Professor Élie Joseph Cartan
9 April 1869|
Dolomieu, Isère, France
|Died||6 May 1951
|Institutions||University of Paris
École Normale Supérieure
|Alma mater||University of Paris|
|Doctoral advisor||Gaston Darboux
|Doctoral students||Charles Ehresmann
|Known for||Lie groups, differential geometry|
|Notable awards||Leconte Prize (1930)
Fellow of the Royal Society
Élie Joseph Cartan (French: [kaʁtɑ̃]; 9 April 1869 – 6 May 1951) was an influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups and their geometric applications. He also made significant contributions to mathematical physics, differential geometry, and group theory. He was the father of another influential mathematician, Henri Cartan, and the composer Jean Cartan.
Élie Cartan was born in the village of Dolomieu, Isère, the son of a blacksmith. He attended the Lycée Janson de Sailly before studying at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris in 1888 and obtaining his doctorate in 1894. He subsequently held lecturing positions in Montpellier and Lyon, becoming a professor in Nancy in 1903. He took a lecturing position at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1909, becoming professor there in 1912 until his retirement in 1940. He died in Paris after a long illness.
By his own account, in his Notice sur les travaux scientifiques, the main theme of his works (numbering 186 and published throughout the period 1893–1947) was the theory of Lie groups. He began by working over the foundational material on the complex simple Lie algebras, tidying up the previous work by Friedrich Engel and Wilhelm Killing. This provided a complete classification, by the identification of the four main families and the five exceptional cases. He also introduced: the algebraic group concept (which was not rediscovered until the 1950's); and many of the basic constructions of representation theory.
These contributions began when he defined the general notion of anti-symmetric differential p-forms, which provided a new approach to the classification of Lie groups through the Maurer–Cartan equations,and produced an efficient way to describe local integrability condition for any system of analytic partial differential equations. Prior to Cartan, 1-forms had been used to clarify Hamiltonian method for integrating overdetermined systems of PDE for one function of several varriables. This approach slowly evolved into integrating Pfaffian systems (i.e. first-order partial differential equations ). By introducing additional variables for higher derivatives, and describing their integrability conditions via additional differential forms, Cartan produced a natural linear algebraic "prolongation" algorithm which lead to the Cartan-Kahler theorem establishing the local existence, or non existence, of solutions to general analytic systems of PDE. Central to his approach is his discovery of the exterior derivative, an entirely geometric and coordinate-independent operation. With this striking insight Cartan was able to condense 150 years of idiosyncratic several variable techniques. It should be taken as a pivotal moment in mathematical history.
With these devices under his control — Lie groups and differential forms — he went on to produce a very large body of work, based on novel computational techniques involving moving frames: He is the first to consider a principal frame bundle as the fundamental object of geometry, thereby significantly generalizing F. Klein's "Erlangen program"; Cartan was the first to prove that the Einstein PDE for vacuum spacetime metrics has a large set of solutions (i.e.,an "involutive" system), a nontrivial observation which indicates that general relativity is a robust physical theory; The iteration of the exterior derivative is the zero operator (i.e.,defines an exact sequence) thus, Cartan opened the door to algebraic topology, a subject central to the mathematics of the 20th century; The Smale-Gromov h-principal begins with Cartan's local integrabily conditions and examines global integrability conditions.
Rather than engaging in abstraction, Cartan's approach was to: concretely define an object via differential forms on the total space of a principal frame bundle; quickly compute relationships among their invariants via his calculus of differential forms; then state the resulting theorem. (These computations are often so brief and efficient, that much reflection is required in order to understand cartan's train of thought.) Since the relevant frame bundles can be realized as subsets of a high dimensional affine space, his approach cleverly avoided many of technical issues surrounding the definition of abstract manifolds which had yet to be clearly delineated in the early 20th century. After his death Cartan's calculus was rediscovered and reinvigorated by: S.Chern, R.Bryant, R.Gardner,and P.Griffiths. The subject is now referred to as Exterior differential systems. Anyone disatisfied with their undergraduate course in several variable calculus will find an introductory text on differential forms reinvigorating, and the perfect memorial to the crystalline mind of E. Cartan.
