Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition. Elemental analysis can be qualitative (determining what elements are present), and it can be quantitative (determining how much of each are present). Elemental analysis falls within the ambit of analytical chemistry, the set of instruments involved in deciphering the chemical nature of our world.
For organic chemists, elemental analysis or "EA" almost always refers to CHNX analysis—the determination of the mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and heteroatoms (X) (halogens, sulfur) of a sample. This information is important to help determine the structure of an unknown compound, as well as to help ascertain the structure and purity of a synthesized compound.
The most common form of elemental analysis, CHN analysis, is accomplished by combustion analysis. In this technique, a sample is burned in an excess of oxygen, and various traps collect the combustion products—carbon dioxide, water, and nitric oxide. The masses of these combustion products can be used to calculate the composition of the unknown sample.
Quantitative analysis is the determination of the mass of each element or compound present. Other quantitative methods include:
- Gravimetry, where the sample is dissolved and then the element of interest is precipitated and its mass measured or the element of interest is volatilized and the mass loss is measured.
- Optical atomic spectroscopy, such as flame atomic absorption, graphite furnace atomic absorption, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission, which probe the outer electronic structure of atoms.
- Neutron activation analysis, which involves the activation of a sample matrix through the process of neutron capture. The resulting radioactive target nuclei of the sample begin to decay, emitting gamma rays of specific energies that identify the radioisotopes present in the sample. The concentration of each analyte can be determined by comparison to an irradiated standard with known concentrations of each analyte.
To qualitatively determine which elements exist in a sample, the methods are:
- Mass spectrometric atomic spectroscopy, such as inductively coupled mass spectrometry, which probes the mass of atoms.
- Other spectroscopy which probes the inner electronic structure of atoms such as X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray emission, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy.
- Chemical methods
Analysis of results
The analysis of results is performed by determining the ratio of elements from within the sample, and working out a chemical formula that fits with those results. This process is useful as it helps determine if a sample sent is a desired compound and confirms the purity of a compound. The accepted deviation of elemental analysis results from the calculated is 0.4%.
- From Columbia Encyclopedia on answers.com: http://www.answers.com/library/Columbia+Encyclopedia-cid-2284496: chemical analysis
- "Neutron Activation Analysis". Analytical Chemistry Group. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- University of London: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pharmacy/services/analyticalservices/CHN
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