Elizabeth City, North Carolina
|Elizabeth City, North Carolina|
|— City —|
|Nickname(s): Harbor of Hospitality® (registered by the city), E.C., River City|
|Pasquotank and Camden counties in the state of North Carolina|
|• Mayor||Joseph W. Peel|
|• City||9.6 sq mi (24.8 km2)|
|• Land||8.9 sq mi (15.913 km2)|
|• Water||0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2)|
|Elevation||12 ft (4 m)|
|• Density||2,182/sq mi (842.6/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP codes||27906, 27907, 27909|
|GNIS feature ID||1025307|
Elizabeth City is a city in Pasquotank County and Camden County in the State of North Carolina. With a population of 18,683 at the 2010 census, Elizabeth City is the county seat of Pasquotank County.
Because Elizabeth City has a high degree of economic integration with its neighboring counties, and the majority of the population in Camden, Pasquotank, and Perquimans County is concentrated in this city, Elizabeth City has been designated as the heart of the Elizabeth City Micropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 64,042 as of 2009. Because the area outside this city is sparsely populated, however, Elizabeth City only shares a border with one town—the consolidated city–county of Camden. This town is not only the economic center of this region, but is also home to many historic sites and cultural traditions.
Marketed as the Harbor of Hospitality, Elizabeth City has had a long history of shipping due to its location at the narrowing of the Pasquotank River. Founded in 1794, Elizabeth City prospered early on from the Dismal Swamp Canal as a mercantile city, before later shifting later into a varied industrial and commercial focus. While Elizabeth City still retains its extensive waterfront property, it is thoroughly linked to neighboring counties and cities by interstate highways and bridges and serves as the site of a major US Coast Guard Base.
Located at the narrows of the Pasquotank River, the area that would become Elizabeth City soon served as a trading site, and as early as the mid 18th century, inspection stations and ferries were established. With the addition of minor roads, a schoolhouse, and soon a church, a small community was established at these narrows.
In 1793, construction of the Dismal Swamp Canal, which would drive Elizabeth City's commerce, began, the North Carolina Assembly incorporated the town of Redding. In 1794, the town was renamed Elizabethtown, but due to confusion with another town of the same name, in 1801, the city was renamed Elizabeth City. The name "Elizabeth" has been variously attributed to honor either Queen Elizabeth I of England, who 200 years earlier spearheaded the colonization of the Carolina and Virginia coasts, or Elizabeth "Betsy" Tooley, a local tavern proprietress who donated much of the land for the new town.
The improvements made to the Dismal Swamp Canal made Elizabeth City a financial center of trade and commercially successful for the early 19th century. In 1826, the federal government purchased 600 stocks in the canal and, in 1829, additional funds for improvements were raised by the Norfolk lottery. With these funds, the Dismal Swamp Canal was widened and deepened, allowing for larger boats to ship their goods.
Further bolstering Elizabeth City’s financial success was the movement in 1827 of the customs house from Camden County to Elizabeth City, leading much of northeast Albemarle’s trade to be directed directly through Elizabeth City. From only 1829 to 1832, Elizabeth City’s tolls tripled. During the American Civil War the Confederate States had a small fleet stationed at Elizabeth City. After the Battle of Roanoke Island the Union forces sent a fleet to take Elizabeth City. There was a small skirmish that followed which ended in a Union victory. Elizabeth City was under Union control for the remainder of the war though Confederate irregulars engaged in Guerrilla warfare with Union forces in the area for the remainder of the war.
Meanwhile overland travel slowly improved, furnishing greater trade between neighboring counties, and a ferry continued to be used for transport between Elizabeth City and Camden county. However, the completion of competing canals and railroads around Elizabeth City diverted some of its financial success to neighboring cities. The Portsmouth and Weldon Railroad, completed in the 1830s allowed for goods to be transported from the Roanoke River to be directly transported to Weldon, and the Albemarle-Chesapeake Canal, completed in 1859, created a deeper channel for merchants shipping goods from the Eastern Albemarle Sound to Norfolk. It would not be until 1881 that the Elizabeth City and Norfolk Railroad, later renamed the Norfolk Southern Railway, would once again jumpstart the city's industry.
Industry grew further during World War II, particularly in shipbuilding, tapering off over the following decades as industry withdrew to form the service, government and agriculture-dominant economic sectors present today. A recent revival in tourism and civic revitalization centered over downtown and the city's varied historic districts has further shaped the city's current P.R. image.
