Elizabeth Báthory in popular culture

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The influence of Elizabeth Báthory in popular culture has been notable from the 18th century to the present day. Since her death, various myths and legends surrounding her story have preserved her as a prominent figure in folklore, literature, music, film, games and toys.

In folklore and literature[edit]

The case of Elizabeth Báthory inspired numerous stories and fairy tales. 18th and 19th century writers liberally added or omitted elements of the narrative. The most common motif of these works was that of the countess bathing in her victims' blood in order to retain beauty or youth. Frequently, the cruel countess would discover the secret of blood bathing when she slapped a female servant in rage, splashing parts of her own skin with blood. Upon removal of the blood, that portion of skin would seem younger and more beautiful than before.

This legend appeared in print for the first time in 1729, in the Jesuit scholar László Turóczi’s Tragica Historia,[1] the first written account of the Báthory case.

When quoting him in his 1742 history book, Matthias Bel[2] was sceptical about this particular detail,[3] he nevertheless helped the legend to spread. Subsequent writers of history and fiction alike often identified vanity as the sole motivation for Báthory's crimes.

Modern historians Radu Florescu and Raymond T. McNally have concluded that the theory Báthory murdered on account of her vanity sprang up from contemporary prejudices about gender roles. Women were not believed to be capable of violence for its own sake. At the beginning of the 19th century, the vanity motif was first questioned, and sadistic pleasure was considered a far more plausible motive for Báthory's crimes.[4] In 1817, the witness accounts (which had surfaced in 1765) were published for the first time,[5] demonstrating that the bloodbaths or blood seeker for vanity aspect of Báthory's crimes were legend rather than fact.

The legend nonetheless persisted in the popular imagination. Some versions of the story were told with the purpose of denouncing female vanity, while other versions aimed to entertain or thrill their audience. Some versions of the story incorporated even more elaborate torture chamber fantasies than recorded history could provide, such as the use of an iron maiden, which were not based on the evidence from Báthory's trial. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, whose name inspired the term masochism, was inspired by the Báthory legend to write his 1874 novella Ewige Jugend ("eternal youth")[6]

Bathory also appears as the main antagonist in the novel Dracula the Un-dead, a sequel to Bram Stoker's classic novel. In the book, she is cousin to Dracula and was the motive behind his decision to move to London in the original novel as she was murdering women under the guise of Jack the Ripper and he swore to stop her.

The historical novel The Countess by Rebecca Johns tells a first-person fictionalized account of Báthory's life from her prison cell at Csejthe Castle. In the book, she tells her son, Pál, the story of her life, explaining her behavior toward her servants as punishment for their disloyalty.

In the novel Cold Blood[7] by Syra Bond, the full horror of Bathory's life is captured in an expression of her warped imagination. The confused picture this produces, together with her lack of grasp on reality, creates a credible tandem world of torture and blood lust wrapped up in an overarching lack of regard for others.

Elizabeth Báthory and the vampire myth[edit]

The emergence of the bloodbath or blood seeker for vanity myth coincided with the vampire scares that haunted Europe in the early 18th century, reaching even into educated and scientific circles but the strong connection between the bloodbath or blood seeker myth and vampiric myth was not made until the 1970s. The first connections were made to promote works of fiction by linking them to the already commercially successful Dracula story. Thus a 1970 movie based on Báthory and the bloodbath or blood seeker for vanity myth was titled Countess Dracula.

Some Báthory biographers, McNally in particular, have tried to establish the bloodbath myth and the historical Elizabeth Báthory as a source of influence for Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula, pointing to similarities in settings and motifs and the fact that Stoker might have read about her. This theory is strongly disputed by author Elizabeth Miller.[8]

Meanwhile Báthory has become an influence for modern vampire literature and vampire films.[9] The story, while retaining the essential facts, receives an imaginative interpretation in the horror novelist Syra Bond's Cold Blood.[10]

Literature[edit]

