Plot (narrative)

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Plot is a literary term defined as the events that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, how the reader views the story, or simply by coincidence. One is generally interested in how well this pattern of events accomplishes some artistic or emotional effect. An intricate, complicated plot is called an imbroglio, but even the simplest statements of plot may include multiple inferences, as in traditional ballads.[1]

In other words, a plot is the gist of a story, and composed of causal events, which means a series of sentences linked by "and so." For instance, in Frozen (2013), "the Princess runs after the Queen, and so finds the Queen" is a plot. Whereas a story orders events from A to Z in time. Thus, "the Princess runs after the Queen, and then the Queen conjures up an ice palace" is a story. A plot highlights all the important points and the line of a story. Ansen Dibell writes, "Plot is built of significant events in a given story - significant because they have important consequences."[2] Consequently, it also has the same meaning as storyline.[3][4]

Plot and Story. Plot is the cause‐and‐effect sequence of events in a story.[2]

Current plot[edit]

Plot was defined in 1927 by the English novelist E. M. Forster. Forster defined a plot as the cause‐and‐effect relationship between events in a story. Forster says, "'The king died, and then the queen died' is a story, whereas 'The king died, and then (and so) the queen died of grief ' is a plot." Namely, the queen succumbed to psychosomatic disease and so on. Forster's definition provides a working definition of plot.[5][6]

Plot is causality. Causal events make up the plot. For example, event A: "The Prince searches for Cinderella with the glass shoe.," then, event B: "Cinderella's sister to try the shoe on, but it didn't fit.," after that, event C: "The shoe fits Cinderella, the Prince finds her." Among these events, event B may be omitted. This is because, A is the cause of C, but B is not the cause of C. A⇢B⇢C is a story, and A→C is a plot.[2]

Plot needs only causal events. These famous scenes are not emphasized in plot, such as "Rose spreads her hands on the bow" in Titanic (1997), "Building an ice palace" in Frozen (2013), and "The burning of Atlanta" in Gone with the Wind (1939). The above examples are not, or not much, affecting other events.[2]By the same token, Steve Alcorn, a fiction-writing coach, says that, ultimately, the plot of the Wizard of Oz (1939) is as follows.[7]

A tornado picks up a house and drops it on a witch, a little girl meets some interesting traveling companions, a wizard sends them on a mission, and they melt a witch with a bucket of water.

Thus, plot consists of events cause a change in subsequent developments,[2] and does not necessarily Include events concerned with empathy.[7]Teri Shaffer Yamada, a professor at California State University, Long Beach, writes, "Plot - the major events that move the action in a narrative. It is the sequence of major events in a story, usually in a cause-effect relation."[8]

Usage[edit]

It was under these circumstances that, plot is used to design a story. In a screenwriting, Treatment, that contains plot as the gist of a story based on a causal chain of events, provides the fundamentals for a screenplay. It is prose, but has not yet divided into scenes (as contrasted with Outline makes a few line summary of each scene). In addition, more than a few writers employ dozens of Index cards.[9][10]

Fabula and Syuzhet[edit]

The fabula is the events in the fictional world, and then, the syuzhet is the window onto the events. The literary theory of Russian Formalism in the early 20th century, divided a narrative into two elements: the fabula and the syuzhet. After that, Formalist followers transpose fabula/syuzhet to story/plot. Thereby, this definition is usually used in Narratology, in parallel with Forster's definition. The Fabula ("Story") is what all happened in chronological order. In contrast, the Syuzhet ("Plot") means how we know a sequence of discourse that was sorted out by the (implied) author. That is, the syuzhet consists of picking up the fabula events in non-chronological order; e.g., Fabula=<a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, ..., an>, Syuzhet=<a5, a1, a3>. [5][11]

Plot structure[edit]

Generally, screenwriters combine plot with plot structure into treatment, then, this structure is referred to as the Three act structure.[10] This structure divided the length of a film into three parts, namely, three acts. Their acts have each function of Set-up, Confrontation, and Resolution. Each act is connected by two Plot points (i.e., turning points), which Plot point I is Act I border with Act II, then, Plot point II is also similar. Syd Field, United States screenwriter, redefined the three act structure in that way, for a film analysis in 1979.[12][13]

Before that time, Aristotle (Aristotelēs) previously, a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC, who wrote The Poetics, says that a tragedy can be divided into three parts, in that classic book. After about 2,200 years, in 1863, Gustav Freytag, a German writer, advocated a five-phase model, what is termed "Freytag's pyramid," that divided a drama into five parts, then, provided function to each part, on the basis of Aristotle's theory of tragedy. These are described in the sections below.