Battle of Elizabeth City 
During the American Civil War, there was a small battle between the Confederate states and the Union near Elizabeth City on the Pasquotank River on February 10, 1862. It was nothing more than a skirmish and casualties were low. The battle ended in a Union victory with subsequent capture of the city.
Elizabeth City is located at (36.295585, -76.224954).
According to the United States Census Bureau, Elizabeth City has a total area of 9.6 square miles (25 km2), of which, 8.9 square miles (23 km2) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) of it (6.49%) is water. Located in the Inner Banks of North Carolina, Elizabeth City is largely flat and marshy with an elevation of only 12 ft (3.7 m). The city's semi-coastal geography has played an important role in its history—Elizabeth City once hosted thriving oyster and timber industries.
Elizabeth City has a humid subtropical climate, experiencing seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Due to its location, however, relatively close to the Albemarle Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, the temperature variations are somewhat softened. On average, Elizabeth City has its highest temperature and accumulation of precipitation in July. Elizabeth City commonly experiences thunderstorms during these summer months and has endured many tropical storms and hurricanes due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. This city experiences very little snowfall, however, on receiving on average a total of 3.5 inches (89 mm) of snow.
|Climate data for Elizabeth City, North Carolina|
|Record high °F (°C)||80
|Average high °F (°C)||52
|Average low °F (°C)||32
|Record low °F (°C)||−2
|Precipitation inches (mm)||4.40
|Snowfall inches (cm)||0.8
|Source: Weatherbase |
Arts & culture 
Elizabeth City is home to the Museum of the Albemarle, the northeastern regional branch of the North Carolina Museum of History. Located near the waterfront, the museum contains many permanent and revolving exhibits on the history and culture of the Albemarle region.
Greater Elizabeth City (Pasquotank County) has six National Register Historic Districts and six resources that are listed individually on the National Register, containing the state's largest concentration of antebellum-style homes and commercial buildings.
Notably, the Virginia Dare Hotel and Arcade, a neoclassical building designed in 1927 by William Lee Stoddart, continues to form the skyline of Elizabeth City and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. This nine-story building adorned with a two-story arcade currently serves as an elderly apartment complex.
Elizabeth City has also been the birthplace of a few government officials in its history. Judge John Warren Davis, a justice on the Federal Court of Appeals was born in Elizabeth City as was John C. B. Ehringhaus, governor of North Carolina from 1933-1937 and for whom Ehringhaus Street, a major thoroughfare, is named.
Elizabeth City is also famed for being the 1929 birthplace of the American Moth Boat, a class of recreational sailboats invented by Dr. Joel Van Sant. The city hosts a Moth Boat Regatta annually in late February. The moth boat features prominently on the city's seal.
North Carolina Potato Festival 
Elizabeth City also hosts the North Carolina Potato Festival, an annual celebration of the potato, one of the region's most important crops. The festival has steadily become one of the most popular draws in northeastern North Carolina, and is usually held in mid-May in downtown Elizabeth City.
Albemarle Craftsmans Fair 
This annual fair is sponsored by the Albemarle Craftsman’s Guild and features artisans, many of whom wear period costumes, selling and demonstrating traditional crafts. Crafts include quilting and fiber arts, pottery, jewelry and woodwork.
The (Elizabeth City, NC) Independent, was a weekly newspaper serving Elizabeth City and the surrounding Albemarle area from 1908 to 1939. The Independent was published by William Oscar 'W.O.' Saunders (1884-1940).
Due to its proximity to Hampton Roads, many of the major network affiliates received in Elizabeth City actually are broadcast from southeastern Virginia cities, including WTKR (CBS), WAVY (NBC), WVEC (ABC), WVBT (FOX), and WHRO (PBS).
The only exceptions are WUND (PBS), an repeater transmitter of UNC-TV licensed to broadcast from Edenton, NC, and WSKY (independent) transmitting from Camden, NC. The only station based in Elizabeth City is W18BB-D, broadcasting from a tower on the Elizabeth City State University campus.
U.S. Coast Guard 
Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City, the largest United States Coast Guard Air Station on the East Coast, is located directly south of Elizabeth City's city limits. Recently incorporated into the United States Department of Homeland Security, the base, along with a host of defense contractors anchored by DRS Technologies, provide a host of local jobs and maintains an influx of Coast Guard and industry employees from all around the country.
The USCG Air Station and the Aviation Technical Training Center (ATTC) in Elizabeth City was also featured in numerous scenes of the 2006 Disney movie "The Guardian", although the base was made to look like Kodiak, Alaska in keeping with the film's script.
