Hg(l) + 2OH  +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e is in equilibrium with Cu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3  +0.10 [10]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e is in equilibrium with Ru(NH3)62+  +0.10 [11]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2e is in equilibrium with 2NH4+ + 4OH  +0.11 [2]
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e is in equilibrium with Mo(s) + 4H2O  +0.11
Ge4+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Ge(s)  +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with CH4(g)  +0.13 [10]
C HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with CH3OH(aq)  +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H2S(g)  +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Sn2+  +0.15
Cu2+ + e is in equilibrium with Cu+  +0.159 [10]
S HSO4- + 3H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with SO2(aq) + 2H2O  +0.16
UO22+ + e is in equilibrium with UO2+  +0.163 [11]
S SO42- + 4H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with SO2(aq) + 2H2O  +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with Ti3+ + H2O  +0.19
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Sb(s) + H2O  +0.20
AgCl(s) + e is in equilibrium with Ag(s) + Cl-  +0.22233 [7]
As H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with As(s) + 3H2O  +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ge(s) + H2O  +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e is in equilibrium with U4+ + 2H2O  +0.273 [11]
Re3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Re(s)  +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Bi(s)  +0.308 [7]
VO2+ + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with V3+ + H2O  +0.34
Cu2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Cu(s)  +0.340 [10]
Fe [Fe(CN)6]3- + e is in equilibrium with [Fe(CN)6]4-  +0.36
Fc+ + e is in equilibrium with Fc(s)  +0.4 [13]
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e is in equilibrium with 4OH(aq)  +0.401 [5]
Mo H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Mo3+ + 2H2O  +0.43
C CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with CH4(g) + H2O  +0.50
S SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with S(s) + 2H2O  +0.50
Cu+ + e is in equilibrium with Cu(s)  +0.520 [10]
C CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with C(s) + H2O  +0.52
I3- + 2e is in equilibrium with 3I-  +0.53 [5]
I2(s) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2I-  +0.54 [5]
Au [AuI4]- + 3e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 4I-  +0.56
As H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H3AsO3(aq) + H2O  +0.56
Au [AuI2]- + e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 2I-  +0.58
MnO4- + 2H2O + 3e is in equilibrium with MnO2(s) + 4OH  +0.59
S2O32- + 6H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with 2S(s) + 3H2O  +0.60
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with MoO2(s) + 2H2O  +0.65
C 1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Hydrochinon2.svg  +0.6992 [7]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H2O2(aq)  +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Tl(s)  +0.72
PtCl62- + 2e is in equilibrium with PtCl42- + 2Cl-  +0.726 [11]
Se H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with Se(s) + 3H2O  +0.74
PtCl42- + 2e is in equilibrium with Pt(s) + 4Cl-  +0.758 [11]
Fe3+ + e is in equilibrium with Fe2+  +0.77
Ag+ + e is in equilibrium with Ag(s)  +0.7996 [7]
Hg22+ + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Hg(l)  +0.80
N NO3-(aq) + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with NO2(g) + H2O  +0.80
Fe 2FeO42- + 5H2O + 6e is in equilibrium with Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH  +0.81 [9]
Au [AuBr4]- + 3e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 4Br-  +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Hg(l)  +0.85
Ir [IrCl6]2- + e is in equilibrium with [IrCl6]3-  +0.87[4]
MnO4- + H+ + e is in equilibrium with HMnO4-  +0.90
Hg2Hg2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Hg22+  +0.91 [10]
Pd2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pd(s)  +0.915 [11]
Au [AuCl4]- + 3e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 4Cl-  +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e is in equilibrium with Mn3+ + 2H2O  +0.95
Au[AuBr2]- + e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 2Br-  +0.96
Xe[HXeO6]3- + 2H2O + 2e + is in equilibrium with [HXeO4]- + 4OH  +0.99 [14]
[VO2]+(aq) + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with [VO]2+(aq) + H2O  +1.0 [15]
TeH6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with TeO2(s) + 4H2O  +1.02 [15]
Br2(l) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Br-  +1.066 [7]
Br2(aq) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Br-  +1.0873 [7]
I IO3- + 5H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with HIO(aq) + 2H2O  +1.13
Au [AuCl2]- + e is in equilibrium with Au(s) + 2Cl-  +1.15
Se HSeO4- + 3H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with H2SeO3(aq) + H2O  +1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Ag(s) + H2O  +1.17
ClO3- + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with ClO2(g) + H2O  +1.18
Xe[HXeO6]3- + 5H2O + 8 e is in equilibrium with Xe(g) + 11OH  +1.18 [14]
