Electronic drum

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Basic electronic drum set made by Pintech.

An 'electronic drum' is an electrical device struck by a drummer/musician; played in real time (using either hands, sticks, brushes or other implements) to produce a selection of sounds, instruments, effects from either samples or modeled sounds contained in a processor or drum Module. Some would designate it an electronic synthesizer that can since developments in the last decade, even replicate the sound of an acoustic drum kit very credibly. Strictly speaking according to that somewhat narrow definition; Sequencers & Drum machines are therefore not truly an electronic drum. [For the definition employed here cf: -'The Case for Vintage Electronic Drums' by Michael Render, page 1 (originally published in the Not So Modern Drumming Magazine) & sourced from "The Electronic Drum Experts" web site]

The electronic drum (pad/triggering device), is usually sold as part of an electronic drum kit, consisting of a set of drum pads mounted on a stand or rack in a configuration similar to that of an acoustic drum kit layout, with rubberized (Roland/Yamaha/Alesis etc...) or specialized acoustic/electronic cymbals (Zildjan's "Gen 16"). The drum pads themselves are either discs or shallow drum shells made of various materials;often with a rubber/silicone or cloth-like coated playing surface. Each pad has a sensor that generates an electric signal when struck. The electric signal is transmitted through cables into an electronic drum Module ("Brain" as it is sometimes called) or other source, which produces a sound/sounds associated with -and triggered by the selectively struck pad.

Electronic drums history[edit]

It is said that the first electronic drum was created by Graeme Edge, drummer of The Moody Blues, in collaboration with Sussex University Professor Brian Groves. The device was used in the song 'Procession', from the 1971 album 'Every Good Boy Deserves Favor'.[1]

From an interview with Graeme Edge:[citation needed]

Question - "One of the strangest pieces was 'Procession' (Every Good Boy Deserves Favor, 1971), which featured the pioneering work of Graeme Edge's electronic drum kit. How did that come about?"

Graeme - "I'd got in touch with the professor of electronics at Sussex University, Brian Groves. We worked up an electronic drum kit, a marvelous idea. I had the control panel in front of me, it's old hat now but we were the first to do it. There were pieces of rubber with silver paper on the back with a silver coil that moved up and down inside a magnet that produced a signal, so it was touch sensitive. I had 5 snares across the top and then ten tom-toms and then a whole octave of bass drums underneath my feet and then four lots of 16 sequencers, two on each side. There was a gap—to play a space—a tamborine, ebony stick, snare and three tom-toms. This was pre-chip days, back then you did it all with transistors. So it had something like 500 transistors. The electronic drums inside looked something like spaghetti. When it worked it was superb, but it was before its day, because it was so sensitive..."

The first commercial electronic drum was the Pollard Syndrum, released by Pollard Industries in 1976. It consisted of an electric sound generator and one or more drum pads. It quickly caught the attention of numerous high profile drummers/percussionists at the time,such as Carmine Appice and Terry Bozzio. But the Syndrum was a financial failure and lead the company to monetary ruin in the following years.[2]

In 1978, the Simmons company was created in order to produce commercial electronic drums sets. Its most notable product was the SDS-5, released in 1981. With its characteristic hexagon shaped pads, the SDS-5 was first used by Burgess on From the Tea-rooms of Mars ...., "Chant No. 1" by Spandau Ballet, and "Angel Face" by Shock. After its debut on the top musical chart shows and parades, the electronic instrument garnered significant attention from various established and influential rock/pop musicians. The sound of the SDS-5 is often described retrospectively with phrases such as: 'awful' or 'sounded like trash can lids' by those who employed them at the time. Despite the critics, the distinctive Simmons 'dzzshhh' - almost light sabre type sound was extensively used during the 1980s by pop/rock & synth-pop groups such as Duran Duran or Rush, among others, and is often viewed somewhat nostalgically by those who began to experiment with these early forays into electronic drums and percussion.

In the following years, other companies started selling their own versions of electronic drums, notably Roland and Yamaha. At that time, the electronic drums were similar to today's entry-level kits. They consisted of rubber coated pads mounted on stands. The pads were created to be velocity sensitive and the sound was generated through single or multiple layers (multi-layer) sampling.

