Elephanta Caves

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UNESCO World Heritage Site
Elephanta Caves
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Elephanta caves
20 feet (6.1 m) high Trimurti sculpture

Type Cultural
Criteria (i)(iii)
Reference 244 rev
UNESCO region South Asia
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)

Coordinates: 18°57′30″N 72°55′50″E / 18.95833°N 72.93056°E / 18.95833; 72.93056 The Elephanta Caves (Marathi: घारापुरीची लेणी, Gharapurichya Lenee) are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri (literally "the city of caves") in Mumbai Harbour, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the east of the city of Mumbai in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The island, located on an arm of the Arabian Sea, consists of two groups of caves—the first is a large group of five Hindu caves, the second, a smaller group of two Buddhist caves. The Hindu caves contain rock cut stone sculptures, representing the Shaiva Hindu sect, dedicated to the god Shiva.[1][2]

The rock cut architecture of the caves has been dated to between the 5th and 8th centuries, although the identity of the original builders is still a subject of debate. The caves are hewn from solid basalt rock. All the caves were also originally painted in the past, but now only traces remain.

The island was called Gharapuri and was a Hindu place of worship until Portuguese rule began in 1534. The Portuguese called the island Elephanta on seeing its huge gigantic statue of an elephant at the entrance. The statue is now placed in the garden outside the Bhau Daji Lad Museum (erstwhile Victoria & Albert Museum) at the Jijamata Udyaan (erstwhile Victoria Gardens) at Byculla in Mumbai. This cave was renovated in the 1970s after years of neglect, and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 to preserve the artwork. It is currently maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).[1][2]

Geography[edit]

Elephanta is located in Mumbai
Elephanta
Elephanta
Elephanta (Mumbai)
The hills of the Elephanta Islands

Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri, is about 7 miles (11 km) east of the Apollo Bunder (Bunder in Marathi means a "pier for embarkation and disembarkation of passengers and goods") on the Mumbai Harbor and 6 miles (9.7 km) south of Pir Pal in Trombay. The island covers about 4 square miles (10 km2) at high tide and about 6 square miles (16 km2) at low tide. Gharapuri is small village on the south side of the island.[3] The Elephanta Caves can be reached by a ferry from the Gateway of India, Mumbai, which has the nearest airport and train station.[4] The cave is closed on Monday.

The island is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in length with two hills that rise to a height of about 500 feet (150 m). A deep ravine cuts through the heart of the island from north to south. On the west, the hill rises gently from the sea and stretches east across the ravine and rises gradually to the extreme east to a height of 568 feet (173 m). This hill is known as the Stupa hill. Forest growth with clusters of mango, tamarind, and karanj trees cover the hills with scattered palm trees. Rice fields are seen in the valley. The fore shore is made up of sand and mud with mangrove bushes on the fringe. Landing quays sit near three small hamlets known as Set Bunder in the north-west, Mora Bunder in the northeast, and Gharapuri or Raj Bunder in the south.[3]

The two hills of the island, the western and the eastern, have five rock-cut caves in the western part and a brick stupa on the eastern hill on its top composed of two caves with a few rock-cut cisterns. One of the caves on the eastern hill is unfinished. It is a protected island with a buffer zone according to a Notification issued in 1985, which also includes "a prohibited area" that stretches 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the shoreline.[5][6]

History[edit]

Since no inscriptions on any of the island have been discovered, the ancient history of the island is conjectural, at best. Pandavas, the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and Banasura, the demon devotee of Shiva, are both credited with building temples or cut caves to live. Local tradition holds that the caves are not man-made.[3][7]

The Elephanta caves are "of unknown date and attribution". Art historians have dated the caves in the range of late 5th to late 8th century AD.[7] Archaeological excavations have unearthed a few Kshatrapa coins dated to 4th century AD. The known history is traced only to the defeat of Mauryan rulers of Konkan by the Badami Chalukyas emperor Pulakesi II (609–642) in a naval battle, in 635 AD. Elephanta was then called Puri or Purika, and served as the capital of the Konkan Mauryas. Some historians attribute the caves to the Konkan Mauryas, dating them to the mid-6th century, though others refute this claim saying a relatively small kingdom like the Konkan Mauryas could not undertake "an almost superhuman excavation effort," which was needed to carve the rock temples from solid rock and could not have the skilled labor to produce such "high quality" sculpture.[6][7]

Caves of Elephanta, c. 1905. Note the broken pillars, which were restored in the 1970s.

