Electronegativities of the elements (data page)

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Main article: Electronegativity

Electronegativity (Pauling scale)[edit]

Periodic table of electronegativity by Pauling scale
Atomic radius decreases → Ionization energy increases → Electronegativity increases →
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →
↓ Period
1 H
2.20
He
 
2 Li
0.98
Be
1.57
B
2.04
C
2.55
N
3.04
O
3.44
F
3.98
Ne
 
3 Na
0.93
Mg
1.31
Al
1.61
Si
1.90
P
2.19
S
2.58
Cl
3.16
Ar
 
4 K
0.82
Ca
1.00
Sc
1.36
Ti
1.54
V
1.63
Cr
1.66
Mn
1.55
Fe
1.83
Co
1.88
Ni
1.91
Cu
1.90
Zn
1.65
Ga
1.81
Ge
2.01
As
2.18
Se
2.55
Br
2.96
Kr
3.00
5 Rb
0.82
Sr
0.95
Y
1.22
Zr
1.33
Nb
1.6
Mo
2.16
Tc
1.9
Ru
2.2
Rh
2.28
Pd
2.20
Ag
1.93
Cd
1.69
In
1.78
Sn
1.96
Sb
2.05
Te
2.1
I
2.66
Xe
2.60
6 Cs
0.79
Ba
0.89
1 asterisk Hf
1.3
Ta
1.5
W
2.36
Re
1.9
Os
2.2
Ir
2.20
Pt
2.28
Au
2.54
Hg
2.00
Tl
1.62
Pb
1.87
Bi
2.02
Po
2.0
At
2.2
Rn
2.2
7 Fr
0.7
Ra
0.9
1 asterisk Rf
 