  • She is the main protagonist of the 2010 novel The Countess by Rebecca Johns.
  • Ewige Jugend by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch.
  • Hungarian novella Én, Báthory Erzsébet (I, Elizabeth Báthory) by Mária P. Szabó (2010)
  • Historic novel Báthory Erzsébet (1940) by Hungarian writer Kálmán Vándor.
  • Erzsébet Báthory appears as a character in the Hungarian novel Ördögszekér (The Devil's Wagon) published in 1925 by Sándor Makkai, a bishop of the Hungarian Reformed Church in Transylvania. The novel is about the incestuous relationship of Gábor Báthory and his younger sister Anna who were adopted into the household of István Báthory, the older brother of Erzsébet.
  • Short story Csejtevár és asszonya (The Lady of Castle Csejte) by Hungarian writer Kálmán Mikszáth.
  • The short story, A Stab at Forever, by American writer Michelle Augello-Page, fictionalizes Erzsébet Báthory's earliest known experiences of violence towards young girls as something horrifically and humanly female, based in jealousy, a fear of growing old, a sadistic expression of sexual power, and an obsession with youth.
  • Bathory: Memoir of a Countess is a novel by A. Mordeaux.
  • Báthory is a major antagonist in the alternative history/fantasy novels This Rough Magic and Much Fall of Blood by Eric Flint, Dave Freer and Mercedes Lackey. She is portrayed as a sorceress and Satanist as opposed to a vampire.
  • Báthory is the ancestor of protagonist Christopher Csejthe in the Half/Life series of novels by Wm. Mark Simmons and figures prominently in the second book, "Dead On My Feet" with a plot twist that hinges on the questionable innocence of Katarina Beneczky (Katalin Benick) among the Countess' collaborators.
  • Báthory is a major character, depicted as a half-breed vampire, in Daughter of the Night by Elaine Bergstrom.
  • The Blood Countess is a novel by Andrei Codrescu.
  • The Bloody Countess by argentinian writer Alejandra Pizarnik was a short gothic work of fiction (1968, reprinted in The Oxford Book of Gothic Tales, ed. Chris Baldick)
  • In the science fiction short story Rumfuddle by Jack Vance, a baby who would have grown up to be Elizabeth Báthory is taken to a different time and place in history.
  • In the novel 62: A Model Kit by Julio Cortázar, the countess and her story are recurring themes.
  • In David Eddings series The Elenium a character, Lady Bellina, appears who revels in the torture and killing of young women and lives in a castle with an evil reputation. This character is a significant villain, serving to forward the story.
  • The novella "Sanguinarius" by Ray Russell is a fictional account of the deeds of Countess Bathory, told in the first person.
  • Colombian writer Ricardo Abdahllah has written several pieces of short fiction around Bathory's myth.
  • In the novel Daughters of the Moon by Joseph Curtin, she is portrayed as coming back to life as a vampire, and takes the name of Lizabet Bazore. She also preys upon a guitarist for an upcoming rock band, GloryDaze, named Vincenzio "Vinnie the Razor" Rosario.
  • In the Buffy the Vampire Slayer book Tales of the Slayer vol. 1, she is the villain in the story "Die Blutgrafin".
  • The 2006 novel The Blood Confession by Alisa M. Libby
  • Báthory's legend is used as a basis for the Japanese anime Ghost Hunt's seventh file/case mystery "Blood-Soaked Labyrinth", shown from episode 18–21.
  • In the novel Anno Dracula Báthory appears as a relative of Dracula.
  • "The Trouble with the Pears" by Gia Bathory Al Babel.
  • "Ella, Drácula" (She, Dracula) by Javier García Sánchez, Spanish writer. 2002.
  • The 2007 Brazilian novel O Legado de Bathory by Alexandre Heredia.
  • She appears, 'resurrected' as a vampire, in the latter books of The Vampire Huntress Legend Series by L.A. Banks
  • Finnish detective novel 2008 "Unkarilainen taulu" ("The Hungarian Painting") by Mikko Karppi
  • She appears as the main villain in "Dracula the un-dead", written by Dacre Stoker (Bram's great-grand nephew) and Ian Holt.
  • Báthory is featured prominently in Lord of the Vampires, the third installment of The Diaries of the Family Dracul by Jeanne Kalogridis. In the novel, she is imagined as one of the Brides of Dracula. Dracula frequently addresses her as "cousin".
  • In the 2010 novel, Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter (novel), it is revealed that she was a vampire. After her trial, persecution against vampires in Europe skyrocketed, driving them to settle en masse in the New World.
  • Báthory is described as the daughter of Dracula and appears as one of the main protagonists in Modern Marvels – Viktoriana by Wayne Reinagel (2011)
  • Báthory is the name of the High School where the protagonist of the novel, Vladimir Tod, goes to in The Chronicles of Vladimir Tod by Heather Brewer
  • Báthory is encountered by the band of protagonists while she is imprisoned in hell in the novel Damned by Chuck Palahniuk.
  • In "The Parasol Protectorate" series by Gail Carriger one of the primary vampire characters is Countess Nadasdy. Nádasdy was Báthory's married name.
  • Báthory is the main villain in the novel The Blood Countess by Tara Moss.
  • She is mentioned in a light novel Death Note Another Note: The Los Angeles BB Murder Cases, when Ryuuzaki/L mentions the bathtub being so ruined by blood, the only person who would dream of climbing in is Elizabeth Bathory.
  • The story of Elizabeth Bathory is entangled with a major character's backstory in James Rollins and Rebecca Cantrell's The Blood Gospel, part of their Order of the Sanguines series.

