Electronic dance music

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Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a set of percussive electronic music genres produced primarily for dance-based entertainment environments, such as nightclubs. The music is largely created for use by disc jockeys (DJs) and is produced for use in DJ mixes, in which the DJ uses a synchronized segue, or "mix", to progress from one recording to the next.[1]

In 2010, the acronym "EDM" was adopted by the American music industry and music press as a buzzword to describe the increasingly commercial US electronic dance music scene.[2][3]

History[edit]

Notable examples include the 1977 collaboration between producer Giorgio Moroder and vocalist Donna Summer on the song "I Feel Love", a groundbreaking dance/discothèque hit with no traditional instruments.[4]

Birth of club music[edit]

Acid house and Rave[edit]

Roland TB-303: The bass line synthesizer that was used prominently in acid house.

By 1988, house music had exploded in the UK and Germany with acid house becoming increasingly popular.[5] There was also a long established warehouse party subculture based around the sound system scene. In 1988, the music played at warehouse parties was predominantly house. That same year, the Balearic party vibe associated with Ibiza based DJ Alfredo Fiorito was transported to London, when Danny Rampling and Paul Oakenfold opened the clubs Shoom and Spectrum, respectively. Both night spots quickly became synonymous with acid house, and it was during this period that the use of MDMA, as a party drug, started to gain prominence. Other important UK clubs at this time included Back to Basics in Leeds, Sheffield's Leadmill and Music Factory, and in Manchester The Haçienda, where Mike Pickering and Graeme Park's Friday night spot, Nude, was an important proving ground for American underground [6] dance music. Acid house party fever escalated in London and Manchester, and it quickly became a cultural phenomenon. MDMA-fueled club goers, faced with 2 A.M. closing hours, sought refuge in the warehouse party scene that ran all night. To escape the attention of the press and the authorities, this after-hours activity quickly went underground. Within a year, however, up to 10,000 people at a time were attending the first commercially organized mass parties, called raves, and a media storm ensued.[7]

The success of house and acid house paved the way for Detroit Techno, a style that was initially supported by a handful of house music clubs in Chicago, New York, and Northern England, with Detroit clubs catching up later.[8] According to British DJ Mark Moore it was Derrick May's "Strings of Life" that eased London club-goers into acceptance of house, with Moore stating that: "I was on a mission because most people hated house music and it was all rare groove and hip hop...I'd play Strings of Life at the Mud Club and clear the floor. Three weeks later you could see pockets of people come onto the floor, dancing to it and going crazy – and this was without ecstasy." [9][10]

North American commercialization of EDM[edit]

Initially, electronic dance music achieved limited popular exposure in America when it was marketed as "electronica" during the mid to late 1990s.[11] At that time, a wave of electronic music bands from the UK, including The Prodigy, The Chemical Brothers, Fatboy Slim and Underworld, had been prematurely associated with an "American electronica revolution."[12][13] But, instead of EDM finding wider mainstream success, it was relegated to the margins of the industry.[12] Despite the domestic music media interest in "electronica" during the latter half of the 1990s, American house and techno producers continued to travel abroad to establish their careers as DJs and producers.[12]

By the mid-2000s, a number of factors led to an increased prominence for dance acts in North America that was larger than previously observed. Daft Punk's performance at the 2006 Coachella Festival—the first in the duo's Alive 2006/2007 tour, which featured the introduction of a unique pyramid-shaped stage design and lighting rig, influenced what Spin described as an "arms race" for visual effects in electronic music. Spin also considered the act to be a "tipping point" for EDM, as the appearance fueled nostalgia of the electronica era, and introduced the duo to a new generation of "rock kids".[12]

In 2009, French house musician David Guetta began to gain prominence in mainstream pop music after the 2009 release of "When Love Takes Over" (featuring the vocals of Kelly Rowland), which was internationally popular on both pop and dance music charts. The success of the song led to further collaborations with other pop and hip-hop acts, such as Akon ("Sexy Bitch") and The Black Eyed Peas.[14] His collaboration with the latter, "I Gotta Feeling", was a major success for both The Black Eyed Peas and Guetta—in the U.S., the song achieved sales of 249,000 downloads and debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 at number two, behind their previous single "Boom Boom Pow".[15] The song eventually reached number 1 on July 30, 2009, and Billboard magazine reported that the song, along with "Boom Boom Pow," helped the group maintain a 17-week run at the top of the Hot 100, the longest time period achieved by a single, duo or group.[16]