Some other historians attribute the construction to the Kalacuris (late 5th to 6th century), who may have had a feudal relationship with the Konkan Mauryas. In an era where polytheism was prevalent, the Elephanta main cave dedicates the monotheism of the Pashupata Shaivism sect, a sect to which Kalacuris as well as Konkan Mauryas belonged.[7]

The Chalukyas, who defeated the Kalacuris as well as the Konkan Mauryas, are also believed by some to be creators of the main cave, in the mid-7th century. The Rashtrakutas are the last claimants to the creation of the main cave, approximated to the early 7th to late 8th century. The Elephanta Shiva cave resembles in some aspects the 8th-century Rashtrakuta rock-temple Kailash at Ellora. The Trimurti of Elephanta showing the three faces of Shiva is akin to the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh (Shiva), which was the royal insignia of the Rashtrakutas. The Nataraja and Ardhanarishvara sculptures are also attributed to the Rashtrakutas.[7][8]

The elephant sculpture from Elephanta is currently installed at the Jijamata Udyaan

Later, Elephanta was ruled by another Chalukyan dynasty, and then by Gujarat Sultanate, who surrendered it to the Portuguese in 1534. By then, Elephanta was called Gharapuri, which denotes a hill settlement. The name is still used in the local Marathi language. The Portuguese named the island "Elephanta Island" in honour of a huge rock-cut black stone statue of an elephant that was then installed on a mound, a short distance east of Gharapuri village. The elephant now sits in the Jijamata Udyaan zoo in Mumbai.[8][7]

Portuguese rule saw a decline in the Hindu population on the island and the abandonment of the Shiva cave (main cave) as a regular Hindu place of worship, though worship on Mahashivratri, the festival of Shiva, continued and still does.[9] The Portuguese did considerable damage to the sanctuaries. Portuguese soldiers used the reliefs of Shiva in the main cave for target practice, sparing only the Trimurti sculpture. They also removed an inscription related to the creation of the caves. While some historians solely blame the Portuguese for the destruction of the caves, others also cite water-logging and dripping rainwater as additional damaging factors. The Portuguese left in 1661 as per the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal. This marriage shifted possession of the islands to the British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.[3][7][10]

Though the main cave was restored in the 1970s, other caves, including three consisting of important sculptures, are still badly damaged.[7] The caves were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987 as per the cultural criteria of UNESCO: the caves "represent a masterpiece of human creative genius" and "bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared".

Overview[edit]

The island has two groups of caves in the rock-cut architectural style. The caves are hewn from solid basalt rock. All caves were painted in the past, but only traces remain. The larger group of caves, which consists of five caves on the western hill of the island, is well known for its Hindu sculptures. The primary cave, numbered as Cave 1, is about 1 mile (1.6 km) up a hillside, facing the ocean. It is a rock-cut temple complex that covers an area of 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2), and consists of a main chamber, two lateral chambers, courtyards, and subsidiary shrines. It is 39 metres (128 ft) deep from the front entrance to the back. The temple complex is the abode of Shiva, depicted in widely celebrated carvings which reveal his several forms and acts.[1][5][7][11]

On the eastern part of the island, on the Stupa Hill, there is a small group of caves that house Buddhist monuments. This hill is named after the religious Stupa monument that they display. One of the two caves is incomplete, while the other contains a Stupa made in brick.[1]

Main cave[edit]

Left: Cave 1 pillars. Right: Cave 1 east entrance (right door) middle courtyard connecting the east-end cave (left door).