Poetry[edit]

  • Báthori Erzsébet by Hungarian poet János Garay.
  • Báthory Erzsébet: történeti beszély két énekben (Erzsébet Báthory: Historical Tale In Two Cantos) (1847) by Hungarian poet Sándor Vachott.
  • The Blood Countess, Erzsébet Báthory of Hungary (1560–1614: A Gothic Horror Poem of Violence and Rage) by Robert Peters.
  • The cockerel's waltz by Warwickshire poet Siân Lavinia Anaïs Valeriana.

Comics and manga[edit]

  • The manga Berusaiyu no Bara Gaiden (a side story from The Rose of Versailles) has her story updated to 18th century France, and she is confronted by the characters from the main series, Oscar François de Jarjayes and her friends.
  • In the DC Comics book series Secret Six, the origin of the character Jeannette is revealed. She was taken hostage by Báthory as a young girl and, as the Countess's "favorite", forced to watch every murder with the intent of being Báthory's final victim. However, when the Countess was imprisoned, Jeannette was assigned to care for her, and used the position to slowly murder Báthory by placing ground glass in her tea.
  • In the anime Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust, Carmilla is an ancient vampire who resides in the Castle of Chaythe and uses blood to revive her dead body.
  • In the manhwa series Horror Collector by Lee So-Young, the protagonist Evilice, a wealthy, beautiful collector of items used for acts of violence (i.e. murder) attempts to resurrect the spirit of Elizabeth Bathory, who sealed herself inside of a doll through a blood bath. However, the ritual is only successful under a full moon. A running gag in the manhwa is that Evilice's jealous boyfriend Sin unsuccessfully attempts to get rid of the doll, who sees it as a threat to his relationship with Evilice. Elizabeth Bathory herself is portrayed in this version as a beautiful and compassionate young maiden which contrasts with her habit of bathing in the blood of her victims while her younger teenage self acts as a comic relief character.
  • The 2014 Dynamite Entertainment comics series "The Blood Queen" by writer Troy Brownfield is based in part on the legend of Bathory combined with other fantasy elements.

Stage plays[edit]