The increased prominence of EDM was also fueled by concerts and festivals, such as Electric Daisy Carnival, that placed an increased emphasis on visual experiences (such as video and lighting effects), fashion (which The Guardian characterized as an evolution from the 1990s "kandi raver" into "[a] slick and sexified yet also kitschy-surreal image midway between Venice Beach and Cirque Du Soleil, Willy Wonka and a Gay Pride parade"), and the DJs themselves, who began to attain celebrity-like statuses. Websites such as YouTube and SoundCloud also helped fuel an increased interest in house and other types of electronic music, such as electro house and dubstep—both of which had also developed a hard rock-influenced sound popularized by producers such as Excision, Knife Party, Rusko and, most prominently, American dubstep/electro producer Skrillex.[17][18]

In 2011 Spin declared the start of a "new rave generation," led by names such as Guetta, Canadian producer Deadmau5, and Skrillex, that was followed by a new wave of mainstream consumers.[12] Elements of EDM also began to emerge in songs by mainstream artists, as collaborations occurred with artists such as Afrojack and Calvin Harris.[12] EDM producers and DJs also began experiencing success playing club shows in U.S. cities such as Las Vegas; at the time, Diplo argued that promoters could generate higher profits from DJs over other acts, stating that "a band plays, it's 45 minutes; DJs can play for four hours. Rock bands—there's a few headliner dudes that can play 3,000-4,000-capacity venues, but DJs play the same venues, they turn the crowd over two times, people buy drinks all night long at higher prices—it's a win-win."[12] Meanwhile, other acts gaining popularity during this period include Avicii and Swedish House Mafia, with the latter selling out New York City's Madison Square Garden in December 2011.[17] In November 2013, Music Trades magazine called EDM the fastest growing genre on the planet.[19]

In addition to the growth of EDM through live events and the Internet, radio and television were also credited with helping to increase mainstream attention: analysts noted that sales of Calvin Harris's "Feel So Close" and Swedish House Mafia's "Don't You Worry Child" dramatically increased after they began receiving contemporary hit radio airplay.[20] EDM songs and artists have been featured in television commercials and programs, while some artists have produced more pop-oriented songs to make their work more accessible to a mainstream audience.[21]

Corporate investment in EDM[edit]

In accordance with the significant growth in mainstream popularity, EDM became increasingly attractive to outside investors, with some comparing it to the dot-com boom of the late-1990s. The beginning of corporate consolidation in the EDM industry began in 2012; especially in terms of live events. In June 2012, media executive Robert F. X. Sillerman (founder of what is now Live Nation) founded SFX Entertainment and announced his plan to invest US$1 billion for the acquisition of EDM-related properties. His purchases included a number of regional promoters and festivals (including ID&T, organizers of the annual Tomorrowland festival in Belgium), along with two nightclub operators in Miami, U.S., and Beatport, an EDM-oriented online music store.[22][23]

Live Nation also acquired two major EDM promoters: Cream Holdings and Hard Events; CEO Michael Rapino believed that EDM was the new "rock 'n' roll" of the generation.[24][25][26] Advertisers have also increasingly associated themselves with the EDM industry; for example, alcoholic beverage companies such as Heineken and Anheuser-Busch have maintained marketing relationships with the Ultra Music Festival and SFX, respectively. Heineken also incorporated Dutch producers, such as Armin van Buuren and Tiesto, into their marketing campaigns. Avicii's manager Ash Pournouri compared the increasingly commercial EDM industry to the transformation and commercialization of hip hop, which occurred in the early 2000s, arguing that the "corporate world" was beginning to "catch on" to EDM. Pournouri further stated that "you have an estimated $4.5 billion generated by this music every year. That turns a lot of heads, and that’s without the potential of commercializing it even more, which will happen."[21]

