Elena of Montenegro
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (June 2011)|
|Elena of Montenegro|
|Elena in 1900|
|Tenure||29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946|
|Tenure||9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941|
|Tenure||16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943|
|Spouse||Victor Emmanuel III of Italy|
|Yolanda, Countess of Bergolo
Mafalda, Princess Philipp of Hesse
Umberto II of Italy
Giovanna, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria
Maria Francesca, Princess Luigi of Parma
|House||House of Savoy
House of Petrović-Njegoš
|Father||Nicholas I of Montenegro|
8 January 1873|
|Died||28 November 1952
|Burial||Montpellier Municipal Cemetery, France|
prev. Eastern Orthodox
Elena of Montenegro (born Princess Jelena Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro) (8 January 1873 – 28 November 1952) was the daughter of King Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić. As wife of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, she was Queen of Italy from 1900 until 1946.
As the result of Elena's marriage to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on 24 October 1896, she converted to Catholicism and became Queen of Italy when her husband acceded to the throne in 1900. Her mother was so distressed with the fact that Elena had changed her religion that she refused to come to the wedding ceremony in Rome.
Due to the Fascist conquest of Ethiopia in 1936 and Albania in 1939, Queen Elena briefly used the claimed titles of Empress of Ethiopia and Queen of Albania; both titles were dropped when her husband formally renounced them in 1943.
She influenced her husband to lobby Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy, for the creation of the independent Kingdom of Montenegro in 1941. In 1943 she subsequently obtained the release from a German prison of her nephew, Prince Michael of Montenegro, and his wife, Geneviève. Prince Michael had been imprisoned after refusing to become King of Montenegro under the protection of Italy.
The Queen and the wars
On 11 August 1901, following his father's assassination, Victor Emmanuel ascended the Italian throne. Officially, Elena assumed her husband's whole titles: she became Queen of Italy, and with the birth of the Italian Colonial Empire she became Queen of Albania and Empress of Ethiopia.
On 28 December 1908 Messina was hit by a disastrous earthquake. Queen Elena helped with the rescuers, as some photographs show. This helped to increase her popularity within the country. During the First World War Elena worked as nurse and, with the help of the Queen Mother, she turned Quirinal Palace and Villa Margherita into hospitals. To raise funds, she invented the "signed photograph", which was sold at the charity desks. At the end of the war, she proposed to sell the crown treasures in order to pay the war debts.
Elena was the first Inspector of the Voluntary Nurses for the Italian Red Cross from 1911 until 1921. She studied medicine and was able to obtain a laurea honoris causa. She financed charitable institutions for people with encephalitis, tubercolosis, former soldiers and poor mothers.
On 15 April 1937 Pope Pius XII gave her the Golden Rose of Christianity, the most important honour for a Catholic lady at the time. Pope Pius XII, in a condolence telegram sent to her son Umberto II for the queen's death, defined her a "Lady of charitable work".
In 1939, three months after the German invasion of Poland and the declaration of war by the United Kingdom and France, Elena wrote a letter to the six European queens still neutral (Denmark, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Bulgaria and Jugoslavia) in order to avoid the great tragedy the second world war would become.
On 25 July 1943 Victor Emmanuel III had Benito Mussolini arrested. The king left Rome on 9 September to flee to Brindisi with the help of the Allies and Elena followed her husband in his escape. In contrast, on 23 September their daughter Mafalda was arrested by the Nazis and sent to Buchenwald concentration camp, where she died in 1944.
King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Queen Elena had 5 children:
- Yolanda Margherita Milena Elisabetta Romana Maria (1901–1986), married to Giorgio Carlo Calvi, Count of Bergolo, (1887–1977);
- Mafalda Maria Elisabetta Anna Romana (1902–1944), married to Prince Philipp of Hesse (1896–1980) with issue; she died in the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald;
- Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria, later Umberto II, King of Italy (1904–1983) married (and following the abolition of monarchy, separated from) Princess Marie José of Belgium, with issue.
- Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria (1907–2000), married to Boris III, King of Bulgaria, and mother of Simeon II, Tsar and later Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
- Maria Francesca Anna Romana (1914–2001), who married Prince Luigi of Bourbon-Parma (1899–1967), with issue.
Media related to Elena of Montenegro at Wikimedia Commons
- The Njegoskij Fund Public Project : Private family archives-based digital documentary fund focused on history and culture of Royal Montenegro.
- Crnogorska princeza Jelena
Elena of MontenegroBorn: 8 January 1873 Died: 28 November 1952
Margherita of Savoy
|Queen consort of Italy
29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946
Marie-José of Belgium
|Empress consort of Ethiopia
(Not internationally recognised)
9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941
Géraldine Apponyi de Nagyappony
|Queen consort of Albania
16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943