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Eliza Tibbets (born Eliza Maria Lovell 1823, died 1898) was a Riverside, California founder, who, with husband Luther C. Tibbets, is known for growing the first Washington navel orange and founding the citrus industry and cultural landscape of orange groves in California, United States. Tibbets was a plantswoman, horticulturist, agronomist, pioneer California farmer, spiritualist, abolitionist, universal suffragist, and renowned Riverside citizen.
- 1 Initial navel testing
- 2 Navel introduction
- 3 Biography
- 4 Tibbets and the Washington navel orange
- 5 Legacy of introduction
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
In 1873, Tibbets convinced William Saunders, who was a botanist, nurseryman, landscape gardener, horticulturist, and artist, to test a new citrus plant at her ranch in Riverside. Saunders, among many other things, had already designed the Soldier's National Cemetery at Gettysburg and the Lincoln Tomb Monument in Springfield, Illinois. With five other horticulturists he founded The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry in 1867. As the nation's Chief Experimental Horticulturalist, he was responsible for the introduction of many fruits and vegetables to American agriculture. As Superintendent of the fledgling United States Bureau of Agriculture, he selected Tibbets as a test grower for his new seedless oranges collected from the Bahia region, on the Atlantic coast north of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. By planting and nurturing the Washington Navel Orange trees that Saunders had sent to her, Tibbets revolutionized the citrus industry in Southern California and beyond.
Introduction of these oranges, later called the Washington navel orange, proved to be the most successful experiment of Saunders's tenure, and one of the outstanding events in the economic and social development of California. For the next 60 years and more, a great industry was built up from the two small trees planted by Tibbets.
Born in Cincinnati on August 5, 1823, Eliza Maria Lovell was the youngest child of Oliver and Clarissa Downes Lovell. Pioneers to early Ohio, the Lovells had come to Cincinnati from Boston in 1812, first by covered wagon, then by ark (river boat). The Lovell family became prominent in the frontier town. Eliza's father was, among other things, a town councilman, city councilman, President of the Fire Wardens' Association, a New Jerusalem minister, and a trustee of the city water works, the Woodward School, and the Academy of Fine Arts.
Her uncle "Commodore" John Downes was a well-known and highly decorated officer of the War with Tripoli and the War of 1812. He commanded the Mediterranean Squadron and later the Pacific Squadron. Downes’ ship USS Potomac became the first U.S. naval vessel to circumnavigate the globe. The ship was also the first to host royalty—the king and queen of the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands. Three destroyers in the United States Navy have been named USS Downes in honor of him.
The Cincinnati Lovells were Swedenborgians, members of the Swedenborgian Church of the New Jerusalem based on the writings of Swedish scientist and mystic, Emanuel Swedenborg. Cincinnati Swedenborgians were intelligent, cultured, and influential people who loved good literature, music, painting, the theater and other arts. Cincinnati church members included inventors Jacob, William & R. P. Resor, publisher Benjamin and sculptor Hiram Powers, clockmaker Luman Watson, artist Mary Menessier Beck, educators Alexander Kinmont, Frederic Eckstein, and M. M. Carll, and theatrical agent Sol Smith.
Eastern United States
Eliza Lovell Summons-Tibbets was also a spiritualist. When the Spiritualism spread throughout the nation and the globe during the mid-19th century, her father Oliver Lovell became President of the spiritualist society in Cincinnati. Her sister Clara Lovell Smith's sealed letter was divined by spiritualist physician John Redmond, who discussed the family in one of his books. Tibbets herself was considered an accomplished medium.
Tibbets' second husband, James Neal, was a commerce merchant who became a well-known healing medium. Noted Spiritualist lecturer Thomas Gales Forster and his family lived with James and Eliza Lovell Neal in Clifton, Ohio in 1860. The Neals moved to New York with her father and her son James Summons about 1861. James enlisted in New York State infantry at 17 under the name James B. Lovell. He completed his three-year enlistment and was honorably discharged as the regimental postmaster.