Aristotle on plot[edit]

In his Poetics, Aristotle considered plot (mythos) the most important element of drama—more important than character, for example. A plot must have, Aristotle says, a beginning, a middle, and an end, and the events of the plot must causally relate to one another as being either necessary or probable. (Poetics 23.1459a.)

Of the utmost importance to Aristotle is the plot's ability to arouse emotion in the psyche of the audience. In tragedy, the appropriate emotions are fear and pity, emotions which he considers in his Rhetoric. (Aristotle's work on comedy has not survived.)

Aristotle goes on to consider whether the tragic character suffers (pathos), and whether or not the tragic character commits the error with knowledge of what he is doing. He illustrates this with the question of a tragic character who is about to kill someone in his family.

The worst situation [artistically] is when the personage is with full knowledge on the point of doing the deed, and leaves it undone. It is odious and also (through the absence of suffering) untragic; hence it is that no one is made to act thus except in some few instances, e.g., Haemon and Creon in Antigone. Next after this comes the actual perpetration of the deed meditated. A better situation than that, however, is for the deed to be done in ignorance, and the relationship discovered afterwards, since there is nothing odious in it, and the discovery will serve to astound us. But the best of all is the last; what we have in Cresphontes, for example, where Merope, on the point of slaying her son, recognizes him in time; in Iphigenia, where sister and brother are in a like position; and in Helle, where the son recognizes his mother, when on the point of giving her up to her enemy.(Poetics book 14).

Freytag on Plot[edit]

Freytag's pyramid
Main article: Dramatic structure

Gustav Freytag considered plot a narrative structure that divides a story into five parts, like the five acts of a play. These parts are: exposition (of the situation); rising action (through conflict); climax (or turning point); falling action; and resolution.

Exposition[edit]

The exposition introduces all of the main characters in the story. It shows how they relate to one another, what their goals and motivations are, and the kind of person they are. The audience may have questions about any of these things, which get settled, but if they do have them they are specific and well-focused questions. Most importantly, in the exposition, the audience gets to know the main character (protagonist), and the protagonist gets to know his or her main goal and what is at stake if he or she fails to attain this goal and if he eventually attains this goal

This phase ends, and the next begins, with the introduction of conflict.

Inciting Incident[edit]

Right before the Rising Action is the Inciting Incident. This is the point of the plot that begins the conflict. Plot parts Ex. "The Most Dangerous Game" has an argument of Inciting Incidents;

Hearing the Gunshots that made him go to the rail--

"An abrupt sound startled him. Off to the right he heard it, and his ears, expert in such matters, could not be mistaken. Again he heard the sound, and again. Somewhere, off in the blackness, someone had fired a gun three times." (The Most Dangerous Game, Richard Connell)

--or him dropping his pipe and falling into the ocean.

"Rainsford sprang up and moved quickly to the rail, mystified. He strained his eyes in the direction from which the reports had come, but it was like trying to see through a blanket. He leaped upon the rail and balanced himself there, to get greater elevation; his pipe, striking a rope, was knocked from his mouth. He lunged for it; a short, hoarse cry came from his lips as he realized he had reached too far and had lost his balance. The cry was pinched off short as the blood-warm waters of the Caribbean Sea dosed over his head.".

Rising action[edit]

Rising action is the second phase in Freytag's five-phase structure. It starts with the death of the characters or a conflict. The buildup of events until the climax are involved in rising action.

"Conflict" in Freytag's discussion must not be confused with "conflict" in Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch's critical apparatus to categorize plots into types, e.g., man vs. society. The difference is that an entire story can be discussed according to Quiller-Couch's mode of analysis, while Freytag is talking about the second act in a five-act play, at a time when all of the major characters have been introduced, their motives and allegiances have been made clear (at least for the most part), and they now begin to struggle against one another.

Generally, in this phase the protagonist understands his or her goal and begins to work toward it. Smaller problems thwart their initial success and, in this phase, progress is directed primarily against these secondary obstacles. This phase shows us how the protagonist overcomes these obstacles.

Conflict[edit]

This is when a disagreement between two or more people/groups occur. This disagreement leads to the climax.

Climax[edit]

The point of climax is the turning point of the story, where the main character makes the single big decision that defines the outcome of the story and who he or she is as a person. The dramatic phase that Freytag called the "climax" is the third of the five phases and occupies the middle of the story. Thus "the climax" may refer to either the point of climax or to the third phase of the drama.

The beginning of this phase is marked by the protagonist finally having cleared away the preliminary barriers and being ready to engage with the adversary. Usually, entering this phase, both the protagonist and the antagonist have a plan to win against the other. Now for the first time we see them going against one another in either direct or nearly direct conflict.