In the Travaux, he breaks down his work into 15 areas. Using modern terminology, they are these:
- Lie theory
- Representations of Lie groups
- Hypercomplex numbers, division algebras
- Systems of PDEs, Cartan–Kähler theorem
- Theory of equivalence
- Integrable systems, theory of prolongation and systems in involution
- Infinite-dimensional groups and pseudogroups
- Differential geometry and moving frames
- Generalised spaces with structure groups and connections, Cartan connection, holonomy, Weyl tensor
- Geometry and topology of Lie groups
- Riemannian geometry
- Symmetric spaces
- Topology of compact groups and their homogeneous spaces
- Integral invariants and classical mechanics
- Relativity, spinors
- List of things named after Élie Cartan
- Integrability conditions for differential systems
- CAT(k) space
- Cartan, Élie (1894), Sur la structure des groupes de transformations finis et continus, Thesis, Nony
- Leçons sur les invariants intégraux, Hermann, Paris, 1922
- La Géométrie des espaces de Riemann, 1925
- Leçons sur la géométrie des espaces de Riemann, Gauthiers-Villars, 1928
- La théorie des groups finis et continus et l'analysis situs, Gauthiers-Villars, 1930
- Leçons sur la géométrie projective complexe, Gauthiers-Villars, 1931
- La parallelisme absolu et la théorie unitaire du champ, Hermann, 1932
- La Théorie des groupes continus et des espaces généralisés, 1935
- Leçons sur la théorie des espaces à connexion projective, Gauthiers-Villars, 1937
- La théorie des groupes finis et continus et la géométrie différentielle traitées par la méthode du repère mobile, Gauthiers-Villars, 1937
- Cartan, Élie (1981) , The theory of spinors, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-64070-9, MR 631850
- Les systèmes différentiels extérieurs et leurs applications géométriques, Hermann, 1945
- Oeuvres complètes, 3 parts in 6 vols., Paris 1952 to 1955, reprinted by CNRS 1984:
- Part 1: Groupes de Lie (in 2 vols.), 1952
- Part 2, Vol. 1: Algèbre, formes différentielles, systèmes différentiels, 1953
- Part 2, Vol. 2: Groupes finis, Systèmes différentiels, théories d'équivalence, 1953
- Part 3, Vol. 1: Divers, géométrie différentielle, 1955
- Part 3, Vol. 2: Géométrie différentielle, 1955
- Whitehead, J. H. C. (1952). "Elie Joseph Cartan. 1869-1951". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 8 (21): 71–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1952.0005. JSTOR 768800.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Élie Cartan", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Élie Cartan at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Vanderslice, J. L. (1938). "Review: Leçons sur la théorie des espaces à connexion projective". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 44 (1, Part 1): 11–13. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1938-06648-7.
- Weyl, Hermann (1938). "Cartan on Groups and Differential Geometry". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 44 (9, part 1): 598–601.
- Thomas, J. M. (1947). "Review: Les systèmes différentiels extérieurs et leurs applications géométriques". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 53 (3): 261–266. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1947-08750-4.
- M.A. Akivis & B.A. Rosenfeld (1993) Élie Cartan (1869–1951), translated from Russian original by V.V. Goldberg, American Mathematical Society ISBN 0-8218-4587-X .
- Shiing-Shen Chern and Claude Chevalley (1951) Élie Cartan and his mathematical work, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 58: 217-250.
English translations of some of his books and articles:
- "On certain differential expressions and the Pfaff problem"
- "On the integration of systems of total differential equations"
- Lessons on integral invariants.
- "The structure of infinite groups"
- "Spaces with conformal connections"
- "On manifolds with projective connections"
- "The unitary theory of Einstein-Mayer"
- "E. Cartan, Exterior Differential Systems and its Applications, (Translated in to English by M. Nadjafikhah)"