In 1997, Roland introduced into the commercial market its now famous TD-10 model, which had two important musical/electronic innovations. Firstly, the more controversial innovation was its method of providing a sound for the drums/pads to trigger...instead of generating its sound through actual samples of an instrument, the TD-10 used mathematical models to generate its sounds. [Not every drummer is happy to play a sound that is not a "pure" sampled acoustic version; though many would say today that it is neither desirable or positive to try to be an acoustic only purist, when technology is at the forefront of modern electronic composition-it is not exclusively about acoustic replication any longer]. Secondly, instead of only rubber coated pads, Roland featured a new mesh like pad, produced in connection with Remo USA (the famous acoustic drum skin manufacturer). The mesh-head pads look and feel approximately,like a smaller sized acoustic drum. The Remo/Roland mesh- striking surface, is made from a double-layer of taut woven mesh fibers, fitted with several electronic sensors or triggers to complete the task. The playing feel is close to that of striking an acoustic drum, but with more bounce than an acoustic skin. Roland termed its innovative commercial drum set: "V Drums" V-Drums, which later became the marketed brand name of its electronic drum line. Together; the mathematical/computational modeling, mesh-head pad surface and improved trigger sensor technology: greatly increased the quality of sounds, volume levels in practice & the "realistic" feel of electronic drums.[3]

Recent innovations[edit]

Newer drum kits from major manufacturers have therefore addressed many of the shortcomings of early electronic drum pads and Modules. While each of the significant market brands have entry-level units, the professionally marketed kits are geared toward creating sounds and playing experiences that are nearly indistinguishable from playing a quality acoustic kit or world/orchestral percussion instruments. Examples of these high-end professional kits include the Yamaha DTX 950k and Roland V-Drums TD-30KV. Typically, these Professional stage and studio kits are equipped with:

  • High quality digital sounds - These drum Modules offer high quality modeled drum sounds- with hundreds of on board sounds,effects and audio loops & song options/patterns to choose from. Some of these Modules allow the user to dial in the specifics of tuning, head type, depth/width and material (metal, wood type etc...) Trigger sensor/reliability and reduction of cross/talk have been vastly improved. Triggering now allows both the head and the rim to produce sounds, facilitating rim and cross shots as well as shell tapping & many other audio sounds that can be assigned to the head or rim, so that the options for live music increase even more. Cymbals can accommodate more zones: for edge, bow and bell strikes, with choking capability and realistic cymbal swells.(Roland & Yamaha video demonstrations on YouTube & Facebook with Craig Blundell, Michael Schack,& Johhny Rabb [Roland] & Zak Bond and Andy Fisenden [Yamaha]).
  • Realistic Hi-hats - These newer versions are no longer single cymbal pads but dual replicated cymbals, that can be mounted on regular stands like their acoustic versions. These cymbals allow for actual opened and closed hand/foot playing. A High spec electronic Module detects Hi-Hat movement/height & position providing realistic variations of sound via degree of placement- open, partially open, and closed hi-hat strikes. Some Modules like the Roland TD-30, also feature foot close and quick close-open sounds; with pressure on the cymbals also being sensed and replicated when tightening or loosening the foot pressure even on a closed Hi-Hat. So; the audio sounds tighter when firm pressure is applied on an already closed Hi-Hat pedal (Roland's TD-30 Module -as demonstrated by Craig Blundell, Omar Hakim & Michael Schack on YouTube for [Roland] -Tom Griffen for [Yamaha] demonstrates their cymbal sensitivities in a demo on YouTube too).
  • Multiple outputs - The professional level Modules from the leading manufacturers, have multiple outputs to the sound board such that each percussion group (i.e. Toms, Cymbals, etc...) can be independently mixed (like the multiple miking of an acoustic kit). Additionally, these groups have independent volume faders on the module to fine tune volume settings for each group. Another commonly designated output is the MIDI connection, which sends signals to a computer based specialist midi software or for example a DAW(Digital Audio Workstation). The increased processing power provided by this option allows the user to utilize actual, randomized samples of professionally recorded or modeled drums. The output and input of the pads, trigger devices etc.. can be augmented or controlled through Digital software,the Module, Midi Instruments and other Samplers. The result is a phenomenally credible, nuanced, flexible set of instruments and, arguably, by some accounts; an almost indistinguishable augmentation or replacement for traditionally recorded drums and melodic/world percussion and effects. Not many acoustic drummers will warm to that and many studio engineers will quibble about the finer audio details regarding acoustic vs electronic but that is not the scope of the article.