Southern United States
After the United States Civil War Eliza Lovell married a third time, to merchant Luther C. Tibbets. He was an abolitionist, like Riverside city founders John Wesley North and James Porter Greves. Judge John Wesley North, while a staunch temperance-minded abolitionist in Tennessee was ostracized after he talked a crowd out of lynching a black man. Dr. Greves worked at Beaumont, South Carolina, the 'colony of freedmen' in South Carolina until his health failed. The Tibbetses moved into the South in Tennessee with dreams of building a more racially tolerant society there and were driven out by unwelcoming locals. In 1867 they moved to Fredericksburg, Virginia, and opened a local store. Luther campaigned for office as a Radical Republican and attempted to create an integrated community outside Fredericksburg. When they were driven from Frederickburg, the mother of a young African-American girl convinced them to take her child with them.
In Washington, D.C. Eliza and Luther Tibbets worked with Josephine S. Griffings, Congressman Benjamin F. Butler and other progressives on universal suffrage, freedmen's rights and other social issues. After Luther left in 1870, Tibbets continued her activism, especially in the area of woman suffrage. Woman suffrage activists were then using an ingenious legal argument, claiming that the U.S. Constitution already enfranchised women citizens. For a brief time in the 1870s citizens of the District of Columbia were enfranchised. DC woman suffrage activists argued that they were "citizens" and therefore enfranchised under that law. In 1871 seventy women tested the law in Washington, D.C. They marched to the registrar's office to register to vote, but were repulsed. Frederick Douglass accompanied the group which included Tibbets, Belva Lockwood, the first woman admitted to the Supreme Court Bar, educator Sara Spencer, Dr. Susan A. Edson, physician to President Garfield, pioneer Julia Archibald Holmes, author E. D. E. N. Southworth, and founder of the Freedmen's Bureau, Josephine S. Griffing. At the election, they attempted to vote, but were again refused. Their test cases, Spencer v. Board of Registration, and Webster v. Judges of Election were heard in the Supreme court of the District of Columbia. Women throughout the United States, including Susan B. Anthony and Virginia Minor demonstrated in this way, testing the law with civil disobedience. In the Minor v. Happersett decision of 1875, however, the Court formally dissociated citizenship from voting rights.
Tibbets was a member of group of "spiritualists and free thinkers" among Riverside pioneers in the 1870s. Tibbets accomplished much in her years in Riverside and Southern California, including introducing the navel orange to dominate agricultural citrus orchards, as described below.
A statue of Tibbets produced by artist Guy Angelo Wilson is planned for the pedestrian mall beside the historic Mission Inn in Riverside. The Tibbets memorial will be the first statue in Riverside to commemorate a woman.
The California Citrus State Historic Park preserves the era of her contribution to the citrus industry.
The navel orange was not new when Tibbets introduced it to United States agriculture. A kind of navel was described and pictured by John Baptisti Ferrarius in 1646. Early Brazilian publications often referred to the Navel orange, or lavanja de ombigo. The Washington navel is sterile – truly seedless and utterly devoid of pollen with pistils deformed in a way that makes seed production from the pollen of other varieties impossible. Hence, the Washington navel orange is propagated by grafting a bud from an existing tree onto separate (genetically distinct) rootstock. The Washington Navel orange is particularly prone to a type of mutation in which one branch or "sport" differs genetically from the rest of the tree. It first appeared as a sport on a Selecta sweet orange tree in Bahia, Brazil. A desirable sport like this enables growers to avoid the complications of genetic segregation and recombination by spreading the species through asexual propagation. Although asexual propagation required a certain amount of effort and level of expertise, this sport was extensively propagated in the vicinity of Bahia. Nowadays many important fruit crops are propagated asexually, including oranges, grapes, avocados, bananas and apples. In fact, all commercial citrus trees are grafted onto rootstock selected for adaptation to the soil, resistance to disease, and influence on fruit quality.