Elizabeth City is also home to one of the United States' few airship factories. Many of the nation's commercial blimps are made and serviced here. The current airship facilities evolved from what had previously been Naval Air Station Weeksville, operational from 1941 to 1957. NAS Weeksville's LTA craft played a vital role in German U-boat spotting during World War II, helping to minimize losses to East Coast shipping.
Capitalizing on the region's reputation as the birthplace of aviation including the Wright Brothers' First Flight on the Outer Banks, presence of the U.S. Coast Guard and the lighter-than-air blimp industry, a joint public-private airpark adjacent to the Coast Guard base is in the planning stages. Intended to make Elizabeth City a premier hub of the aviation industry, the airpark hopes to attract major tenants as well as the Aviation Science programs of Elizabeth City State University and related programs by the College of the Albemarle.
|Source: "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau.|
According to the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 18,683 people, 7,487 households, and 4,689 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,607.0 people per square mile (4162.12/km2). There were 8,167 housing units at an average density of 702.24 per square mile (18.1879/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 39.50% White, 54.00% African American, 0.40% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, and 2.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.00% of the population.
There were 6,577 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.6% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 19, 12.1% from 20 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.3 years. For every 100 females there were 81.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 68.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $34,582, and the median income for a family was $41,071. Males had a median income of $31,307 versus $25,683 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,592. About 21.6% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.5% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. 
All public education is overseen by the Elizabeth City-Pasquotank County School Board of Education. ECPPS, the local school system, operates seven elementary schools, two middle schools, two high schools, and one alternative learning school.
Elementary schools 
- Central Elementary
- J.C. Sawyer Elementary
- Northside Elementary
- Pasquotank Elementary
- P.W. Moore Elementary
- Sheep-Harney Elementary
- Weeksville Elementary
Middle schools 
- Elizabeth City Middle
- River Road Middle
High schools 
Alternative school 
- H.L. Trigg Alternative
Elizabeth City is additionally home to some private and religious schools, including Albemarle School, Foreshadow Academy, Victory Christian School, and Cathedral Christian Academy.
Higher education 
Elizabeth City is home to one private and two public institutions of higher education.
Elizabeth City State University, the smallest constituent member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina System, is a historically African-American institution, currently (as of Fall 2011) enrolling 2,930 students  on a compact 200-acre (0.81 km2) campus along the city's southern edge. Founded as a normal school in 1891, it now serves the higher educational needs of northeastern North Carolina's sixteen counties, offering thirty-seven undergraduate and four master's degrees.
Additionally, ECSU offers Aviation Science programs in a joint venture with the College of the Albemarle, as well as a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program in collaboration with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), flagship school of the UNC system.
Also located here is the main campus of the College of the Albemarle, positioned on the city's northern edge adjacent to Albemarle Hospital. It is known as the first community college to be established under the (North Carolina) Community College Act of 1960.
All three schools have agreements allowing students to dual-enroll in one of the other two institutions.
The primary healthcare provider in Elizabeth City is Albemarle Hospital, a 182-bed regional medical center and hub of the Albemarle Health system. Owned and operated by Pasquotank County, the hospital has been in operation since 1914, relocating to its current location in 1960. In 2008, Albemarle Health came under the day-to-day management of Greenville, NC-based Vidant Health, although ownership and most executive decisions have remained with the county.
Starting in October 2012, the county began soliciting offers for affiliation with neighboring healthcare systems in order to cement Albemarle Hospital's position as the region's major medical facility. Limitations in some services and speciality providers had caused many prospective patients to seek services in the Hampton Roads or Greenville metro areas, leading to steady erosion of operating margins. Affiliation with a larger health organization would also provide increased buying power, improve in equipment and facility investment as well as entice additional physicians to the area.
By January 2013 the board had received strong offers from current manager Vidant Health as well as Norfolk, VA-based Sentara Healthcare and Brentwood, TN-based Duke-LifePoint Health, itself a partnership between Durham, NC-based Duke University Health System and Brentwood, TN-based LifePoint Hospitals.
Elizabeth City serves as the County Seat of Pasquotank County under a council-manager style of government.
Elizabeth City’s government is composed of the City Council and the Mayor. The City Council itself is composed of eight council members and the City Manager, elected by these council members. The City Manager serves a largely executive function, overseeing the city’s administrative departments, appointing department heads and city employees, and informing the rest of the Council of relevant municipal conditions. Currently, the city manager is Rich Olsen. The eight council members, on the other hand, acts in a legislative regard, adopting city policies, holding the Manager responsible, and choosing a Mayor pro-Tempore from its council members. This council is elected every two years by each of the four wards composing the city electing two members.