This struggle results with neither character completely winning, nor losing, against the other. Usually, each character's plan is partially successful, and partially foiled by his adversary. What is unique about this central struggle between the two characters is that the protagonist makes a decision which shows us his moral quality, and ultimately determines his fate. In a tragedy, the protagonist here makes a "bad" decision, a miscalculation that demonstrates his tragic flaw.

The climax often contains much of the action in a story, for example, a defining battle.

″Climax″ is the highest point of the story.

Falling action[edit]

Frey tag called this phase "falling action" is the events in the story that lead to usually a happy ending. The events consist of the actions of characters resolving the problem.

In this phase, the villain has the upper hand. It seems that evil will triumph. The protagonist has never been further from accomplishing the goal. For Freytag, this is true both in tragedies and comedies, because both of these types of plots classically show good winning over evil. The question is which side the protagonist has put himself on, and this may not be immediately clear to the audience.

Plot devices[edit]

Main article: Plot device

A plot device is a means of advancing the plot in a story, often used to motivate characters, create urgency, or resolve a difficulty. This can be contrasted with moving a story forward with narrative (or dramatic) technique; that is, by making things happen because characters take action for well-motivated reasons. As an example, when the cavalry shows up at the last moment and saves the day in a battle, that can be argued to be a plot device; when an adversarial character who has been struggling with himself saves the day due to a change of heart, that is dramatic technique.

Familiar types of plot devices include the Deus ex machina, the MacGuffin, the red herring, and Chekhov's gun.

Plot outline[edit]

A plot outline is a prose telling of a story which can be turned into a screenplay. Sometimes called a "one page" (one-page synopsis, about 1-3 pages in length). It is generally longer and more detailed than a standard synopsis (1-2 paragraphs), but shorter and less detailed than a treatment or a step outline. There are different ways to create these outlines and they vary in length, but are essentially the same thing.

In comics, a pencil, often pluralized as "pencils", refers to a stage in the development where the story has been broken down very loosely in a style similar to storyboarding in film development.

The pencils will be very loose (i.e., the rough sketch), the main goals being to lay out the flow of panels across a page, to ensure the story successfully builds suspense and to work out points of view, camera angles, and character positions within panels. This can also be referred to as a "plot outline" or a "layout".

In fiction writing, a plot outline is a "laundry list of scenes" with each line being a separate plot point, and the outline helps give a story a "solid backbone and structure," according to Jenna Blum.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Notes on the Ballad Form Fetched 16 October 2013
  2. ^ a b c d e Ansen Dibell, Ph.D. (1999-07-15). Plot. Elements of Fiction Writing. Writer's Digest Books. pp. 5 f. ISBN 978-0898799460. Plot is built of significant events in a given story - significant because they have important consequences. Taking a shower isn't necessarily plot, or braiding one's hair, or opening a door. Let's call them incidents. They happen, but they don't lead to anything much. No important consequences. ……Cause and effect: that's what makes plot. ……Plot is the things characters do, feel, think or say, that make a difference to what comes afterward. 
  3. ^ Random House Dictionary. "plot."
  4. ^ Oxford Dictionaries. "storyline."
  5. ^ a b Prince, Gerald (2003-12-01). A Dictionary of Narratology (Revised ed. ed.). University of Nebraska Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0803287761. 
  6. ^ Wales, Katie (2011-05-19). A Dictionary of Stylistics. Longman Linguistics (3 ed.). Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 978-1408231159. 
  7. ^ a b Steve Alcorn. "Know the Difference Between Plot and Story". Tejix. Archived from the original on 2014-08-23. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  8. ^ Teri Shaffer Yamada, Ph.D. "ELEMENTS OF FICTION". California State University, Long Beach. Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2014-12-20. 
  9. ^ Seger, Linda (2013-12-01). "CHAPTER ONE: THE INDEX CARD APPROACH; THE OUTLINE; THE TREATMENT.". Making a Good Script Great (3 ed.). Silman-James Press. ASIN B005KC48VU. 
  10. ^ a b Aalto University. "Treatment". CinemaSense. Aalto University. Archived from the original on 2014-08-24. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  11. ^ Wales, Katie (2011-05-19). A Dictionary of Stylistics. Longman Linguistics (3 ed.). Routledge. pp. 320 f. ISBN 978-1408231159. 
  12. ^ Holland, Patricia (2004). The Television Handbook (2nd. ed.). 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001: Routledge. p. 119. ASIN B00IGYVBGY. 
  13. ^ The Telegraph (2013-12-12). "Syd Field - obituary". Telegraph Media Group Limited. Archived from the original on 2014-08-23. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  14. ^ Jenna Blum, 2013, The Modern Scholar published by Recorded Books, The Author at Work: The Art of Writing Fiction, Disk 1, Track 12, ISBN 978-1-4703-8437-1

External links[edit]