Db
 
Sg
 
Bh
 
Hs
 
Mt
 
Ds
 
Rg
 
Cn
 
Uut
 
Fl
 
Uup
 
Lv
 
Uus
 
Uuo
 

1 asterisk La
1.1
Ce
1.12
Pr
1.13
Nd
1.14
Pm
1.13
Sm
1.17
Eu
1.2
Gd
1.2
Tb
1.1
Dy
1.22
Ho
1.23
Er
1.24
Tm
1.25
Yb
1.1
Lu
1.27
1 asterisk Ac
1.1
Th
1.3
Pa
1.5
U
1.38
Np
1.36
Pu
1.28
Am
1.13
Cm
1.28
Bk
1.3
Cf
1.3
Es
1.3
Fm
1.3
Md
1.3
No
1.3
Lr
1.3
Values are given for the elements in their most common and stable oxidation states.
See also: Electronegativities of the elements (data page)
number symbol name use WEL CRC LNG
1 H hydrogen 2.20 same
2 He helium no data same
3 Li lithium 0.98 same
4 Be beryllium 1.57 same
5 B boron 2.04 same
6 C carbon 2.55 same
7 N nitrogen 3.04 same
8 O oxygen 3.44 same
9 F fluorine 3.98 3.98 3.98 3.90
10 Ne neon no data same
11 Na sodium 0.93 same
12 Mg magnesium 1.31 same
13 Al aluminium 1.61 same
14 Si silicon 1.90 same
15 P phosphorus 2.19 same
16 S sulfur 2.58 same
17 Cl chlorine 3.16 same
18 Ar argon no data same
19 K potassium 0.82 same
20 Ca calcium 1.00 same
21 Sc scandium 1.36 same
22 Ti titanium 1.54 same
23 V vanadium 1.63 same
24 Cr chromium 1.66 same
25 Mn manganese 1.55 same
26 Fe iron 1.83 same
27 Co cobalt 1.88 same
28 Ni nickel 1.91 same
29 Cu copper 1.90 same
30 Zn zinc 1.65 same
31 Ga gallium 1.81 same
32 Ge germanium 2.01 same
33 As arsenic 2.18 same
34 Se selenium 2.55 same
35 Br bromine 2.96 same
36 Kr krypton 3.00 3.00 no data no data
37 Rb rubidium 0.82 same
38 Sr strontium 0.95 same
39 Y yttrium 1.22 same
40 Zr zirconium 1.33 same
41 Nb niobium 1.6 same
42 Mo molybdenum 2.16 same
43 Tc technetium 1.9 1.9 2.10 2.10
44 Ru ruthenium 2.2 same
45 Rh rhodium 2.28 same
46 Pd palladium 2.20 same
47 Ag silver 1.93 same
48 Cd cadmium 1.69 same
49 In indium 1.78 same
50 Sn tin 1.96 same
51 Sb antimony 2.05 same
52 Te tellurium 2.1 same
53 I iodine 2.66 same
54 Xe xenon 2.6 2.6 2.60 no data
55 Cs caesium 0.79 same
56 Ba barium 0.89 same
57 La lanthanum 1.10 same
58 Ce cerium 1.12 same
59 Pr praseodymium 1.13 same
60 Nd neodymium 1.14 same
61 Pm promethium no data same
62 Sm samarium 1.17 same
63 Eu europium no data same
64 Gd gadolinium 1.20 same
65 Tb terbium no data same
66 Dy dysprosium 1.22 same
67 Ho holmium 1.23 same
68 Er erbium 1.24 same
69 Tm thulium 1.25 same
70 Yb ytterbium no data same
71 Lu lutetium 1.27 1.27 1.0 1.0
72 Hf hafnium 1.3 same
73 Ta tantalum 1.5 same
74 W tungsten 2.36 2.36 1.7 1.7
75 Re rhenium 1.9 same
76 Os osmium 2.2 same
77 Ir iridium 2.20 2.20 2.2 2.2
78 Pt platinum 2.28 2.28 2.2 2.2
79 Au gold 2.54 2.54 2.4 2.4
80 Hg mercury 2.00 2.00 1.9 1.9
81 Tl thallium 1.62 1.62 1.8 1.8
82 Pb lead 2.33 2.33 1.8 1.8
83 Bi bismuth 2.02 2.02 1.9 1.9
84 Po polonium 2.0 same
85 At astatine 2.2 same
86 Rn radon no data same
87 Fr francium 0.7 same
88 Ra radium 0.9 same
89 Ac actinium 1.1 same
90 Th thorium 1.3 same
91 Pa protactinium 1.5 same
92 U uranium 1.38 1.38 1.7 1.7
93 Np neptunium 1.36 1.36 1.3 1.3
94 Pu plutonium 1.28 1.28 1.3 1.3
95 Am americium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
96 Cm curium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
97 Bk berkelium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
98 Cf californium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
99 Es einsteinium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
100 Fm fermium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
101 Md mendelevium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3
102 No nobelium 1.3 1.3 no data 1.3

Notes[edit]

  • Separate values for each source are only given where one or more sources differ.
  • Electronegativity is not a uniquely defined property and may depend on the definition. The suggested values are all taken from WebElements as a consistent set.

Electronegativity (Allen scale)[edit]