On December 20, 2012, WHBA, a Boston radio station owned by Clear Channel Communications transitioned from an Adult Hits format to a dance radio format, under the moniker "Evolution 101.7," and claimed to be "the first real EDM station in the country;" the station soon changed its call letters to WEDX. WEDX was an extension of "Evolution", an internet radio channel on Clear Channel's iHeartRadio service. Clear Channel hired prominent DJ and BBC Radio 1 personality Pete Tong to produce content for the station.[27] In June 2014, WEDX dropped the EDM format for country music, although limited Evolution programming remains on sister CHR station WXKS-FM and its HD Radio subchannel.[28][29] The Evolution format would surface in Honolulu on July 2, 2014, when Clear Channel-owned FM translator K256AS was changed from Hawaiian music to "Evolution 99.1".[30]

In 2014, Clear Channel also partnered with the aforementioned SFX, in a deal that will see the broadcaster produce EDM-related programming (including a Beatport countdown show across its contemporary hit radio stations) and concert events in collaboration with SFX.[31][32]

Criticism of commercial EDM[edit]

Despite the growing mainstream acceptance of EDM, a number of producers and DJs, including Carl Cox, Steve Lawler, and Markus Schulz, have raised concerns that the perceived over-commercialization of dance music has impacted the "art" of DJing. Cox sees the "press-play" approach of a new generation of EDM DJs as not being representative of what he calls the "DJ ethos".[17] Writing in Mixmag DJ Tim Sheridan questioned whether or not EDM was responsible for affecting the art of traditional DJing.[33] Sheridan contends that the emergence of "push-button DJs" who use auto-sync functions and pre-recorded sets featuring "obvious hits" rather than a diverse selection of music has lead to a situation where "the spectacle, money and the showbiz [had] overtaken all—even notions of honesty."[33]

Some house producers have openly admitted that "commercial" EDM required further differentiation and creativity. Avicii (whose 2013 album "True" featured songs incorporating elements of bluegrass music, such as its lead single "Wake Me Up") stated that there was "no longevity" in the majority of EDM.[34] Deadmau5 has also criticized the homogenization of EDM, stating that the music he hears "all sounds the same"—he emphasized his diversification into other genres, such as techno and, in 2014, he released a techno song under the moniker "testpilot" for Richie Hawtin's label, Plus 8. At Ultra, where he filled in for Avicii, Deadmau5 also played an edited version of Martin Garrix's song "Animals" remixed to the melody of "Old McDonald Had a Farm". Following the performance, deadmau5 was also criticized on Twitter by fellow musician Tiësto for "sarcastically" mixing Avicii's "Levels" with his own "Ghosts 'n' Stuff", asking in response "How does one play a track sarcastically? "Am I supposed to sneer while hitting the sync button? Or is that ironic?”[35][36][37][38]

In May 2014, the NBC comedy series Saturday Night Live parodied the stereotypes of EDM culture and push-button DJs through a Digital Short entitled "When Will the Bass Drop?". The short featured a DJ named Davvincii—who is seen performing a number of unrelated tasks—including playing a computer game, frying eggs, and collecting money rather than actually mixing, and pressing a giant "BASS" button to cause the heads of attendees to explode.[39][40][41]

Terminology[edit]

The term "electronic dance music" was used in America as early as 1985,[42] although the term "dance music" didn't catch on as a blanket term for the genre(s) until the second half of the 1990s, when it was embraced by the American music industry with their "Dance" charts (which continue to this day), as well as the consistent use of the term "dance music" in reference to artists in reviews.[42] In July 1995 Nervous Records and Project X magazine held their first award ceremony titled "Electronic Dance Music Awards." [43][44]

Writing in The Guardian journalist Simon Reynolds noted that music industry adoption of the term EDM was part of a drive to re-brand "rave culture" in the USA; an attempt to "draw line between today's EDM and 90s rave".[45] While "EDM" has become the common blanket term for dance music genres in the USA, in many parts of Europe and online, in the UK the usage of "dance music" or "dance" is more commonly used.[46]