The main cave, also called the Shiva cave, Cave 1, or the Great Cave, is 27 metres (89 ft) square in plan with a hall (mandapa). At the entrance are four doors, with three open porticoes and an aisle at the back. Pillars, six in each row, divide the hall into a series of smaller chambers.[5][7] The roof of the hall has concealed beams supported by stone columns joined together by capitals. The cave entrance is aligned with the north–south axis, unusual for a Shiva shrine (normally east–west). The northern entrance to the cave, which has 1,000 steep steps, is flanked by two panels of Shiva dated to the Gupta period. The left panel depicts Yogishvara (The Lord of Yoga) and the right shows Nataraja (Shiva as the Lord of Dance). The central Shiva shrine (see 16 in plan below) is a free-standing square cell with four entrances, located in the right section of the main hall. Smaller shrines are located at the east and west ends of the caves. The eastern sanctuary serves as a ceremonial entrance.[1][5][7]

Each wall has large carvings of Shiva, each more than 5 metres (16 ft) in height. The central Shiva relief Trimurti is located on the south wall and is flanked by Ardhanarisvara (a half-man, half-woman representation of Shiva) on its left and Gangadhara to its right, which denotes the River Ganges' descent from Shiva's matted locks. Other carvings related to the legend of Shiva are also seen in the main hall at strategic locations in exclusive cubicles; these include Kalyanasundaramurti, depicting Shiva's marriage to the goddess Parvati, Andhakasuravadamurti or Andhakasuramardana, the slaying of the demon Andhaka by Shiva, Shiva-Parvati on Mount Kailash (the abode of Shiva), and Ravananugraha, depicting the demon-king Ravana shaking Kailash.[1][5][6][8]

The main cave blends Chalukyan architectural features such as massive figures of the divinities, guardians, and square pillars with custom capitals with Gupta artistic characteristics, like the depiction of mountains and clouds and female hairstyles.[6]

Elephanta Map.svg

Layout:

Shiva-Parvati on Kailash and Ravana lifting Kailash[edit]

Left: Shiva and Parvati on Mount Kailasha. Right: Ravana shaking Mount Kailash.

The carving on the south wall to the east of the portico depicts Shiva and Parvati seated on their abode Mount Kailash. The four-armed Shiva is seen with a crown and a disc behind it (all damaged), the sacred thread across his chest, and a dressing gown covering up to the knee. Parvati, dressed in her finery with her hair falling to the front, looks away. Behind her at the right is a woman attendant holding the child, identified with her son Kartikeya, the war-god. Many male and female attendants are seen behind the main figures. Shiva's attendant, the skeleton-like Bhringi, is seated at his feet. Other figures, not distinct, depict, among others, a royal-looking tall person, ascetics, a fat figure, a dwarf, a bull (the mount of Shiva), features of a Garuda, and two monkeys. The scenic beauty of the mountain is sculpted with the sky background amidst heavenly beings showering flowers on Shiva-Parvati.[3] This scene is interpreted as a gambling scene, where Parvati is angry as Shiva cheats in a game of dice.[12]

The carved panel facing this one is a two-level depiction of Ravana lifting Kailash. The upper scene is Mount Kailash, where Shiva and Parvati are seated. The eight-armed, three-eyed Shiva wears headgear with a crescent and disc behind it. Most of his arms are broken, two of them resting on attendants' heads. The Parvati figure, seated facing Shiva, remains only as a trunk. The panel is flanked by door keepers. Attendants of Shiva are also seen in the relief but mostly in a damaged state. Bhringi is seated near Shiva's feet and to his left is the elephant-headed son of Shiva, Ganesha. In this ensemble, the ten-headed demon-king Ravana is seen, with only one head left unscathed, and out of his twenty arms, only a few are discernible. Around Ravana are several demons. Numerous figures are seen above Shiva: the god Vishnu, riding his mount Garuda, to his left; a skeleton-figure; and in a recess, Parvati's mount, a tiger is depicted.[3]

A legend relates to both these panels.[3] Once, Parvati was annoyed with Shiva. At this moment, Ravana, who was passing by Mount Kailash, found it as an obstruction to his movement. Upset, Ravana shook it vigorously and as a result, Parvati got scared and hugged Shiva. Enraged by Ravana's arrogance, Shiva stamped down on Ravana, who sang praises of Shiva to free him of his misery and turned into an ardent devotee of Shiva. Another version states that Shiva was pleased with Ravana for restoring Parvati's composure and blessed him.