Comparison to acoustic drum set[edit]

Advantages[edit]

  • Although not totally silent because they are naturally an instrument you strike, electronic drums and their counterpart devices, usually- produce considerably less acoustic noise than a traditional drum kit.
  • Also, the drummer can use a headphone for an essentially silent & private practice in dwellings where it would be impossible to have a studio or acoustic noise level,& perhaps where regular sized kits would not fit. They are (generally) lighter and easier to transport.
  • Electronic drum sets are (usually) more compact than acoustic drums- though it is possible to have them customized to acoustic sizes-or convert acoustic kits to become one and so that alters their size benefits depending on your choice.
  • A single electronic kit can (via its module or software)simulate/replicate the sounds of countless acoustic kits and instruments/effects, such as a vintage jazz drum kit/ a powerful maple rock kit or /conga/ piano/ guitar/brushes/Timpani or even add hand claps or sound affects such as a siren- with many modern non-musical samples and effects too etc... It is therefore possible to achieve much more than one can with an acoustic kit alone & one has to transport significantly fewer drums/percussion to play a huge variety of sounds and instruments.
  • Electronic drums do not require complex and expensive microphones or their large stand arrangements for recording, unlike acoustic drums. Instead, the sound can be obtained through line-out or MIDI connections. Because of this, an electronic drum is an exceptionally suitable instrument for education, practice, composition & studio recording or live performance.
  • Electronic drums usually have specific & useful features for the aspirational beginner or professional alike: such as Metronome & different metronome voices and play-along songs/Loops and samples with the ability to record one's practice or playing, sync the metronome to a studio DAW metronome instead of using the studio's own click, or experiment with composition-song parts, etc... It is also easy to use an MP3 player or iPod to play songs for practice or for looping those parts to target technique or replication of drum parts, which is an added bonus for accuracy and creativity in drumming.
  • Electronic drums can be played at a significantly lower volume level, and so are less restrictive for use- avoiding the need for the rest of a band or other quieter musicians to have to increase their volume acoustically or electronically to match the percussive volume level. This is particularly advantageous in smaller rooms, or older architectural theatres/classical/folk/choral style settings, where excessive volume is not necessarily desired & can dominate in a way that is difficult & time consuming to solve in situ.
  • Electronic drums often ensure other costly equipment such as sticks, brushes (Vinyl Brushes for Mesh Heads) & Mallets last slightly longer than on acoustic kits, due to widespread use of rubberized rims /hoop protection that prevents stick contact with metal.
  • They can be used to control or sample from other midi instruments or work seamlessly with other Samplers (Roland SPD-SX, or Yamaha DTX Multi-12), or percussion pads (Alesis Percussion Pad, Roland SPD-30 Octapad/Handsonic- HPD 20 or again the Yamaha DTX Multi-12)they also work well alongside DAW software for using actual samples rather than relying only on modeled computer generated sounds if so desired.

Disadvantages[edit]

