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Dr. R. Furth, a mathematical physicist, and Dr. E.A. Bevers, a physiologist, invented the encephalophone in the early 1940s at the University of Edinburgh. The cross between an electroencephalograph (EEG) and sonar technology, it was meant to be a way for ordinary physicians to diagnose neuropathologies.
Eduardo Reck Miranda is currently (~2004) involved in research which uses neural networks and brain interfaces to create music.
The electroencephalophone is a quintephone in the sense that it creates sound from the "5th classical element" (i.e. from beyond the world of matter).
Related concepts 
In addition to sound-production, regenerative brainwave musical performances use brainwave interfaces to modify or manipulate or play along with sounds of other instruments in a live performance context.
See also 
- Thomas K. Henry, "Invention locates hurt brain cells," New York Times (2 March 1943), p. 21.
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