California citrus industry
The citrus industry in California had also begun before Tibbets’ introduction of the Washington navel orange. However, there was no outstanding early and midseason variety of sweet orange generally adapted to the climate. Extant citrus was mostly seedling trees grown from seeds obtained locally or from the Spanish missions. Growers experimented, but there was a lack of standardization in quality.
Meanwhile, in his greenhouses on the National Mall, Saunders experimented with imported plants for possible incorporation into American agriculture. He built an orange house on the Department grounds around 1867 and reported in 1871 that he was attempting to secure complete collections of citrus.
In 1869 the Commissioner of agriculture, brought him a letter about a fabulous local orange from a woman in Bahia, Brazil. It took some time and perseverance, but by 1871 Saunders was able to obtain from Bahia twelve newly budded navel orange trees in fairly good condition. He had prepared a supply of young orange stocks into which he inserted buds from the new trees. "That lady called here and was anxious to get some of these plants for her place, and I sent two of them by mail". When the orange trees were ready, Saunders mailed the first two out to Tibbets.
Groves in California and beyond
Tibbets’ success with the navel orange had led to a rapid increase in citrus planting, and the citrus planted was predominantly the Washington navel orange. The commercial success of these early orchards soon led to a widespread interest in this variety, so that by 1900 it was the most extensively grown citrus fruit in California.
After that hundreds of Bahia orange trees were sent to Florida, but none flourished. Tibbets planted the two trees in her garden in 1873. It is widely accepted that she took care of the two remaining trees using dishwater to keep them alive because the Tibbets lot was not connected to canal water. Agriculture officials attribute the success of the two trees that did flourish to Tibbets’ care.
The first fruits borne by these trees were produced in the season of 1875-76. When the Washington navel orange was publicly displayed at a fair in 1879, the valuable commercial characteristics of the fruit, including their quality, shape, size, color, texture, and seedlessness, were immediately recognized. Tibbets’ orange was also ideally suited to Riverside's semiarid weather, and its thick skin enabled it to be packed and shipped. The contrast between this new fruit and that of seedling trees was so striking that most new grove plantings were of Washington navel oranges. Tibbets sold budwood from her trees to local nurserymen, which led to extensive plantings of nursery trees cloned from hers. Since then Washington navel orange budwood and trees have been taken from California across the seas to Japan, Australia, South Africa, and other tropical or semi-tropical districts.
Tibbets’ orange allowed agriculture in California to survive transition from wheat. Wheat had been the single most profitable crop statewide between 1870 and 1900 as California became one of the largest grain producers in the nation. Sometime about 1880 many agriculturalists in the central valley and Southern California began to convert to fruit. Soil and climate were obviously conducive to such a conversion. After the turn of the 20th century wheat exports began a rapid decline prompted by intense Canadian and Russian competition and declining grain yields due to soil depletion. As the soil became depleted by wheat growing, they were subdivided and used for horticulture. Agriculture thus came to provide a firm foundation for the state's economy.
Legacy of introduction
The growth that the Washington navel orange produced in Riverside spread throughout the state, driving the state and even the national economy. Citrus assumed a major place in California's economy. By 1917 Washington naval orange culture was a $30 million per year industry in California. By 1933 the orange industry had grown to an annual income of $67 million. From one million boxes of oranges in 1887 to more than 65.5 million boxes of oranges, lemons, and grapefruit in 1944, despite the depression years of the 1930s, the California citrus industry experienced nothing short of explosive growth.
The success of Tibbets' orange trees inspired irrigation projects which converted more desert to orange groves. The size, scale, and ingenuity of the irrigation structures in Riverside and surrounding area are considered one of the agricultural marvels of the age. By 1893 Riverside was the wealthiest city per capita in the United States. Money poured into California. Tibbets’ orange led to an estimated $100 million of direct and indirect investment in citrus industry over the next 25 years. But Tibbets’ orange did not merely feed the wealth and growth of existing towns; new cities and towns popped up whose birth, existence, and future depended upon the condition of the orange market. In 1886 alone new citrus towns were laid out in Rialto, Fontana, Bloomington, Redlands, Terracina, Mound City (Loma Linda), and South Riverside, (Corona). Irrigated communities like Etiwanda, Redlands, Ontario and many others were launched.