  • Despite recent innovations, electronic drums still will not be able to totally reproduce EXACTLY, the playing feel and richness of the specific sound qualities of acoustic drums/instruments themselves. This may not be the entire scope or purpose for electronic kits today, but it is still a large component of customer priority or ideation,when focusing on goals and budget.
  • Many manufactured parts such as High- Hat Controllers, (some) cymbals and pads, are not compatible with other Brands, Modules or equipment and are less interchangeable than acoustic parts. More costly than acoustics on average due to research and development etc... brand flexibility is a significant factor in a budget because mix and match is less of an option.
  • The most advanced features, like- realistic pads (silicone [Yamaha], or mesh [Roland])and advanced sound modeling/samples, are (mostly) featured in highly priced electronic sets, often inaccessible for most with low incomes. Meanwhile, entry-level kits still largely use single triggered rubberized hard pads and poor sampled/modeled sounds; limiting the players sound Library and playing experience somewhat... BUT that is changing, with other brands such as Jobeky, Diamond, Drumwerx, Millenium & 2Box; providing dual trigger pads and more affordable Modules/options. [Jobeky's Custom Series (UK); Thomann's "Millenium"; DrumTec's "Diablo" (Germany); 2Box's "Drummit5" (Sweden) & Drumwerx' "Exotic"(USA) kits - are brands of Electronic Drums that are cheaper and more aligned in appearance to acoustic drums]
  • The sound of an acoustic drum set is powerful enough for a small gig, without any amplification. An electronic drum kit needs a power outlet-probably more than one and, at least, an amplifier, or monitor, ("in-ear" monitoring system for band or stage work) even for quite small venues and that involves further equipment & expense.
  • Quality of the sounds reproduced for an audience or player alike; are highly dependent on the quality of Amplifier, Personal Monitors, Headphones and Satellite Speakers/ Audio systems deployed by the user. This is where these less obvious/ extra "hidden" expenses, can easily become prohibitive for the non-professional or need to be factored in to performance usage.
  • Electronic products update so regularly that one is reminded, that as with much technology today, as soon as something is available for purchase; one finds it is somewhat out of date already. Updating is one thing, but replacing or constantly upgrading ones kit for a better ( more functional/IPod/Tablet connectivity/Wi-Fi) one, is much more of a factor than it is with the acoustic drum set. Yes it is more fun, but more time consuming in becoming acquainted with manuals, operating procedure, and in playing with buttons...one can waste more time with that than one could by practicing/playing itself...wasted time is a little strong, but time consumption at least is a possible disadvantage; it just is never as simple as plug-n-play if you wish to get the most from the expensive gear.
  • Safety- Every nation and region will have different regulations & laws concerning portable and fixed electronic equipment, and mostly the home user will not need to worry beyond the usual care and responsibilities,but the working/touring/employed musician may have to think a little harder about her electronic or e-drum kit/equipment. Keeping oneself safe is one thing but an audience or other musicians, is another entirely. Portable electronics are subject to health and safety issues when it comes to wear & tear and regulations in one's particular region will be vital to pay attention to. Electronic drums will need maintenance, probable tests by proficient persons & certificates and accurate paperwork to match. Cables, plugs, adapters, earthing and any sign of damage or modification without paperwork could nullify an insurance policy- legally. Occasionally a show or theatre or whoever may require a risk assessment. So the professional will need to think carefully about the responsibilities and the legal and financial cover for the use of electronic drums...to some that is a distinct disadvantage-to others nothing more than a call to a Musicians Union/Society for cover or advice. (cf: source: "Drummer" Magazine- April 2014, N0. 127, page 46.- "Powered Performance", by the Musicians Union-UK

Variations[edit]

Table-top electronic drum[edit]

Alesis PerformancePad electronic drum kit

A table-top electronic drum (or portable electronic drum) is an electronic drum that has all pads (except foot pedals) and the electronic module combined in a single table-top like construction. It usually has a small amplifier and loudspeakers incorporated. The sound generation, is generally simpler (single-layered samples) when compared to full-size kits. Also, the feel when playing a table-top drum/pad is very different. The great advantages of table-top drums are the portability and the reduced price.

Acoustic triggered drum kit[edit]

An acoustic triggered drum kit is a regular acoustic drum kit coupled with drum trigger/s (sensors) on the drums and cymbals. The triggers can be "built inside" or permanently fixed on to cymbals- so that they are necessarily either: fixed triggers (electronic kit essentially), removable ( can be either acoustic or electronic by default of purpose at the time), or simply an acoustic kit that is now actually a "Hybrid" kit-using external triggers that attach to the rim and skin (or batter head) so as to trigger other sounds on top of the natural acoustic sound produced or simply to boost it for performance. The triggers detect hits/ vibrations on the batter head and/or hoop rim and generate an electric signal. The signal is then sent to an electronic Module/Sampler or via cables & Audio Interface to a midi- DAW/ Drum software on a pc/laptop/mac- to trigger the selected sounds. Usually, the "acoustic triggered kit", has either commercially available mesh head skins (silent), or the drummer keeps its natural skins (acoustic skins for a Hybrid kit are standard practice) and other muting accessories to reduce the acoustic sounds generated when played together . This way, an acoustic (electro/acoustic) or Hybrid triggered drum kit has the feel and sizes of the standard acoustic kit but with the added benefits of an electronic kits silence/ or added sound Library. (See Craig Blundell on: "Hybrid Kits" & Roland V Drums, "Triggers" & Trigger bar on YouTube; See 682Drums for materials on conversions and Jobeky Drums for Custom Acoustic Kits, that are actually electronic kits but in acoustic sizes).

Artists who use electronic drums[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Render, Michael. The Case for Vintage Electronic Drums. [1], accessed June 21, 2011
  2. ^ Render, Michael. The Case for Vintage Electronic Drums. [2], accessed June 21, 2011
  3. ^ Greg Rule & Steve Fisher. V-Drums History. [3], accessed June 21, 2011