What is widely considered to be club music changes over time includes different genres depending on the region and who's making the reference, and may not always encompass electronic dance music. Similarly, electronic dance music sometimes means different things to different people. Both terms vaguely encompass multiple genres, and sometimes are used as if they were genres themselves. The distinction is that club music is ultimately based on what's popular, whereas electronic dance music is based on attributes of the music itself.[47]

Genres[edit]

Just as rock, jazz and other musical genres have their own set of sub-genres, so does electronic dance music. Continuing to evolve over the past 30 years dance music has splintered off into numerous sub-genres often defined by their varying tempo (BPM), rhythm, instrumentation used and time period. [48] The broadest categories include house, techno, trance, hardstyle, UK garage, drum & bass, dubstep, progressive, electro and hardcore.

Production[edit]

Typical tools for EDM production: computer, MIDI keyboard and mixer/sound recorder.

In an April 2014 interview with Tony Andrew, the owner and founder of the Funktion-One sound system—considered a foremost model of audio technology and installed in venues such as Berghain, Output and Trouw—Andrew explains the critical importance of bass to dance music:

Dance music wouldn’t be so successful without bass. If you think about it, we’ve really only had amplified bass for around 50 years. Big bass is only a couple of generations old. Before the invention of speakers that could project true bass frequencies, humans really only came across bass in hazardous situations—for example, when thunder struck, or an earthquake shook, or from explosions caused by dynamite or gunpowder. That is probably why it is by far the most adrenaline-inducing frequency that we have. Bass gets humans excited basically. Below 90 or 100 Hz, bass becomes more of a physical thing. It vibrates specific organs. It vibrates our bones. It causes minor molecular rearrangement, and that is what makes it so potent as a force in dance music. The molecular vibration caused by bass is what gives dance music its power. It is what makes dance music so pleasurable to hear through a proper sound system.[49]

Andrew also warns that too much bass, as well as too much sound overall, can be harmful and a "good sound engineer will understand that there is a window between enough sound to give excitement and so much that it is damaging."[49]

Festivals[edit]

Other festivals, including Lollapalooza and Coachella have increased the number of EDM acts represented.[citation needed] Coachella in particular took an adventurous path giving electronic acts a high profile in a time when they were seldom booked alongside rock bands, in the United States at least. Rawley Bornstein, an MTV music and talent programmer, described EDM as "the new rock and roll,"[50] as has Lollapalooza organizer Perry Ferrell.[51] Ray Waddell, touring editor at Billboard magazine, noted that festival promoters have done an excellent job at branding.[50]


Electric Zoo Festival 2011 at the Hilltop Arena

Tomorrowland a popular EDM music festival in Belgium has amassed millions of followers through YouTube and other social media. Tomorrowland broadcast the show live over YouTube and over 16.8 million viewers tuned in. The 20 minute recap video of Tomorrowland in 2012 amassed over 90 million views on YouTube, a testament to the growing popularity of electronic dance music. [52]

Industry Awards[edit]