Electronegativity using the Allen scale
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Period
1 H
2.300
He
4.160
2 Li
0.912
Be
1.576
B
2.051
C
2.544
N
3.066
O
3.610
F
4.193
Ne
4.789
3 Na
0.869
Mg
1.293
Al
1.613
Si
1.916
P
2.253
S
2.589
Cl
2.869
Ar
3.242
4 K
0.734
Ca
1.034
Sc
1.19
Ti
1.38
V
1.53
Cr
1.65
Mn
1.75
Fe
1.80
Co
1.84
Ni
1.88
Cu
1.85
Zn
1.59
Ga
1.756
Ge
1.994
As
2.211
Se
2.434
Br
2.685
Kr
2.966
5 Rb
0.706
Sr
0.963
Y
1.12
Zr
1.32
Nb
1.41
Mo
1.47
Tc
1.51
Ru
1.54
Rh
1.56
Pd
1.59
Ag
1.87
Cd
1.52
In
1.656
Sn
1.824
Sb
1.984
Te
2.158
I
2.359
Xe
2.582
6 Cs
0.659
Ba
0.881
Lu
1.09
Hf
1.16
Ta
1.34
W
1.47
Re
1.60
Os
1.65
Ir
1.68
Pt
1.72
Au
1.92
Hg
1.76
Tl
1.789
Pb
1.854
Bi
2.01
Po
2.19
At
2.39
Rn
2.60
7 Fr
0.67
Ra
0.89
See also: Electronegativities of the elements (data page)
Number Symbol Name Electronegativity
1 H hydrogen 2.300
2 He helium 4.160
3 Li lithium 0.912
4 Be beryllium 1.576
5 B boron 2.051
6 C carbon 2.544
7 N nitrogen 3.066
8 O oxygen 3.610
9 F fluorine 4.193
10 Ne neon 4.789
11 Na sodium 0.869
12 Mg magnesium 1.293
13 Al aluminium 1.613
14 Si silicon 1.916
15 P phosphorus 2.253
16 S sulfur 2.589
17 Cl chlorine 2.869
18 Ar argon 3.242
19 K potassium 0.734
20 Ca calcium 1.034
21 Sc scandium 1.19
22 Ti titanium 1.38
23 V vanadium 1.53
24 Cr chromium 1.65
25 Mn manganese 1.75
26 Fe iron 1.80
27 Co cobalt 1.84
28 Ni nickel 1.88
29 Cu copper 1.85
30 Zn zinc 1.59
31 Ga gallium 1.756
32 Ge germanium 1.994
33 As arsenic 2.211
34 Se selenium 2.434
35 Br bromine 2.685
36 Kr krypton 2.966
37 Rb rubidium 0.706
38 Sr strontium 0.963
39 Y yttrium 1.12
40 Zr zirconium 1.32
41 Nb niobium 1.41
42 Mo molybdenum 1.47
43 Tc technetium 1.51
44 Ru ruthenium 1.54
45 Rh rhodium 1.56
46 Pd palladium 1.59
47 Ag silver 1.87
48 Cd cadmium 1.52
49 In indium 1.656
50 Sn tin 1.824
51 Sb antimony 1.984
52 Te tellurium 2.158
53 I iodine 2.359
54 Xe xenon 2.582
55 Cs caesium 0.659
56 Ba barium 0.881
71 Lu lutetium 1.09
72 Hf hafnium 1.16
73 Ta tantalum 1.34
74 W tungsten 1.47
75 Re rhenium 1.60
76 Os osmium 1.65
77 Ir iridium 1.68
78 Pt platinum 1.72
79 Au gold 1.92
80 Hg mercury 1.76
81 Tl thallium 1.789
82 Pb lead 1.854
83 Bi bismuth 2.01
84 Po polonium 2.19
85 At astatine 2.39
86 Rn radon 2.60
87 Fr francium 0.67
88 Ra radium 0.89

References[edit]

WEL[edit]

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • A.L. Allred, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1961, 17, 215.
  • L. Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Cornell Univ., USA, 3rd ed., 1960.
  • J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.

CRC[edit]

As quoted from these sources in an online version of: David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 9, Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy; Electronegativity

  • Pauling, L., The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Third Edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960.
  • Allen, L.C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 111, 9003, 1989.
  • Allred, A.L., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 17, 215, 1961.

LNG[edit]

As quoted from these sources in: J.A. Dean (ed), Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (15th Edition), McGraw-Hill, 1999; Section 4; Table 4.5, Electronegativities of the Elements.

  • L. Pauling, The Chemical Bond, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1967.
  • L. C. Allen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:9003 (1989).
  • A. L. Allred J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 17:215 (1961).