Elias, Duke of Parma
|Duke of Parma|
|Head of House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Reign||7 January 1950 – 27 June 1959|
|Successor||Duke Robert Hugo|
|Spouse||Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria|
Princess Maria Francesca
Robert Hugo, Duke of Parma
Princess Alicia, Duchess of Calabria
Princess Maria Cristina
|House||House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Father||Robert I, Duke of Parma|
|Mother||Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies|
23 July 1880|
|Died||27 June 1959
Elias, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (Italian: Elia di Borbone-Parma; 23 July 1880 – 27 June 1959) was the head of the House of Bourbon-Parma and pretender to the defunct throne of Parma between 1950 and 1959. From 1907 to 1950 he served as regent for the claims of his two older disabled brothers.
Despite the loss of his throne, Robert and his family enjoyed considerable wealth. They owned castles at Schwarzau am Steinfeld near Vienna in Austria, Villa Pianore near Viareggio in Italy, and the magnificent Château de Chambord in France.
Marriage and family
On 25 May 1903 at Vienna, Elias married Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1882–1940), daughter of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen and a niece of Queen Maria Cristina of Spain. Elias and Maria Anna had eight children:
- Princess Elisabetta (17 March 1904 – 13 June 1983); she died unmarried.
- Prince Carlo Luigi (22 September 1905 – 26 September 1912); he died of poliomyelitis.
- Princess Maria Francesca (5 September 1906 – 20 February 1994); she died unmarried.
- Robert Hugo, Duke of Parma (7 August 1909 – 25 November 1974); he died unmarried.
- Prince Francesco Alfonso (14 June 1913 – 29 May 1939); he died unmarried.
- Princess Giovanna Isabella (8 July 1916 – 1 November 1949); she never married and was killed in a shooting accident in La Toledana, Spain.
- Princess Alicia (born 13 November 1917); she married Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria. Has issue
- Princess Maria Cristina (7 June 1925 – 1 September 2009); she died unmarried.
Regent for his brothers
In 1907 Elias' father Robert died and was succeeded in his ducal claims of Parma by his son Enrico who was mentally disabled. Less than four months later the Grand Marshal of the Austrian court declared Enrico and five of his siblings legally incompetent. Elias became regent for Enrico's claims and guardian for his disabled siblings.
In 1910 Elias came to an agreement with his half-siblings, his father's children by his second wife, about the division of their father's estate. Elias was to have half of the estate in order to support his rank as head of the family; this half included the château de Chambord.
In 1915 Chambord was sequestered by the French government as alien property, since Elias held a commission in the Austrian Army. Liquidation proceedings were started in 1919 in application of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which gave the Allies the right to keep such property. Elias' half-brothers, Sixtus and Xavier took Elias to court to obtain a greater share of their father's estate. They claimed that the 1910 family agreement violated the French law which mandated equal division between siblings. In 1925 the French courts determined that Sixtus and Xavier should have a larger share, but in 1928 this judgement was overturned on appeal. In 1932 the court of cassation upheld the appeal on the grounds that there was a valid agreement between the siblings to an unequal division. Elias' rights to the château de Chambord were thereby recognised - but the wartime confiscation was upheld and Elias was financially compensated with 11 million francs.
In 1939 Enrico died and was succeeded in his ducal claims of Parma by his brother Giuseppe who also was mentally disabled. Elias continued to act as regent.
In 1950 Giuseppe died and Elias succeeded as pretender of Parma.
- "Demands Seizure of Bourbon Estate", The New York Times ( 21 April 1915): 1; "France Takes Chambord", The New York Times ( 25 April 1915): 3.
Elias, Duke of Parma
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 23 July 1880 Died: 27 June 1959
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
Duke of Parma
Reason for succession failure:
Annexed by Kingdom of Italy
|— TITULAR —
King of Etruria