Organization Award Years Notes
BRIT Awards British Dance Act 1994–2004 The BRIT awards in the UK introduced this new category in 1994,[53] and it was won that first year by M People. Although dance acts had featured in the awards in previous years, this was the first year dance music was given its own category. More recently the award was removed as was 'Urban' and 'Rock' and other genres as the awards removed Genre based awards and moved to more generalised, artist focused, awards.
Grammy Award Best Dance Recording 1998–Present Most recently won (2014) by 'Zedd feat. Foxes - Clarity'[54]
Grammy Award Best Dance/Electronica Album 2005–Present Most recently won (2014) by 'Daft Punk - Random Access Memories'[55]
DJ Mag Top 100 DJs poll 1997–Present DJ Mag is a UK-based Dance music magazine. Their "Top 100 DJs poll" takes place every year DJ Mag and was first top-spot #1 is presently (2013) claimed by Hardwell. Each year the results are announced and a large award ceremony held[56]
Winter Music Conference (WMC) IDMA: International Dance Music Awards 1998–Present [56]
Dancestar - The World Dance Music Awards 2000 - 2004 Dancestar ran from 2000 to 2002 in London UK and 2002 to 2004 Miami USA. The event was initially broadcast on Channel 4 in the UK with performances by Public Domain of their UK top 10 hit 'Operation Blade', before expanding its reach across the globe in later years using MTV as the platform.[57]
Project X Magazine Electronic Dance Music Awards 1995 Readers of Project X magazine voted for the winners of the first (and only) "Electronic Dance Music Awards".[43] In a ceremony organized by the magazine and Nervous Records, award statues were given to Winx, The Future Sound of London, Moby, Junior Vasquez, Danny Tenaglia, DJ Keoki, TRIBAL America Records and Moonshine Records.[43]
American Music Awards Favorite Electronic Dance Music 2012–Present [58] Artists were nominated based on sales & airplay, and the winner, chosen by fans in online voting, was David Guetta.[58]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Butler, M.J., Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music, Indiana University Press, 2006, pp. 12–13, 94. ISBN 9780253346629
  2. ^ RA Roundtable: EDM in AmericaResident Advisor,. 'RA Roundtable: EDM In America'. N. p., 2012. Web. 18 May. 2014.
  3. ^ 'The FACT Dictionary: How ‘Dubstep’, ‘Juke’, ‘Cloud Rap’ And Many More Got Their Names'. N. p., 2013. Web. 18 May. 2014.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Rietveld 1998:40–50
  6. ^ Fikentscher (2000:5), in discussing the definition of underground dance music as it relates to post-disco music in America, states that: "The prefix 'underground' does not merely serve to explain that the associated type of music - and its cultural context - are familiar only to a small number of informed persons. Underground also points to the sociological function of the music, framing it as one type of music that in order to have meaning and continuity is kept away, to large degree, from mainstream society, mass media, and those empowered to enforce prevalent moral and aesthetic codes and values." Fikentscher, K. (2000), You Better Work!: Underground Dance Music in New York, Wesleyan University Press, Hanover, NH.
  7. ^ Rietveld 1998:54–59
  8. ^ Brewster 2006:398–443
  9. ^ Brewster 2006:419
  10. ^ Cosgrove 1988a. Although it can now be heard in Detroit's leading clubs, the local area has shown a marked reluctance to get behind the music. It has been in clubs like the Powerplant (Chicago), The World (New York), The Hacienda (Manchester), Rock City (Nottingham) and Downbeat (Leeds) where the techno sound has found most support. Ironically, the only Detroit club which really championed the sound was a peripatetic party night called Visage, which unromantically shared its name with one of Britain's oldest new romantic groups.
  11. ^ Sisario, Ben (2012-04-04). "Electronic Dance Concerts Turn Up Volume, Tempting Investors". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Sherburne, Philip. Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger, Spin Magazine, pages 41-53, October 2011, Spin Media LLC.
  13. ^ Chaplin, Julia & Michel, Sia. Fire Starters, Spin Magazine, page 40, March 1997, Spin Media LLC.
  14. ^ "DJ David Guetta leads the EDM charge into mainstream". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  15. ^ Ben-Yehuda, Ayala. "Black Eyed Peas Take Top Two Slots On Billboard Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  16. ^ Ayala Ben-Yehuda, Keith Caulfield, Silvio Pietroluongo (July 30, 2009). "Black Eyed Peas Set Billboard Hot 100 Record". Billboard. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  17. ^ a b c "The Dumbing Down of Electronic Dance Music". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  18. ^ "How rave music conqueored America". Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Just How Big is EDM?". Music Trades Magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  20. ^ "The Year EDM Sold Out: Swedish House Mafia, Skrillex and Deadmau5 Hit the Mainstream". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Booming business: EDM goes mainstream". Miami Herald. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  22. ^ "Exclusive: SFX Acquires ID&T, Voodoo Experience". Billboard. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  23. ^ "SFX Purchases 75% Stake in ID&T, Announce U.S. Edition of Tomorrowland at Ultra". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  24. ^ "Live Nation Acquires L.A. EDM Promoter HARD: Will the Mainstream Get More Ravey?". Spin. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  25. ^ "Live Nation Buys EDM Entertainment Company Cream Holdings Ltd, Owner of Creamfields Festivals". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "Electronic Dance Concerts Turn Up Volume, Tempting Investors". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  27. ^ Sisario, Ben (December 20, 2012). "Boston Radio Station Switches to Electronic Dance Format". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Clear Channel converts 101.7 to country music format". Boston Globe. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  29. ^ Chesto, John (June 13, 2014). "Clear Channel brings a new country music station to Boston". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Evolution comes to Honolulu". Radio Insight. July 2, 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  31. ^ "SFX and Clear Channel Partner for Digital, Terrestrial Radio Push". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  32. ^ "John Sykes, Robert Sillerman on New Clear Channel, SFX Partnership: 'We Want to Be the Best'". Billboard.biz. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Is EDM killing the art of DJing?". Mixmag. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "EDM Will Eat Itself: Big Room stars are getting bored". Mixmag. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  35. ^ "Deadmau5 Trolls Martin Garrix with ‘Old MacDonald Had a Farm’ Remix of ‘Animals’ at Ultra". radio.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  36. ^ "Deadmau5 gives reason for techno track: "EDM sounds the same to me"". inthemix.com.au. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  37. ^ "Deadmau5: The Man Who Trolled the World". mixmag. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  38. ^ "Afrojack and Deadmau5 argue over what's "good music"". Mixmag. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  39. ^ "SNL Digital Shorts return with 'Davvincii' to skewer EDM and overpaid DJs". The Verge. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  40. ^ "Watch Saturday Night Live Mock Big Room DJ Culture". Mixmag. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  41. ^ "SNL takes stab at EDM culture in new digital short featuring ‘Davvincii’". Dancing Astronaut. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  42. ^ a b Bogart, Jonathan (10 July 2014). "Buy the Hype: Why Electronic Dance Music Really Could Be the New Rock". The Atlantic. Retrieved 11 July 2014. 
  43. ^ a b c Flick, Larry (Aug 12, 1995). "Gonzales Prepares More Batches of Bucketheads". Billboard: 24. "Josh Wink, Moby, and the Future Sound Of London were among the fortunate folks honored at the first Electronic Dance Music Awards, which were presented July 27 in New York. Produced by Nervous Records and Project X magazine, the evening saw trophies doled out to some of the club community's more cerebral and experimental producers, DJs, musicians and record labels. Winners were tallied from ballots from Project X readers." 
  44. ^ Prince, David (1995). "Rhythm Nation". Rolling Stone (705): 33. 
  45. ^ ""After 20 years, electronic dance music has made it big in the US" url=http://www.theguardian.com/music/2012/aug/02/how-rave-music-conquered-america". 
  46. ^ ""Definition" url=http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/dance-music?q=dance+music". 
  47. ^ McLeod, Kembrew. 2001. "Genres, Subgenres, Sub-Subgenres and more: Musical and Social Difference Within Electronic/Dance Music Communities." Journal of Popular Music Studies 13, 59–75.
  48. ^ Brief History of Electronic Music
  49. ^ a b Terry Church (10 April 2014). "Funktion-One’s Tony Andrews on Setting Up Soundsystems – From Wembley Stadium to Your Bedroom". DJTechTools. DJTechTools. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  50. ^ a b N.J. basks in the glow of the brave new rave: Electronic dance festivals go mainstream Newark Star Ledger May 16, 2012
  51. ^ Maloy, Sarah. "Lollapalooza's Perry Farrell on EDM and Elevating the Aftershow: Video". Billboard. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  52. ^ Mason, K. (2013, Sep 28). EDM's social explosion. Billboard - the International Newsweekly of Music, Video and Home Entertainment, 125, 9. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.arizona.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1473702879?accountid=8360
  53. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_BRIT_Awards.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammy_Award_for_Best_Dance_Recording.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammy_Award_for_Best_Electronic/Dance_Album.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ a b http://dancemusic.about.com/od/djs/a/Dj-Mag-Top-100-Djs-Winners.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  57. ^ http://www.dancestar.com/about_dancestar.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. ^ a b Unknown (November 18, 2012). "American Music Awards 2012: A big night for Justin Bieber". Online news. CBS news. Retrieved November 27, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]