Trimurti, Gangadhara and Ardhanarishvara[edit]

Drawing of Trimurti, Gangadhara and Ardhanarishvara from Journal of a residence in India, etc by Maria Graham, 1812
Gangadhara Shiva (right) with part of the Trimurti and a guardian (left).

Described as a "masterpiece of Gupta-Chalukyan art", the most important sculpture in the caves is the Trimurti, carved in relief at the back of the cave facing the entrance, on the north-south axis. It is also known as Trimurti Sadashiva and Maheshmurti. The image, 20 feet (6.1 m) in height, depicts a three-headed Shiva, representing Panchamukha Shiva.[11][13] The three heads are said to represent three essential aspects of Shiva: creation, protection, and destruction. The right half-face (west face) shows him as a young person with sensuous lips, embodying life and its vitality. In his hand he holds an object resembling a rosebud, depicting the promise of life and creativity. This face is closest to that of Brahma, the creator or Uma or Vamadeva, the feminine side of Shiva and creator of joy and beauty. The left half-face (east face) is that of a moustached young man, displaying anger. This is Shiva as the terrifying Aghora or Bhairava, the one whose anger can engulf the entire world in flames, leaving only ashes behind. This is also known as Rudra-Shiva, the Destroyer. The central face, benign and meditative, resembles the preserver Vishnu. This is Tatpurusha, "master of positive and negative principles of existence and preserver of their harmony" or Shiva as the yogi Yogeshwar in deep meditation praying for the preservation of humanity.[1][5][6][8][14] The aspects Sadyojata and Ishana (not carved) faces are considered to be at the back and top of the sculpture.[3][7][11] The Trimurti sculpture, with the Gateway of India in the background, has been adopted as the logo of the Maharashtra Tourism Department (MTDC).[4][15]

Ardhanarishvara (center) at Elephanta caves. Note the sculpture's left is female and the right is male, depicting Shiva and his consort Parvati.

The Gangadhara image to the right of the Trimurti is an ensemble of divinities assembled around the central figures of Shiva and Parvati, the former bearing the River Ganges as she descends from heaven. The carving is 13 feet (4.0 m) wide and 17.083 feet (5.207 m) high. The image is highly damaged, particularly the lower half of Shiva seen seated with Parvati, who is shown with four arms, two of which are broken. From the crown, a cup with a triple-headed female figure (with broken arms), representing the three sacred rivers Ganges, Yamuna, and Sarasvati, is depicted. Shiva is sculpted and bedecked with ornaments. The arms hold a coiling serpent whose hood is seen above his left shoulder. Another hand (partly broken) gives the semblance of Shiva hugging Parvati, with a head of matted hair. There is a small snake on the right hand and a tortoise close to the neck, with a bundle tied to the back. An ornamented drapery covers his lower torso, below the waist. Parvati is carved to the left of Shiva with a coiffured hair dress, fully bedecked with ornaments and jewellery, also fully draped, with her right hand touching the head of a female attendant who carries Parvati's dress case. The gods Brahma and Indra, with their mystic regalia and mounts, are shown to the right of Shiva; Vishnu, riding his mount Garuda, is shown to the left of Parvati. Many other details are defaced but a kneeling figure in the front is inferred to be the king who ordered the image to be carved. There are many divinities and attendant females at the back. The whole setting is under the sky and cloud scenes, with men and women, all dressed, shown showering flowers on the deities.[3][7]

In the chamber to the east of the Trimurti is the four-armed Ardhanarishvara carving. This image, which is 16.75 feet (5.11 m) in height, has a headdress (double-folded) with two pleats draped towards the female head (Parvati) and the right side (Shiva) depicting curled hair and a crescent. The female figure has all the ornamentation (broad armlets and long bracelets, a large ring in the ear, jewelled rings on the fingers) but the right male figure has drooping hair, armlets and wristlets. One of his hands rests on Nandi’s left horn, Shiva's mount, which is fairly well preserved. The pair of hands at the back is also bejewelled; the right hand of the male holds a serpent, while the left hand of the female holds a mirror. The front left hand is broken but conjectured as holding the robe of the goddess. The central figure is surrounded by divinities.[3]