The rapidly expanding citrus industry also stimulated the capital market for real estate. As the industry grew, land which had been regarded as worthless dramatically increased value. Not only did orange culture feed the land boom of the 1880s in Southern California; it allowed Riverside to survive when the land boom collapsed in 1888. (See also: Panic of 1893.) The success of Tibbets’ orange stimulated related industries. Citrus built the foundations of the region's economic modernization before the great flood of defense funds began in World War II. Tibbets’ introduction of the Washington navel orange was largely responsible for the fruit packing houses, inventions in boxing machines, fruit wraps and the iced railroad car.
By the mid-1880s five packing houses sprang up in Riverside. Many methods developed in the course of the growth of this industry, which had a wide application, to other fruit growing industries as well to citrus. The study and efforts of pioneers in the development of the California citrus industry led to the invention of fumigation, of orchard heaters, and of many other methods of culture. In 1897–1898 Benjamin and Harrison Wright invented and patented a mechanized orange washer. By the end of 1898, two-thirds of Riverside's packinghouses were using the machines. At the turn of the century Stebler and Parker began manufacturing citrus packing machinery in Riverside independent of each other. The companies, which merged in 1922, became the California Iron Works, and later still Food Machinery Corporation (today's FMC Corp.). The Santa Fe Railroad opened a direct to Riverside in 1886 allowing direct shipment to the east. Eight years later the first refrigerated rail cars shipped oranges from Riverside to the east on the Santa Fe Railroad.
Another illustration of the results of the success of the citrus industry in California was the organization of the growers into an exchange for the co-operative handling of their crop and its distribution. California Fruit Growers Exchange, a cooperative marketing association made up of local growers was founded in 1893; it is now known as Sunkist Growers, Incorporated.
Scientific approach to improvements
A key feature of the growth of the Washington Navel orange industry was a scientific approach to improvement. Study of propagation culture handling, transportation and other phases of producing distributing and marketing the crop was largely responsible for advancements used not only with citrus but also in other fruit industries. In 1893 cyanide gas was used to fight citrus scale. A U.S. Department of Agriculture scientist helped growers to harness nature's biological wrath during the "decay crisis" of 1905–1907, when alarming proportions of fruit spoiled in transit, and wed the industry to the scientific expertise of the USDA. Growers, scientists, and workers transformed the natural and social landscape of California, turning it into a factory for the production of millions of oranges. Orange growers in California developed the commercialized agriculture that only spread to the rest of the country a generation later. In 1906, the University of California established in Riverside its Citrus Experiment Station, the beginnings of the University of California, Riverside. Originally located on the slope of Mount Rubidoux, the station institutionalized the scientific expertise, support, and presence of the state's university and the federal government in the citrus industry, and brought quality control to the first link in the corporate agricultural chain. In a field department was created which provided member growers with scientific and practical horticultural advice and direction that ultimately led to huge gains in productivity.
The progeny trees derived from this parent source tree continues to be the most popular navel grown in California. In the estimation of many, the fruit of the Washington navel remains the finest in size, flavor, quality, lack of seed, low rag and excellent holding capacity when the fruit is held on the tree. The navel orange remains as one of the most popular of all of the varieties of fresh fruit whether produced in California, Peru, South Africa, or Australia. Millions of trees were propagated from progeny of this mother tree, not only in California, but worldwide.
- California State Parks, California Citrus State Historic Park. (Sacramento: 2002); U.S. Congress. House, Congressman Ketnner of CA Remarks on the Washington Navel Orange Anniversary Celebration, Cong. Rec. 63rd Cong. 2d Sess. (3 Sep. 1914), 3.
