Eliza Marian Butler (29 December 1885 – 13 November 1959), who published as E. M. Butler and Elizabeth M. Butler, was an English scholar of German, Schröder Professor of German at the University of Cambridge from 1945. Her most influential book was The Tyranny of Greece over Germany (1935), in which she wrote that Germany had had "too much exposure to Ancient Greek literature and art. The result was that the German mind had succumbed to 'the tyranny of an ideal'. The German worship of Ancient Greece had emboldened the Nazis to remake Europe in their image." It was controversial in Britain and its translation was banned in Germany.
The Tyranny of Greece Over Germany: A Study of the Influence Exercised by Greek Art and Poetry Over the Great German Writers of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Cambridge University Press, 1935; repr. Boston: Beacon, 1958, and Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2012, ISBN 1107697646).
Rainer Maria Rilke (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941; repr. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946)
The Myth of the Magus (1947)
Ritual Magic (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1949; reimpr. 1998).
^Eliza Marian Butler, Paper boats, 1959. "As it was, we both agreed that the experiment to give the 'real Germany' another chance had not been outstandingly successful; and it was under sombre auspices that I started professing German studies in Manchester that autumn."
^Frank C. Roberts, Obituaries from the Times, 1951–1960, 1979. "She also published two not very good novels, and, in 1959, a delightful volume of reminiscences, Paper Boats. Dr. Butler's Irish origin gave her a degree of high spirits which made those duller than herself"[clarification needed]