Shiva slaying Andhaka and Wedding of Shiva[edit]

Shiva slaying Andhaka

The engraved panel in in the north end of the aisle is considered to be a unique sculpture, and shows Bhairava, or Virabhadra, a frightful form of Shiva. In the carved panel Shiva's consort is seen sitting next to him, looking terrified. A female attendant is next to her. The central figure, which is much ruined below the waist, is 11.5 feet (3.5 m) high and posed as if running. His headgear has a ruff on the back, a skull and cobra over the forehead, and the crescent high on the right. His facial expression is of intense anger discerned from his furrowed brow, swollen eyes, and tusks. The legs and five of the eight arms are broken, attributed to Portuguese vandalism. The smaller broken image Andhaka is seen below Bhairava's image. It is interpreted that Shiva is spearing him with the front right hand, as conjectured by the spear seen hanging without any hold. Also seen is the back hand lifted up and holding an elephant's skin as a cover; the elephant's head, carved tusk, and trunk are seen hanging from the left hand. The second left hand depicts a snake coiled round it. The hand holds a bowl to collect the blood dripping from the slain Andhaka. Furthermore, pieces of a male and two female forms, figures of two ascetics, a small figure in front, a female figure, and two dwarfs are also seen in the carved panel. An unusual sculpture seen above the head of the main figure of Shiva is of a "very wide bottle with a curved groove in the middle of it", which can interpreted variously as: the aum or the linga or a Shiva shrine.[3]

Panel depicting Kalyanasundara: the divine marriage of Shiva and Parvati with Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, and other divinities in attendance.

The niche image carved on the south wall is an ensemble of divinities assembled around the central figures of Shiva and Parvati shown getting married (Kalyanasundara icon). Parvati is seen standing to Shiva's right, the ordained place for a Hindu bride at the wedding. The carvings are substantially damaged; only one of Shiva's four hands is fully seen and the right leg is missing. Shiva has a headdress with a shining disc attached to it. His garments are well-draped, and well-tied at the waist. The sacred thread is seen across his chest. Parvati is carved as a perfect figure with coiffured hair dress, well adorned with jewellery and is draped tightly to display depressions below the waist only. She is seen with a coy expression and is led by her father who has his right hand on her shoulder. Even though both her hands are damaged, it is inferred that her left hand clasped Shiva's right hand as a mark of holy alliance. Brahma is sitting as the officiating priest for the marriage. Vishnu is witness to the marriage. Mena, the mother of Parvati, is seen standing next to Vishnu. The moon-god Chandra, seen with a wig and a crescent, is standing behind Parvati holding a circular pot with nectar for the marriage ceremony. Just above the main images, a galaxy of divinities, bearded sages, apsaras (nymphs), Vidyadharas, Yakshis, Gandharvas, Bhringi, and other male and female attendants are seen as witness to the marriage ceremony showering flowers on the divine couple.[3]

Yogishvara and Nataraja[edit]

Shiva as Yogisvara, doing penance.

The panel to the east of the north portico is Shiva in a Yogic position called Yogisvara, Mahayogi, Dharmaraja and Lakulish.[16] Resembling a Buddha, Shiva is in a dilapidated condition with only two broken arms. Shiva is seated in padmasana yogic posture (cross legged) on a lotus carried by two Nāgas. His crown is carved with details adorned by a crescent, a round frill at the back, and hair curls dropping on either side of the shoulders. His face is calm in mediation, his eyes half-closed. This represents Shiva in penance sitting amidst the Himalayan mountains after the death of his first wife Sati, who was later reborn as Parvati. He is surrounded by divinities in the sky and attendants below. Also seen is a plantain with three leaves already open and one opening, as well as a sunflower blossom. These are flanked by two attendants. Other figures discerned from a study of the broken images are: Vishnu riding Garuda on a plantain leaf; the Sun-god Surya riding a fully saddled horse (head missing); a saint with a rosary; two female figures in the sky draped up to their thighs; a faceless figure of the moon with a water container; three identical figures of a male flanked by two females; the skeleton of a sage; Brahma (without one arm) riding a swan; and Indra without his mount (elephant missing).[3]