- See biography in 1899, Meehan's Monthly, 9; William Saunders, "Experimental Gardens and Grounds", in USDA, Yearbook of Agriculture 1897, 180 ff; USDA, Yearbook of Agriculture 1900, 625 ff.
- L. H. Bailey,The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1930) 3: 1594–95.
- See also, US Dept of the Interior, Pioneers of American Landscape Design II (Washington: GPO, 2000) 132–137.
- William Saunders' journal, unpub., quoted in USDA, The Navel Orange of Bahia, Bull. No. 445 (Washington, D.C.: GPO), 5–6; USDA, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 64.
- Bailey, 1595.
- Ibid, "His greatest success... was the introduction of the Bahia or Washington Navel Orange... [which] practically revolutionized the orange industry in California at that time..."; Saunders' journal, quoted in USDA, 1917, 5; ,
- USDA, Yearbook of Agriculture 1937, (Washington, D.C.: 1937) 771. "It is now generally recognized that one of the outstanding events in the economic and social development of California was the introduction of this orange in 1873."
- USDA,Yearbook 1937, 771.
- May Lovell Rhodes and Thomas D. Rhodes, 1924 A biographical genealogy of the Lovell family in England and America, Asheville, N.C.: Biltmore press, 75.
- Ibid, 202–06.
- Charles Theodore Greve, Centennial History of Cincinnati and Representative Citizens, Vol 1, (Chicago: Biographical Pub., 1904), passim. See also Charles Cist, Cincinnati in 1841,(Cincinnati: The Author, 1841); The Cincinnati directory containing the names, profession and occupation of the inhabitants ..., (Cincinnati, Ohio: Oliver Farnsworth, 1819); Annals of the New Church, (Philadelphia: Academy of the New Church, 1898), 396, 412.
- Ophia D.Smith, "Frederick Eckstein: The Father of Cincinnati Art." Bulletin of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 9 (October 1951): 274.
- Potomac Hazegray Online. Accessed 4 March 2008.
- Jeremiah N. Reynolds, Voyage of the United States frigate Potomac, (New York: Harper & Bros.,1835) 405.
- DD-45 Hazegray Online, accessed 4 March 2008; DD-45, Naval Historical Center website, accessed 4 March 2008. DD-375, Hazegray Online, accessed 4 March 2008; FF-1070 Destroyers Oneline, accessed 4 March 2008.
- Smith, "Adam Hurdus", 113.
- Ibid, 120.
- Esther H. Klotz, "Eliza Tibbets And Her Washington Navel Orange Trees" in Riverside Municipal Museum, A History of Citrus In the Riverside Area, rev. ed. (San Bernardino: Franklin Press), pp. 13–14.
- Klotz, 14 citing Illustrated History of Southern California, (Chicago: Lewis, 1890).
- G. A. Redman, M.D., Mystic Hours; Or, Spiritual Experiences (New York: Charles Partridge, and Boston: Bela Marsh), 1859, 284–89.
- Emma Hardinge Britten, Modern American spiritualism, (New York: The author, 1870) 352–53. See also Redman, 284–89.
- Britten, 355.
- United States. 1860 Federal Census, 8th Ward Cincinnati, Hamilton, Ohio, p. 164 l. 34–40.
- Klotz, 14; Film Number M551 roll 85 Service Record card 683b-684. Service Card James B. Lovell Accessed 4 March 2008.
- Ibid, and Log book of the 132nd Infantry, 1864, available at NARA, College Park, Maryland.
- Klotz, 15.
- Luther Calvin Tibbets, Spirit of the South (Washington, D.C..:1869).
- Ibid.See Tom Patterson, "Whatever Became of Nicey, Riverside's First Black Resident?, Riverside Sun
- E. C. Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joselyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 3, 808 – 113.
