Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed by some materials of reversibly changing color when a burst of charge is applied. Various types of materials and structures can be used to construct electrochromic devices, depending on the specific applications. The Electrochromism occurs due to the electrochemical redox reactions that take place in electrochromic materials.
Transition metal oxides represent a large family of materials possessing various interesting properties in the field of electrochromism. Among them,tungsten oxide (WO3), has been the most extensively studied material, used in the production of electrochromic windows or smart glass. NiO materials have been widely studied as counter electrodes for complementary electrochromic devices, in particular, smart windows. The world leading institutions on NiO efforts include National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Uppsala University. Other good example of an electrochromic material is polyaniline which can be formed either by the electrochemical or chemical oxidation of aniline. If an electrode is immersed in hydrochloric acid which contains a small concentration of aniline, then a film of polyaniline can be grown on the electrode. Depending on the oxidation state, polyaniline can either be pale yellow or dark green/black. Other electrochromic materials that have found technological application include the viologens and polyoxotungstates.
As the color change is persistent and energy need only be applied to effect a change, electrochromic materials are used to control the amount of light and heat allowed to pass through windows ("smart windows"), and has also been applied in the automobile industry to automatically tint rear-view mirrors in various lighting conditions. Viologen is used in conjunction with titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the creation of small digital displays. It is hoped that these will replace liquid crystal displays as the viologen, which is typically dark blue, has a high contrast compared to the bright white of the titania, thereby providing the display high visibility.
ICE 3 high speed trains use electrochromatic glass panels between the passenger compartment and the driver's cabin. The standard mode is clear, and can be switched by the driver to frosted/translucent, mainly to conceal "unwanted sights" from passengers' view, for example in the case of (human) obstacles.
Electrochromic windows are used in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
- C.G. Granqvist, Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995, reprinted 2002, approx. 650 pages.
- Mortimer, R. J. (2011). "Electrochromic Materials". Annual Review of Materials Research 41: 241–268. doi:10.1146/annurev-matsci-062910-100344.
- Lin, Feng; Dennis Nordlund, Tsu-Chien Weng, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Kim M. Jones, Rob B. Reed , Dane T. Gillaspie, Douglas G. J. Weir , Rob G. Moore, Anne C. Dillon, Ryan M. Richards and Chaiwat Engtrakul (2013). "Origin of Electrochromism in High-Performing Nanocomposite Nickel Oxide". ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5 (9): 3643–3649. doi:10.1021/am400105y.
- Hakim Moulkia, Dae Hoon Parka, Bong-Ki Minb, Hansang Kwonb, Seong-Ju Hwangc, Jin-Ho Choyc, Thierry Toupanced, Guy Campeta, Aline Rougier, Improved electrochromic performances of NiO based thin films by lithium addition: From single layers to devices. Electrochimica Acta. Volume 74, 15 July 2012, Pages 46–52
- Lin, Feng; Jifang Cheng, Chaiwat Engtrakul, Anne C. Dillon, Dennis Nordlund, Rob G. Moore, Tsu-Chien Weng, S. K. R. Williams and Ryan M. Richards (2012). "In situ crystallization of high performing WO3-based electrochromic materials and the importance for durability and switching kinetics". J. Mater. Chem. 22: 16817–16823. doi:10.1039/c2jm32742b.
- Deb, S. K. Appl. Opt. Suppl. 1969, 3, 192−195.
- Deb, S. K. Philos. Mag. 1973, 27 (4), 801−822.
- Gillaspie, D. T.; Tenent, R. C.; Dillon, A. C. J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20 (43), 9585−9592.
- Tutorial on electrochromism
- Video of electrochromic smart glass changing from translucent to transparent at YouTube