  • 1865 – Báthory Erzsébet: Történeti szomorújáték, 5 felvonásban (Erzsébet Báthory: An Historic Tragedy in Five Acts), by Hungarian poet Zoltán Balogh.
  • 1975 – Alžbeta Hrozná (Elisabeth the Terrible) or The Krw Story by Stanislav Štepka, produced at Radošinské Naive Theatre in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
  • 1985 – Báthory Erzsébet by Hungarian playwright András Nagy.
  • 1994 – In the Service of Beauty by Melbourne playwright Sam Sejavka, exploring the final days of the Countess after she has been imprisoned in her castle.
  • 1994 – Bloody Countess - Take me home tonight by Macedonian playwright Žanina Mirčevska, problematizing the cannibalism in the western culture.
  • 1998 – UNDEAD Dreams of Darkness written and directed by David M. Nevarrez, with characters and situations based on Sheridan Le Fanu's Carmilla and Bram Stoker's Dracula, set in modern times, with Erzsebet Bathory a.k.a. Dr. Nadasdy as vampire antagonist.
  • 2000 – "Transylvania no Mori – Shin Toujou! Chibimoon wo Mamoru Senshitachi" (The Forest of Translyvania – New Birth! The Soldiers That Protect Chibimoon), a musical from the Sailor Moon musicals series (Sera Myu). Elizabeth Bathory was a prominent villain and was depicted as a kept alive by being an undead werewolf and posed as an English teacher to trap the Sailor Senshi. She was partnered with other historical serial killer Gilles de Rais, however in the 2001 revision her character was replaced by yet another serial killer: Marquise de Brinvilliers.
  • 2000 – Bathory by Canadian playwright Moynan King.
  • 2004 – Erzsebet by Michael Stever, with Amy LeBlanc. First exhibited in 2004 at The American Theatre For Actors, Chernuchin Theatre, NYC. 'Erzsebet' By Michael Stever – Table Read Preview
  • 2005 - Vampyress, an opera written by Chad Salvata, with Melissa Vogt as Erzsebet Bathori. It was produced by Ethos Performance Troupe in association with the VORTEX Repertory Company in Austin, Texas. Vampyress was revived in 2010, Vogt (now Vogt-Patterson) replaying her role as the Bloody Countess.
  • 2007 – Bathory: The Blood Countess, written by John DiDonna and produced by The Empty Spaces Theatre Co.
  • 2010 – Bathory: A new musical music and lyrics by David Levinson, book by Daniel Levinson produced at the 45th Street Theater and Ripley Grier Studio's

Film[edit]

There have been several films about, referring to, or containing characters based on Elizabeth Báthory:


Radio[edit]

Video games[edit]

The bloodbath myth served as a major component of some games:

  • A fan-made, five-mission campaign for Thief II: The Metal Age on PC.TTLG Forums.
  • In the VCR/DVD boardgame Atmosfear, a playable character portrayed as a vampiress
  • A character based on Elizabeth Bathory, named Elizabeth Bartley, appears in the video game Castlevania: Bloodlines as Dracula's niece, who died in the early 16th century but was revived 300 years later, just before World War I. In the game's backstory, she was the one who orchestrated the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which led to the war as a means to revive Dracula.
  • In the MMORPG Ragnarok Online, Bathories are witch-like enemies fought on the 4th basement floor of Clock Tower.
  • In the MMORPG DarkEden, Lady Elizabeth Bathory is a game "boss" alongside Lord Vlad Tepes who players are able to kill in an instanced level known as a "lair".
  • In the MMORPG Atlantica Online, Countess Elizabeth Bathory is the boss of the dungeon Bran Castle alongside Lord Vlad Dracula.
  • "The Countess" is a super unique monster from Blizzard Entertainment's popular dungeon-crawler Diablo 2. The following passage is read in a rotting tome and initiates the quest:
"...And so it came to pass that the Countess, who once bathed in the rejuvenating blood of a hundred virgins, was buried alive... And her castle in which so many cruel deeds took place fell rapidly into ruin. Rising over the buried dungeons in that god-forsaken wilderness, a solitary tower, like some monument to Evil, is all that remains. The Countess' fortune was believed to be divided among the clergy, although some say that more remains unfound, still buried alongside the rotting skulls that bear mute witness to the inhumanity of the human creature."
  • In the video game Fate/Extra CCC, the new Lancer Servant is based on her as a Heroic Spirit.
  • In the video game Vampire Hunter D, the main antagonist addresses herself as Elizabeth Bartley Carmilla, also referencing the title character of Sheridan Le Fanu's novel Carmilla.
  • The PC game Born Into Darkness features a chapter based on Bathory and the idea that Vlad the Impaler had given Elizabeth and her husband the Shroud of Lazarus.
  • The Butcheress from the video game Bloodrayne claims to be her descendent.
  • In the video game Ninja Gaiden 2, the female villain named Elizabet is seen bathing nude in a pool of blood and her demonic power seems to be that of using blood to attack her foes.
  • In the role-playing game Nightlife, appears as a Vampyre NPC living under the alias Lisa "Blood" Bath. She is the lead for an unsigned hardcore/heavy metal band called Krypt.
  • In the 2010 Role-playing video game expansion Dragon Age: Origins – Awakening, a baroness (dead at the time the game takes place) abducts and kills young female villagers and uses their blood for rejuvenating rituals.
  • In the 2004 PS2 videogame Primal, there's a young Elizabeth in a Carpathian castle who seems destined to grow up to be Elizabeth Bathory.
  • In Mortal Kombat (2011), the Fatality Tutorial mentions Elizabeth Bathory as the DLC character Skarlet's favorite historical figure, due to the character's blood-based powers.
  • The indefinitely halted video game Shadows of the Eternal was intended to have Elizabeth Báthory as a major character and possible villain, with the main protagonist Clara being a handmaiden and lover/confidante of her.