Shiva as Nataraja (Cosmic dancer)

The panel carving in the west niche opposite Yogishvara depicts Shiva as Nataraja performing the Tandava (cosmic dance).[17] The niche is 13 feet (4.0 m) wide and 11 feet (3.4 m) high and set low on the wall. He wears well-decorated headgear. The Shiva image displays a dance pose and had ten arms, but the first right and third left hands are missing. The remaining first right arm is held across the breast and touches the left side, the second right hand that is seen damaged with an out-flaying pose is broken at the elbow. The third arm is damaged at the elbow, and the fourth is also broken but inferred to have held a Khatvanga (skull-club). The left arms, seen hanging, are damaged near the wrists. The third hand is bent (but broken) towards Parvati standing on the side and the fourth hand is raised up. The right thigh (broken) is lifted up, and the left leg is not seen at all, the elaborate armlets are well-preserved and a skirt round the waist is tied by a ribbon. A tall figurine of Parvati stands to the left of Shiva, which is also seen partly broken but well bejewelled. An airborne female figure is seen behind Parvati. Other figures seen in the relief are: Vishnu riding a Garuda; Indra riding his elephant; the elephant-headed Ganesha; Kartikeya; Bhrngi; sages and attendants.[3]

Main cave shrine[edit]

Shiva Linga shrine and Dvarapalas at door entry.

The central shrine is a free-standing square cell, with entrances on each of its sides. Each door is flanked by two dvarapalas (gate keepers). The Linga, the symbol of Shiva in union with the Yoni, and the symbol of Parvati together symbolise the supreme unity that is deified by the shrine. The Linga is set on a raised platform above the floor of the shrine by 6 feet (1.8 m). Six steps lead to this level from the floor level. The height of the eight dvarapalas varies from 14.833–15.167 feet (4.521–4.623 m). All are in a damaged condition except those at the southern door to the shrine. The southern gate statue has many unusual features – unusual headgear; a large skull above the forehead; lips parted with protruding teeth; statues adorned with a single bead necklace, earrings, plain twisted armlets and thick wristlets; a stooped right shoulder; a globe held at navel level; the robe is held at the right thigh by the left hand, and the legs are shapeless.[1][3][5][7]

East wing[edit]

Left: The four-armed doorkeeper and (right) the leogriff figure

Several courtyards to the east and west of the main cave are blocked, though there is a 55 feet (17 m)-wide courtyard that is accessible by entering the eastern part and climbing nine steps. A temple on the southern wall of the court depicts a well-preserved fresco. The circular pedestal seen in the courtyard in front of the Shiva's shrine near the east end, in the open area, is said to be the seat of Nandi, Shiva's mount.[1][3][5][6][8]

On each side of the steps leading to the temple-cave portico is a winged lion, or leogriff, each seated with a raised forepaw. The portico has chambers at each end and a Linga-shrine at the back. Five low steps and a threshold lead into the central Linga-shrine which is 13.8 feet (4.2 m) wide and 16 feet (4.9 m) deep and has a circumambulatory path (Pradakshina-path) around it. At the back of the portico, near the east end, is a gigantic statue of a four-armed doorkeeper with two attendant demons. At the north end is a standing figure holding a trident. His left hand rests on a defaced demon-figure. The west wall depicts the Ashta-Matrikas (eight mother goddesses), flanked by Kartikeya and Ganesha, the sons of Shiva. Some of Matrikas are depicted with children, but all of them are shown by their respective mounts (bull, swan, peacock, a Garuda, etc.) which identify them. At the east end of the portico is another chapel with a plain interior and sunken floor. Water drips in this chapel.[3][6]

West wing[edit]