- Angela G Ray, Cindy Koenig Richards. "Inventing Citizens, Imagining Gender Justice: The Suffrage Rhetoric of Virginia and Francis Minor", Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93, 4, November 1, 2007, 375–402.
- "The Ladies Hold A Meeting", National Republican, April 19, 1871.
- Women Who Voted, 1868 to 1873 Cady and Stanton online, accessed 4 Mar 2008; Ann D. Gordon, ed. The selected papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers, 1997), 649.
- Voter Names, Cady and Stanton online, accessed 4 Mar 2008; "Justice For Women", (Washington, D.C.) Daily Morning Chronicle (April 15, 1871); Gordon, 650.
- "The Ladies Hold A Meeting;" Gordon, 649.
- Spencer v. Board of Registration, 1 McA. 369. Stanton, E. C., Anthony, S. B., & Gordon, A. D. 1997. The selected papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 813.
- Ray & Richards, 375.
- Klotz, 13, quoting Robert Hornbeck, 1913, Robidoux's Ranch in the '70's (Riverside, California: Press, 1904).
- Tom Patterson, 1984, "Spiritualist Introduced Seances, Navel Orange Farming to Riverside", Press-Enterprise, July 14, 1984.
- Evergreen Memorial Historic Cemetery – Founders' Stories
- USDA, Yearbook 1937, 770.
- CA State Board Of Horticulture, Culture Of The Citrus In California, rev. ed. (Sacramento, 1902) 53, 52.
- Michael T. Clegg, "Genetics of Crop Improvement", American Zoology, 26 (1986), 825.
- Clegg, 825
- USDA, Citrus Fruit Improvement: How to secure and Use Tree-Performance Records, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1917),
- Clegg, 824
- David Karp, “An Orange Whose Season Has Come,” New York Times. Jan 22, 2003, F.1
- USDA, Yearbook 1937, 771.
- USDA, Yearbook 1937, 771; State Board, 13: "Some of the earlier settlers, with foresight enough to see that there was profit in fruit, secured some of the mission orchards, and under skillful treatment and fostering care these were made productive again by careful pruning, cultivation, and irrigation. These enterprising orchardists reaped a golden reward for their labor."
- U.S. Senate Report 2522, Message from the Department of Agriculture, outlines department procedures and the duties of the Superintendent. 72–73
- Beverly T. Galloway, "An Historic Orange Tree," The Journal of Heredity, 163.
- Saunders' journal; USDA, Yearbook 1900, 628.
- Saunders' journal; USDA, Report of the Commissioner, 64.
- Saunders' journal.
- Ibid: Galloway, 163; State Board, 38.
- Dumke, Boom, 14.
- USDA, A. D. SHAMEL, C. S. POMEROY, and R. E. CARYL, Bud selection in the Washington navel orange progeny tests of limb variations. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture;1929. USDA Yearbook 1937.
- Saunders, journal; C. N. Roistacher, "A History of the Washington Navel Orange" in Proceedings of the Global Citrus Germplasm Network Meeting, December 2000.
- USDA, Yearbook 1937, 771. There have been discussion, debate, and even demonstrations regarding this date. For their reviews of the existing evidence, see: Shamel & Pomeroy, Washington Navel Orange, 4–7, ff.; C. S. Pomeroy, "1873 Washington Navel Orange Came to Riverside"; W. A. Taylor, Chief of the Bureau [of Agriculture]. Letter to James Boyd, September 15, 1920. unpublished, available from the USDA Library; U.S. House, Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1884, 48th Cong. 1st Sess. Ex. Doc 178, (Washington: 1884) 7: "Distributed about 12 years ago"; Klotz: The local press of March 28, 1885, printed the following, "Mrs. L. C. Tibbets exhibits a branch from the original orange trees imported from South America to Washington, D.C. and thence to Riverside in 1873."
- Roistacher, PGCGN, 60. Klotz, "Eliza Tibbets," 17.
