July 9, 1819|
|Died||October 3, 1867
Brooklyn, New York
|Education||apprenticed as mechanic and machinist|
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Jennings Ames (m. 1841; d. 1850)
Rose Halladay (d. 1890)
|Children||Jane Robinson Howe,
Simon Ames Howe,
Julia Maria Howe
|Parents||Elias Howe and Polly (Bemis) Howe|
|Engineering discipline||Mechanical Engineering|
|Significant projects||sewing machine|
|Significant advance||lockstitch loop method|
|Significant awards||Gold Medal, Paris Exposition of 1867,
Légion d'honneur (France)
Early life and family
Howe was born on July 9, 1819 to Dr. Elias Howe, Sr. and Polly (Bemis) Howe in Spencer, Massachusetts. Howe spent his childhood and early adult years in Massachusetts where he apprenticed in a textile factory in Lowell beginning in 1835. After mill closings due to the Panic of 1837, he moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts to work as a mechanic with carding machinery, apprenticing along with his cousin Nathaniel P. Banks. Beginning in 1838, he apprenticed in the shop of Ari Davis, a master mechanic in Cambridge who specialized in the manufacture and repair of chronometers and other precision instruments. It was in the employ of Davis that Howe seized upon the idea of the sewing machine.
He married Elizabeth Jennings Ames, daughter of Simon Ames and Jane B. Ames on 3 Mar 1841 in Cambridge. They had three children: Jane Robinson Howe, Simon Ames Howe, and Julia Maria Howe.
Invention of sewing machine and career
Contrary to popular belief, Howe was not the first to conceive of the idea of a sewing machine. Many other people had formulated the idea of such a machine before him, one as early as 1790, and some had even patented their designs and produced working machines, in one case at least 80 of them. However, Howe originated significant refinements to the design concepts of his predecessors, and on September 10, 1846, he was awarded the first United States patent (U.S. Patent 4,750) for a sewing machine using a lockstitch design. His machine contained the three essential features common to most modern machines:
- a needle with the eye at the point,
- a shuttle operating beneath the cloth to form the lock stitch, and
- an automatic feed.
A possibly apocryphal account of how he came up with the idea for placing the eye of the needle at the point is recorded in a family history of his mother's family: "He almost beggared himself before he discovered where the eye of the needle of the sewing machine should be located. It is probable that there are very few people who know how it came about. His original idea was to follow the model of the ordinary needle, and have the eye at the heel. It never occurred to him that it should be placed near the point, and he might have failed altogether if he had not dreamed he was building a sewing machine for a savage king in a strange country. Just as in his actual working experience, he was perplexed about the needle’s eye. He thought the king gave him twenty-four hours in which to complete the machine and make it sew. If not finished in that time death was to be the punishment. Howe worked and worked, and puzzled, and finally gave it up. Then he thought he was taken out to be executed. He noticed that the warriors carried spears that were pierced near the head. Instantly came the solution of the difficulty, and while the inventor was begging for time, he awoke. It was 4 o’clock in the morning. He jumped out of bed, ran to his workshop, and by 9, a needle with an eye at the point had been rudely modeled. After that it was easy. That is the true story of an important incident in the invention of the sewing machine."
Despite securing his patent, Howe had considerable difficulty finding investors in the United States to finance production of his invention, so his elder brother Amasa Bemis Howe traveled to England in October 1846 to seek financing. Amasa was able to sell his first machine for £250 to William Thomas of Cheapside, London, who owned a factory for the manufacture of corsets, umbrellas and valises. Elias and his family joined Amasa in London in 1848, but after business disputes with Thomas and failing health of his wife, Howe returned nearly penniless to the United States. His wife Elizabeth, who preceded Elias back to the United States, died in Cambridge, Massachusetts shortly after his return in 1849.
Despite his efforts to sell his machine, other entrepreneurs began manufacturing sewing machines. Howe was forced to defend his patent in a court case that lasted from 1849 to 1854 because he found that Isaac Singer with cooperation from Walter Hunt had perfected a facsimile of his machine and was selling it with the same lockstitch that Howe had invented and patented. He won the dispute and earned considerable royalties from Singer and others for sales of his invention.
Howe contributed much of the money he earned to providing equipment for the 17th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry of the Union Army during the Civil War, in which Howe served during the Civil War as a private in Company D and regimental postmaster from August 14, 1862, to July 19, 1865.
Involvement in inventing the zipper
Howe received a patent in 1851 for an "Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure". Perhaps because of the success of his sewing machine, he did not try to seriously market it, missing recognition he might otherwise have received.
Later life and legacy
In 1865, Elias established the Howe Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut that was operated by the Stockwell brothers, his brothers-in-law, from 1867 until about 1885. Between 1867 and 1870, Elias's brother Amasa operated a factory in New York City manufacturing sewing machines under the brand name of A.B. Howe. Elias's sewing machine won the gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1867, and that same year he was awarded the Légion d'honneur by Napoleon III for his invention.
Howe died at age 48, on 3 October 1867. He was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn New York with his second wife Rose Halladay who died on 10 Oct 1890. Both Singer and Howe ended their days as multi-millionaires. The Beatles' 1965 movie Help! is dedicated to Howe as part of its closing credits, and in 2004 he was inducted into the United States National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Howe was a direct descendant of John Howe (1602-1680) who arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 from Brinklow, Warwickshire, England and settled in Sudbury, Massachusetts. Howe was also a descendant of Edmund Rice another early immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony as follows:
- Elias Howe, Jr, son of
- Elias Howe (1792 – 1872), son of
- Elijah Howe, Jr. (1768 – 1816), son of
- Elijah Howe (1731 – 1808), son of
- Jaazaniah Howe (1704 – 1762), son of
- Deliverance Rice (1681 – 1723), daughter of
- John Rice (1659 – 1719), son of
- Deacon Edward Rice (1622 – 1712), son of
- Deacon Edmund Rice (1594 – 1663)
- Elias Howe, National Inventors Hall of Fame
- Edmund Rice (1638) Association, 2009. Descendants of Edmund Rice: The First Nine Generations. (CD-ROM)
- "A Brief History of the Sewing Machine". ISMACS International. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- Waln-Morgan Draper, Thomas, The Bemis History and Genealogy: Being an Account, in Greater Part, of the Descendants of Joseph Bemis of Watertown, Massachusetts, The Bemis History and Genealogy (Washington [District of Columbia]: Library of Congress, [19--]), pp 159-162, 1357 Joshua Bemis, FHL Microfilm 1011936 Item 2.
- "Elias Howe Obituary". New York Times, 5 October 1867. October 5, 1867. Retrieved 8 Nov 2009.
- "Muster roll, Company D, 17th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment". Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteer Infantry homepage. Retrieved 9 Nov 2009.
- Pro Patria: Civil War monument of Connecticut
- "Zipper History". AnsunMultitech. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
- "French Legion of Honor Recipients". NNDB-Biographic Data Base. Retrieved 9 Nov 2009.
- Elias Howe, 19th Century Scientific American Online
- "Who was Edmund Rice?". The Edmund Rice (1638) Association, Inc. Retrieved 8 Nov 2009.
- "Elijah Howe". Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- Elias Howe at Find a Grave
- Iles, George (1912), Leading American Inventors, New York: Henry Holt and Company, pp. 338–369
- Elias Howe Biography by Alex I. Askaroff
- "Howe, Elias". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1892
- "Howe, Elias". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911