Toys[edit]

Báthory is featured in McFarlane Toys 6 Faces of Madness series, a collection of action figures, including Rasputin and Vlad the Impaler. Báthory is depicted bathing in blood while the heads of some of her victims are impaled in a candelabrum. Bathory was also made as a doll in the Living Dead Dolls series.

The card game Evil Baby Orphanage includes Lady Báthory as a character; she is shown in a bathtub with pink water.

Music[edit]

  • Báthory Erzsébet (2012) Hungarian musical-opera by composers György Szomor and Péter Pejtsik, with libretto by Tibor Miklós.
  • Countess Bathory (Bathorycka) is a 1994 opera by the Slovakian composer Ilja Zeljenka, with libretto by Peter Maťo, after Jonáša Záborského.
  • Erzsebet is an opera by French composer Charles Chaynes.
  • The black metal band Murder Rape make reference to Elizabeth Bathory in their song "Mistress Of The Gloomy Nights" from their only album "Evil Shall Burn Inside Me Forever (2001)"
  • A Bestia: Báthory Erzsébet véres legendája (The Beast: The Bloody Legend of Erzsébet Báthory), is a Hungarian rock opera by Béla Szakcsi-Lakatos and Géza Csemer.
  • Báthory Erzsébet, opera (premiered in Budapest, 1913) by Hungarian composer Sándor Szeghő (1874–1956).
  • Elisabetha, song by gothic metal band Darkwell. There're two versions of this song, one with Stephanie Luzie as vocalist.
  • Erzsébet: Elizabeth Bathory: The Opera, is by Dennis Báthory-Kitsz (he claims he may be related to her)[31]
  • The extreme Metal band Cradle of Filth dedicated their album Cruelty and the Beast (1998) entirely to her, telling her story with a certain degree of artistic license but keeping the main details of her story intact. There are two versions of the album cover, both feature a woman bathed in a tub of blood. References to Elizabeth Bathory occur throughout the band's work.
  • The German band Untoten have released a concept album about her, called Die Blutgräfin.
  • French singer Juliette (Nourredine) mentions La Bathory in her song Tueuses from her 1996 album Rimes Féminines along with numerous famous female criminals.
  • Japanese unit GPKISM have released two EP's about Countess Bathory, Barathrum (meaning Hell) and Iudicium (meaning fate, judgement or trial).
  • Russian black metal band Messiya had released an EP dedicated to her called Erzebet in the year 2009.
  • Channeling of Lady Elizabeth Bathory is a live album by multigenre jam band Stefanik, Perny & Kollar feat. Kofi recorded in Višňové village, under Čachtice Castle in 2010.
  • Underground hip-hop artist Killah Priest named his album 'Elizabeth' in reference to her.
  • Music label Erzsebet Records take its name from her.
  • Warwickshire poet and harpsichordist, Siân Lavinia Anaïs Valeriana released an extended play under her nom de plume 'The Raveness' entitled 'Eat the heart' in the year 2006 based around Bathory.