- In 1933 two USDA officials wrote: "The very fact that the trees sent her survived the climatic and other hazards of those pioneer days is in itself remarkable and is probably due to the particular care given them by her." Shamel & Pomeroy, The Washington Navel Orange, 31. See also: A. D. Shamel, "History of Origin and Introduction of the Washington Navel Orange," The California Citrograph, (April 1933) 171: "These trees survived the climatic and other hazards, largely, I think, through the systematic care of Mrs Tibbets...."
- Shamel, 1915, 3.
- USDA, Bud Selection, 2; Shamel, 1915, 3; USDA, 1937 yearbook
- Shamel & Pomeroy, Washington Navel Orange, 9.
- Roistacher, PGCGN, ?; Shamel & Pomeroy, The Washington Navel Orange, 8.
- USDA, Bud Selection, 2; Shamel, 1915, 3; USDA, 1937 yearbook, 771.
- Nash, State Government 117.
- Nash, "Economic Growth," 318.
- Gerald D. Nash, State Government and Economic Policy: A History of Administrative Policies in California 1849–1933 (New York: Arno Press, 1979 ©1964) 140; State Board, 13. The discovery of the fact that citrus fruits could be produced successfully and profitably, gave an impetus to the growth of a most important industry in our State, and especially in the southern counties, which is almost unprecedented in the history of our Union…. to Riverside is due the great impetus that brought the industry into national prominence. State Board, 20: It is also largely to Riverside that the orange industry is indebted for its present importance, from the success attained in the cultivation of the Washington Navel, an orange which achieved widespread fame for itself and the location (Riverside) where it was first successfully grown.
- Dorsett & Shamel, 1917.
- Cal Statutes.
- Tobey & Wetherel, "Corporate Capitalism," 13.
- State Board, 13.
- State Board, 14; Shamel, 1915, 3.
- Nash, "Economic Growth," 319 citing Nash, State Government,
- Tobey & Wetherel, "Corporate Capitalism," 13. "From $10.7 million earned in 1900, to $83.2 million in 1920, to $144.6 million in 1930, citrus literally sucked eastern money west."
- Ibid., 72. But see: Michael A. Lane "Scientific Work of Government," Making of America Vol VII, ed. Robert Marion La Follette. Robert Marion La Follette, Charles Higgins, William Matthews Handy (Chicago,: Making of America, 1906.)
- State Board, 13–14.
- Esther Klotz and Kevin Hallaren, "Citrus Chronology", in A History of Citrus in the Riverside Area. 2nd ed., (San Bernardino, California: Riverside Museum Press, 1989) 27.
- Tom Patterson, "The Tibbets, the Navel Orange, and the Dishpan," in Landmarks of Riverside and the Stories Behind Them (Riverside, California: Press-Enterprise Co., 1964) 31.
- Tobey & Wetherel, "Corporate Capitalism," 20.
- Klotz Hallaren,
- Ronald Tobey and Charles Wetherel, (1995) The Citrus Industry And The Revolution Of Corporate Capitalism In Southern California, 1887–1994. California History, Spring 1995, 6. Analyzes "California's history in the half-century between 1890 and 1940 in terms of economic development in the context of the revolution in corporate capitalism" "To explain the region's history we must look beyond the rhetoric of speculative growth to the reality of investment-led growth, using models of economic development. For these we turn to Douglass North's Nobel-Prize-winning explanation of industrial revolution in the United States, and Albert Hirschman's theory of development that informed much of North's analysis. Textiles drove the antebellum North into sustained economic growth. We believe that the citrus industry, with its staple export crop of fresh table fruit, was a similar foundational industry that powered southern California' economy in the fifty years before World War II.
- Klotz & Hallaran, .
- Klotz & Hallaran, 30.
- Klotz & Hallaran, 27.
- Klotz & Hallaran, 29.
- Tobey and Wetherel, 10.
- Douglas Cazaux Sackman, Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
- Sackman, 67.
- Klotz & Hallaran, 33 .
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2010)|
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