Pimecrolimus

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Pimecrolimus
Pimecrolimus2DACS.svg
Pimecrolimus ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S,4R,5S,8R,9E,12S,14S,15R,16S,18R,19R,26aS)
Clinical data
Trade names Elidel
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
Pregnancy cat. B3 (AU) C (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes topical
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability low systemic absorption
Protein binding 74%–87%
Metabolism Hepatic CYP3A
Identifiers
CAS number 137071-32-0 YesY
ATC code D11AH02
PubChem CID 16051947
DrugBank DB00337
ChemSpider 10482089 YesY
UNII 7KYV510875 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1200686 N
Chemical data
Formula C43H68ClNO11 
Mol. mass 810.453 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Pimecrolimus is an immunomodulating agent used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema). It is available as a topical cream, once marketed by Novartis (however, Galderma has been promoting the compound in Canada since early 2007) under the trade name Elidel.

Pharmacology[edit]

Pimecrolimus is an ascomycin macrolactam derivative. It has been shown in vitro that pimecrolimus binds to macrophilin-12(also referred to as FKBP-12) and inhibits calcineurin. Thus pimecrolimus inhibits T-cell activation by inhibiting the synthesis and release of cytokines from T-cells. Pimecrolimus also prevents the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells.

General characteristics[edit]

Pimecrolimus, like tacrolimus, belongs to the ascomycin class of macrolactam immunosuppressives, acting by the inhibition of T-cell activation by the calcineurin pathway and inhibition of the release of numerous inflammatory cytokines, thereby preventing the cascade of immune and inflammatory signals.[1] Pimecrolimus has a similar mode of action to that of tacrolimus but is more selective, with no effect on dendritic (Langerhans) cells.[2] It has lower permeation through the skin than topical steroids or topical tacrolimus[3] although they have not been compared with each other for their permeation ability through mucosa. In addition, in contrast with topical steroids, pimecrolimus does not produce skin atrophy.[4] It has been proven to be effective in various inflammatory skin diseases, e.g., seborrheic dermatitis,[5] cutaneous lupus erythematosus,[6] oral lichen planus,[7] vitiligo,[8] and psoriasis.[9][10] Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are both calcineurin inhibitors and function as immunosuppressants.[11]

Side effects[edit]

See also: Immunomodulators in the treatment of eczema

In January 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that Elidel packaging would be required to carry a black box warning regarding the potential increased risk of lymph node or skin cancer, as for the similar drug tacrolimus. Whereas current practice by UK dermatologists is not to consider this a significant real concern and they are increasingly recommending the use of such new drugs.[12]