Songs about Elizabeth Báthory include:

Bands named after Elizabeth Báthory include:

  • The influential Swedish black metal band Bathory take their name from Elizabeth, and mention her in some songs, one being "Woman of Dark Desires".
  • The Ohio hardcore/thrash band, Erzsebet Bathory, take their name from Elizabeth.
  • The Dutch black metal band Countess take their band name from Elizabeth's title. They also covered the song Countess Bathory, originally by Venom.
  • American band Ellsbeth take their name from Elizabeth. They released a concept album about her named "Well Dressed Killing Machine" in 2009.
  • German heavy metal band Elisabetha take their name from her.
  • Mexican heavy metal band Erzsebeth take their name from her and released a concept album about her named "La Condesa Inmortal" in 2007.
  • Colombian black metal band Erzebet take their name from her.
  • American gothic metal band Erzebet take their name from her.

References[edit]

  1. ^ in Ungaria suis cum regibus compendia data, Typis Academicis Soc. Jesu per Fridericum Gall. Anno MCCCXXIX. Mense Sepembri Die 8. p 188-193, quoted by Farin
  2. ^ Notitia Hungariae novae historico geographica, divisa in partes quator, […] Tomus quartus. Vienna Austriae, Impensis Paulli Straubii Bibliopolae. Typis Iohannis Petri van Ghelen, Typographie Regii, Anno MDCCXLII, p. 468-475. Quoted by Farin, p 21-27.
  3. ^ …ut spectatorem primi facinoris, cognitoremque cogitationum feminae fuisse, credi posset. … [so colorful that] one might think he had watched the first crimes and known the woman’s thoughts.
  4. ^ [Alois Freyherr von Mednyansky]Freyherr von M-y: Elisabeth Báthory in Hesperus, Prague, October 1812, vol. 2, No. 59, p. 470-472, quoted by Farin, p. 61-65
  5. ^ Hesperus, Prague, June 1817, Vol. 1, No. 31, p. 241-248 and July 1817, Vol. 2, No. 34, p. 270-272
  6. ^ Ewige Jugend. 1611. in Leopold von Sacher-Masoch: Ewige Jugend und andere Geschichten, Berlin: R. Jacobsthal 1886, pp 5–43.
  7. ^ Cold Blood. 
  8. ^ Elizabeth Miller, "Bram Stoker, Elizabeth Bathory and Dracula" from Miller, Elizabeth: Dracula – Sense and Nonsense. Desert Island Books 2006. ISBN 1-905328-15-X S
  9. ^ Bonnie Zimmerman: "Daughters of Darkness – Lesbian vampires", Jump Cut, no. 24-25, March 1981, pp. 23–24, available as online essay
  10. ^ Bond, Syra (2011). Cold Blood. Newark: Cambridge House. p. 300. ISBN 978-1907475689. 
  11. ^ "Necropolis (1970)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  12. ^ "Daughters of Darkness (1971)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  13. ^ "Ceremonia sangrienta (1973)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  14. ^ "Curse of the Devil (1973)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  15. ^ "Immoral Tales (1974)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  16. ^ "Thirst (1979)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  17. ^ "Mama Dracula (1980)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2014. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  18. ^ "Night of the Werewolf (1981)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  19. ^ "Night Fangs (2005)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  20. ^ "Stay Alive (2006)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  21. ^ "Demon's Claw (Video 2006)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  22. ^ "Dracula's Curse (2006)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  23. ^ "Blood Scarab (Video 2008)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  24. ^ "Hellboy Animated: Blood and Iron (TV 2007)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  25. ^ "Hostel: Part II (2007)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  26. ^ a b Film (2008-06-29). "Countess Elizabeth Báthory: icon of evil". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  27. ^ "Bathory: Countess of Blood (2008)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  28. ^ "The Countess (2009)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  29. ^ "Epitaph: Bread and Salt (2013)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  30. ^ "Chastity Bites (2013)". Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. 1999–2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  31. ^ http://bathory.org/ – Elizabeth Bathory: The Opera; includes many FAQ sections about the woman herself and topics about her
  32. ^ Morgan, Anthony (October 2007). ""Armoured Assault" – Evile frontman Matt Drake hails gargantuan Thrash masterpiece Enter the Grave". Lucem Fero. Retrieved 2008-05-03. 
  33. ^ "Tinderbox Singles". Thebansheesandothercreatures.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-01.