The west wing, entered through the main cave, is in a semi-ruined state. It has a small chapel and a cistern enclosed within the pillared cave, which is believed to be Buddhist. Another shrine to the west of the courtyard, with a portico, has carvings of Shiva in a yogic pose seated on a lotus carried by “two fat, heavy, wigged figures”. This carving also depicts a three-faced bearded Bramha and several other figurines. Entering through the back door of the portico is a cave enshrined with a multifaceted Shiva Linga erected over roughly hewn salunkhs. At the door entrance on both flanks, statues of gatekeepers standing over demons and two fat, poised figures are seen. On the southern side of the door is an ensemble of a number of statues. Prominent among these is the Shiva carving, which is depicted with six arms and the third eye in the forehead. Though in a partly ruined state, the carving shows Shiva with an ornamented crown fixed with a crescent, seen carrying a cobra in the left hand, a club in another hand, and discerned to be in a dancing pose. Next to this image are a figure under a plantain tree and a Shiva image (Yogishvara) seated on a lotus. Also seen in the panel are a male figure riding a bull with a bell fastened to its neck, a female figure and another carving to left of Shiva, a female figure with a jewel on her forehead with neatly looped headdress, Indra riding an elephant, Vishnu with four arms, holding a discus in one of his left hands and riding on Garuda flanked by a small flying figure, and a male figure with crescent in his hair.[3]

Other notable caves[edit]

One of the other caves.

To the south-east of the Great Cave is the second excavation, which faces east-northeast. It includes a chapel at the north end. The front of this cave is completely destroyed; only fragments of some semi-columns remain. The interior has suffered water damage. The portico is 85 feet (26 m) long and 35 feet (11 m) deep. The chapel is supported by eight eight-cornered columns and two demi-columns and is irregular in shape. At the back of the portico are three chambers; the central one has an altar and a water channel (pranalika), though the Linga is lost. The shrine door has some traces of sculpture (a boy, a fat figure, alligators on the frieze, and broken animal figures at the head of a doorjamb). The door-keepers of the shrine are now in fragments.[3]

A little to the south of the last cave is another cave in worse condition, with water damage. It is a portico in which each end probably had a chapel or room with pillars in front. Two of them have cells at the back. The central door at the back of the portico leads to a damaged shrine. The shrine door has door-keepers at each side, leaning on dwarfs with flying figures over the head, with door-keepers and demons on the jamb and architrave. The shrine is a plain room 19.8 feet (6.0 m) deep by 18.8 feet (5.7 m) wide with a low altar, holding a Linga. South of this cave is a cavern that may be used as a cistern.[3]

Above these caves is a tiger sculpture, which was worshipped as the tiger goddess Vaghesheri. This sculpture may be a guardian of the north entrance of Cave 1. A Linga is also found near a small pond at top of the hill. Sculptures depicting a stone with a sun and a moon and a mother sucking a child (now moved) were also found nearby.[3]

Across the top of the ravine from Cave 1 is large hall known as Sitabai's Temple (cave). The portico has four pillars and two pilasters. The hall has 3 chambers at the back, the central one a shrine and the rest for priests (both are plain rooms). The door of the central shrine has pilasters and a frieze, with the threshold having lion figures at the end. The shrine has an altar, a water channel, and hole in the center, in which a statue of Parvati may have been worshipped. A 17th-century record states that "this cave [has] a beautiful gate with a porch of exquisitely wrought marble" and two idols, one of goddess Vetal Candi and a head being in a large square seat.[3]

Passing along the face of the eastern hill to the north of Sitabai's cave is a small Hindu excavation with a veranda, which was probably to be three cells, but was abandoned following the discovery of a flaw in the rock. Towards the east of hill is a dry pond, with large artificial boulders and Buddhist cisterns along its banks. At the end of the north spur of the main hill is a mound that resembles a Buddhist stupa.[3]

Preservation[edit]

Tourists taking pictures of the Trimurti

The threats to Elephanta Caves have been identified as the following: developmental pressures (mainly due to its location within the Mumbai harbor), anthropogenic pressure due to growth of population of the communities residing on the island, industrial growth of the port facilities close to the island, no risk preparedness plan to address natural calamities such as earthquake, cyclones and terrorist attacks, unsustainable tourism and tourist facilities on the island, and poor management of the heritage monument.[5][15][18]