Pt2+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pt(s)  +1.188 [11]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e is in equilibrium with HClO2(aq)  +1.19
I 2IO3- + 12H+ + 10e is in equilibrium with I2(s) + 6H2O  +1.20
ClO4- + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with ClO3- + H2O  +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with 2H2O  +1.229 [5]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Mn2+ + 2H2O  +1.23
Xe[HXeO4]- + 3H2O + 6 e is in equilibrium with Xe(g) + 7OH  +1.24 [14]
Tl3+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Tl+  +1.25
Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6e is in equilibrium with 2Cr3+ + 7H2O  +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2Cl-  +1.36 [5]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e is in equilibrium with Co3+ + 2H2O  +1.42
N 2NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with N2H5+ + 2H2O  +1.42 [2]
I 2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with I2(s) + 2H2O  +1.44
BrO3- + 5H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with HBrO(aq) + 2H2O  +1.45
PbO ß-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb2+ + 2H2O  +1.460 [10]
PbO a-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb2+ + 2H2O  +1.468 [10]
Br 2BrO3- + 12H+ + 10e is in equilibrium with Br2(l) + 6H2O  +1.48
Cl 2ClO3- + 12H+ + 10e is in equilibrium with Cl2(g) + 6H2O  +1.49
Cl HClO(aq) + H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Cl(aq) + H2O  +1.49 [1]
MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e is in equilibrium with Mn2+ + 4H2O  +1.51
O HO2 + H+ + e is in equilibrium with H2O2(aq)  +1.51
Au3+ + 3e is in equilibrium with Au(s)  +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Ni2+ + 2OH  +1.59
Ce4+ + e is in equilibrium with Ce3+  +1.61
Cl 2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Cl2(g) + 2H2O  +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e is in equilibrium with 2Ag+ + 3H2O  +1.67
Cl HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with HClO(aq) + H2O  +1.67
Pb4+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Pb2+  +1.69 [10]
MnO4- + 4H+ + 3e is in equilibrium with MnO2(s) + 2H2O  +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e is in equilibrium with Ag+ + H2O  +1.77
O H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with 2H2O  +1.78
Co3+ + e is in equilibrium with Co2+  +1.82
Au+ + e is in equilibrium with Au(s)  +1.83 [10]
BrO4- + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with BrO3- + H2O  +1.85
Ag2+ + e is in equilibrium with Ag+  +1.98 [10]
S2O82− + 2e is in equilibrium with 2SO42-  +2.010 [7]
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with O2(g) + H2O  +2.075 [11]
Mn HMnO4- + 3H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with MnO2(s) + 2H2O  +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e is in equilibrium with Xe(g) + 3H2O  +2.12 [14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e is in equilibrium with Xe(g) + 6 H2O  +2.18 [14]
FeO42- + 3e + 8H+ is in equilibrium with Fe3+ + 4H2O  +2.20 [16]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with Xe(g) + 2HF(aq)  +2.32 [14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with XeO3(aq) + H2O  +2.42 [14]
F2(g) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2F-  +2.87 [4][5][10]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e is in equilibrium with 2HF(aq)  +3.05 [10]
2KrF2(aq) + 2e is in equilibrium with 2KrF+(aq) + F2(g)  +3.27 http://acta.chem-soc...60/60-3-455.pdf
  1. ^ Clicking on this column to re-sort by potential didn’t work in the Safari web browser in v. 4.0.3 or earlier (but works in v. 4.0.5). In this case just reload the page to restore the original order.
  2. ^ a b Not specified in the indicated reference, but assumed due to the difference between the value -0.454 and that computed by (2×-0.499 + -0.508)/3 = -0.502 exactly matching the difference between the values for white (-0.063) and red (-0.111) phosphorus in equilibrium with PH3.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Vanýsek, Petr (2011). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 92nd Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  4. ^ a b c Atkins, Peter (2010). Inorganic Chemistry (5th Edition). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-42-921820-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  6. ^ David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005, <http://www.hbcpnetbase.com>, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Vanýsek, Petr (2012). "Electrochemical Series". In Haynes, William M. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 93rd Edition. Chemical Rubber Company. pp. 5–80. ISBN 9781439880494. .
  8. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 978-0-470-81638-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Iron | compounds information
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  12. ^ Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  13. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. (1 January 1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chemical Reviews 96 (2): 877–910. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information
  15. ^ a b Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999), Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  16. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website

See also[edit]