Electron-hole droplets are a condensed phase of excitons in semiconductors. The droplets are formed at low temperatures and high exciton densities, the latter of which can be created with intense optical excitation or electronic excitation in a p-n junction.
Evidence for electron-hole droplets was first observed by J. R. Haynes of Bell Labs in 1966, who observed a frequency shift in the spectrum radiated by silicon at low temperatures (~3 K). The shift was attributed to the recombination of a bound state of two excitons (electron-hole pairs). V. M. Asnin and A. A. Rogachev discovered metallic conduction in germanium at low temperatures when the density of excitons exceeded the amount required to transition into a metallic state.
- Haynes, J. R. (17 October 1966). "Experimental observation of the excitonic molecule". Physical Review Letters 17 (16): 860–862. Bibcode:1966PhRvL..17..860H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.17.860. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Asnin, V. M.; A. A. Rogachev (20 June 1968). "Mott transition in the exciton system in germanium". JTEP Lett 7 (12): 360–362. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
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