Preservation of Elephanta Island as a whole with its monuments has been ensured both through legislation and by physical restoration of the caves and its sculptures. The basic legislations enacted are: The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act of 1958 and Rules (1959); The Elephanta Island (Protected Monument) Rules of 1957, which prohibits mining, quarrying, blasting, excavation and other operations near the monument; the Antiquities and Art Treasures Act promulgated in 1972 with its Rules promulgated in 1973; a Notification issued in 1985 declaring the entire island and a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) area from the shore as "a prohibited area"; a series of Maharashtra State Government environmental acts protecting the site; the 1966 Regional and Town Planning Act; and the 1995 Heritage Regulations for Greater Bombay.[5]

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Aurangabad Circle, on the basis of the above legislation and rules, maintain and manage the monuments. The physical measures undertaken for conservation cover include stabilisation of the rock face, construction of supports to the cave structures where pillars have collapsed, and consolidation of cave floors and construction of a parapet wall surrounding the site. In addition, visitor facilities at the site have been upgraded (such as toilet facilities, railing construction, pathways, and a flight of steps from the jetty to the caves). An on-site museum has been established and a conservation plan has been put in place. Overall, conservation of the property is stated to be good. The site receives approximately 25,000 visitors per month. Public information brochures are also available at the venue of the monuments. During the World Heritage Day on 18 April and World Heritage Week between 19 and 25 November there are special events held at the caves. Another popular event organised is an annual traditional dance festival that attracts many visitors.[5]

A typical boat that runs between Apollo Bunder and Elephanta Island.

After declaring the caves a World Heritage Site, UNESCO granted $100,000 to document the site's history and draw up a site plan. A part of the grant was used for conservation of the caves.[8] Based on assessments by UNESCO, management plans include: better communication and collaboration between the ASI, on-site staff, and other responsible government departments; improved public information and awareness programs; monitoring environmental impact of tourists on the cave and island environment; greater attention to the maintenance of the rocks to address water leakages into the caves; and daily monitoring of both structural and chemical conservation measures.[5]

The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) is also involved with the Archaeological Survey of India in improving the local conditions at the cave site. A book has been published jointly by UNESCO, INTACH and the Government of India which presents a comprehensive site plan for restoration and a brief history of each sculpture constructed inside the caves.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Elephanta Caves" (pdf). Unesco. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  2. ^ a b "Elephanta Caves". World Heritage: Unesco.org. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Elephanta". Gazetter Government of Maharashtra. 2006 (Digitization) [1964]. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  4. ^ a b "Caves: Elephanta". Official site of MTDC. Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC). 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "UNESCO State of Conservation Report: India, Elephanta Caves". World Heritage: unesco.org. 2003. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g File:Elephanta Rock-cut Temples Sign.jpg: Official plaque of Elephanta Rock Cut Temples at entry to the monuments, erected by the Archaeological Survey of India
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda. "Elephanta Island". International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 252–5. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Save the Caves". south-asian.com. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  9. ^ Times of India, Mumbai, 13 February 2010, p. 12 (Picture showing Trimurti garlanded, with caption).
  10. ^ Benoy K. Behl (24 Nov – 7 December 2007). "Simply grand". Frontline (the publishers of The Hindu) 24 (23). Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c File:Elephanta info.jpg: Maharashtra Tourism plaque at the caves
  12. ^ Berkson p. 12
  13. ^ Duffer's Guide to Elephanta, Mid-Day, Tinaz Nooshan, 22 Feb 2007, pg A14
  14. ^ Pinto, Jerry. "Lord of the Islands." HT Cafe, 31.
  15. ^ a b c Vinaya Kumar (10 February 2010). "Threat to Caves of Bombay". The Tribune India. 
  16. ^ "World Heritage Sites – Elephanta Caves". Official site of ASI. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Government of India. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  17. ^ "The Elephanta Caves". Tourist Attractions in India. 
  18. ^ Samir S. Patel (May–June 2007). "The Slum and the Sacred Cave". Archaeology Magazine, Volume 60 Number 3. 
Books

External links[edit]