Importantly, although the FDA has approved updated black-box warning for tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, the recent report of the American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force finds that there is no causal proof that topical immunomodulators cause lymphoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer, and systemic immunosuppression after short-term or intermittent long-term topical application seems an unlikely mechanism.[13] Another recent review of evidence concluded that postmarketing surveillance shows no evidence for this systemic immunosuppression or increased risk for any malignancy.[14] However, there are still some strong debates and controversies regarding the exact indications of immunomodulators and their duration of use in the absence of active controlled trials.[15] Dermatologists' and Allergists' professional societies, the American Academy of Dermatology[1], and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, have protested the inclusion of the black box warning. The AAAAI states "None of the information provided for the cases of lymphoma associated with the use of topical pimecrolimus or tacrolimus in AD indicate or suggest a causal relationship."[2].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allen BR, Lakhanpaul M, Morris A, Lateo S, Davies T, Scott G, Cardno M, Ebelin ME, Burtin P, Stephenson TJ (2003). "Systemic exposure, tolerability, and efficacy of pimecrolimus cream 1% in atopic dermatitis patients". Arch Dis Child 88 (11): 969–973. doi:10.1136/adc.88.11.969. PMC 1719352. PMID 14612358. 
  2. ^ Meingassner JG, Kowalsky E, Schwendinger H, Elbe-Bürger A, Stütz A (2003). "Pimecrolimus does not affect Langerhans cells in murine epidermis". Br J Dermatol 149 (4): 853–857. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05559.x. PMID 14616380. 
  3. ^ Billich A, Aschauer H, Aszódi A, Stuetz A (2004). "Percutaneous absorption of drugs used in atopic eczema: pimecrolimus permeates less through skin than corticosteroids and tacrolimus". Int J Pharm 269 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2003.07.013. PMID 14698574. 
  4. ^ Firooz A, Solhpour A, Gorouhi F, Daneshpazhooh M, Balighi K, Farsinejad K, Rashighi-Firoozabadi M, Dowlati Y (2006). "Pimecrolimus cream, 1%, vs hydrocortisone acetate cream, 1%, in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, investigator-blind, clinical trial". Archives of Dermatology 142 (8): 1066–1067. doi:10.1001/archderm.142.8.1066. PMID 16924062. 
  5. ^ Firooz A, Solhpour A, Gorouhi F, Daneshpazhooh M, Balighi K, Farsinejad K, Rashighi-Firoozabadi M, Dowlati Y (2006). "Pimecrolimus cream, 1%, vs hydrocortisone acetate cream, 1%, in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, investigator-blind, clinical trial". Archives of Dermatology 142 (8): 1066–1067. doi:10.1001/archderm.142.8.1066. PMID 16924062. 
  6. ^ Kreuter A, Gambichler T, Breuckmann F, Pawlak FM, Stücker M, Bader A, Altmeyer P, Freitag M (2004). "Pimecrolimus 1% cream for cutaneous lupus erythematosus". J Am Acad Dermatol 51 (3): 407–410. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.01.044. PMID 15337984. 
  7. ^ Gorouhi F, Solhpour A, Beitollahi JM, Afshar S, Davari P, Hashemi P, Nassiri Kashani M, Firooz A (2007). "Randomized trial of pimecrolimus cream versus triamcinolone acetonide paste in the treatment of oral lichen planus". J Am Acad Dermatol 57 (5): 806–813. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.06.022. PMID 17658663. 
  8. ^ Boone B, Ongenae K, Van Geel N, Vernijns S, De Keyser S, Naeyaert JM (2007). "Topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of vitiligo". Eur J Dermatol 17 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2006.06124.x. PMID 17081269. 
  9. ^ Kreuter A, Sommer A, Hyun J, Bräutigam M, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Gambichler T (2006). "1% pimecrolimus, 0.005% calcipotriol, and 0.1% betamethasone in the treatment of intertriginous psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized controlled study". Arch Dermatol 142 (9): 1138–1143. doi:10.1001/archderm.142.9.1138. PMID 16983001. 
  10. ^ Jacobi A, Braeutigam M, Mahler V, Schultz E, Hertl M (2008). "Pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of facial psoriasis: a 16-week open-label study". Dermatology 216 (2): 133–136. doi:10.1159/000111510. PMID 18216475. 
  11. ^ Scheinfeld N (2004). "The use of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus to treat psoriasis: a review". Dermatol. Online J. 10 (1): 3. PMID 15347485. 
  12. ^ N H Cox and Catherine H Smith (December 2002). "Advice to dermatologists re topical tacrolimus" (DOC). Therapy Guidelines Committee. British Association of Dermatologists. 
  13. ^ Berger TG, Duvic M, Van Voorhees AS, VanBeek MJ, Frieden IJ; American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force (2006). "The use of topical calcineurin inhibitors in dermatology: safety concerns Report of the American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force". J Am Acad Dermatol 54 (5): 818–823. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.01.054. PMID 16635663. 
  14. ^ Spergel JM, Leung DY (2006). "Safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors in atopic dermatitis: evaluation of the evidence". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 6 (4): 270–274. doi:10.1007/s11882-006-0059-7. PMID 16822378. 
  15. ^ Stern RS (2006). "Topical calcineurin inhibitors labeling: putting the "box" in perspective". Archives of Dermatology 142 (9): 1233–1235. doi:10.1001/archderm.142.9.1233. PMID 16983018. 

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