The Mayor, elected by the whole voter body every two years, also serves an executive function, serving as the head of a council meeting and casting a tie-breaking vote for the council. As of 2011, the mayor is Roger McLean. The council holds its meetings every second and fourth Monday of the month and is rebroadcast on a public service channel.
Elizabeth City has an office for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina, headed by Terrence W. Boyle as the resident judge. This Court presides over cases in the northern region of this district.
Services and Utilities 
As part of its municipal mandate, Elizabeth City operates full-service Police (ECPD), Fire (ECFD) and Public Housing Departments as well as Water, Sewer, Sanitation and Electric divisions which operate several deep wells, a water purification plant, three water towers, and a combined sewage/wastewater treatment plant. The city cooperates with Pasquotank County in joint operation of the Elizabeth City-Pasquotank Parks and Recreational Department (ECPPRD), Department of Social Services (ECPDSS), as well as the Witherspoon Memorial Library, the largest facility and head office of the four-county East Albemarle Regional Library System.
As with other Albemarle-area municipalities, Elizabeth City purchases wholesale electricity from Dominion North Carolina Power, operating 230kV transmission lines through the Albemarle area. Electricity is generated from coal-fired and nuclear power plants in nearby Chesapeake, VA and Surry, VA, respectfully.
Local telephone service is currently provided by CenturyLink, operating out of the former Headquarters and Switchboard Exchange building of early Elizabeth City-based provider Norfolk and Carolina Telephone and Telegraph. N&CT&T was later succeeded by Carolina Telephone & Telegraph, United Telecom, Sprint and Embarq.
Pipeline natural gas is provided by Piedmont Natural Gas. Tank and bottled gas are also available through several local suppliers.
Elizabeth City is linked to neighboring counties and cities through a network of and interstate highways.
Most unusual are the four branches of U.S. Route 17 that pass through the city - rarely are there more than two or three variants of the same route in any given community.
(Mainline) US crosses the Little River, entering Pasquotank County from the southwest. Bypass US 17 immediately splits off to the northwest as (Mainline) US 17 continues to the northeast toward Elizabeth City. Shortly after entering the city limits, US 17 Business splits off to the east towards the downtown waterfront. (Mainline) US 17 continues through Elizabeth City as Hughes Boulevard (the former US 17 Bypass from 1969 to 2002).
The route encounters major intersections with the commercial corridor of NC 344 (Halstead Boulevard), Church Street, Main Street and midway by Elizabeth Street, where it is joined by US 158 and Truck Business US 17. This tri-route combination continues northeastward to Business 17 and Truck Business 17's northern terminii at the intersection with North Road Street. From here, (Mainline) US 17 and 158 make a curve to the northwest, departing Elizabeth City as a continuance of North Road Street.
Bypass US 17 rejoins the highway several miles outside of town while US 158 splits off to the west at Morgan's Corner just before crossing the Pasquotank River into Camden County. Running parallel to the Dismal Swamp Canal and the eastern boundary of the Great Dismal Swamp, US 17 continues to the Virginia border.
US Business branches off Hughes Boulevard and travels east as Ehringhaus Street, named for Governor John C. B. Ehringhaus (1933-1937), the only governor native to Elizabeth City. The route turns north through Downtown as North Road Street, ending with its intersection with (Mainline) US 17/Hughes Boulevard. The route continues as US 17 (Mainline) under the name 'North Road Street'.
US Truck Business appears to be a double-designation unique among U.S. routes, traveling from the Camden Causeway west along Elizabeth St. and north along Hughes Blvd to double-terminate with US 17 Business. The northern segment of US 17 Business from Elizabeth Street to its termination at Hughes Boulevard runs through a residential district and additionally has weight restrictions, thus requiring an alternate business routing.
The last and newest branch is US Bypass, a fully access-controlled and Interstate-grade freeway. Completed in 2002 to the immediate west of the city, the bypass eliminated one of the last remaining inner-city stretches of US 17 in North Carolina.
US enters Elizabeth City from points east, including the Outer Banks, as well as Dare, Currituck, and Camden counties. Traveling westward through town as Elizabeth Street, U.S. 158 temporarily merges with (Mainline) and Truck Business US 17, traveling northeastward before diverging at Morgan's Corner and continuing westward across the Great Dismal Swamp into Gates County.
NC forms a minor connection southeastward from the US 17 Bypass to southern Pasquotank County. NC 344 serves as a major commercial and industrial corridor along Elizabeth City's southern edge, providing access to Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City, Elizabeth City State University, as well as the rural unincorporated community of Weeksville.
Elizabeth City has a joint civil-military airport, shared with U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City, and located 4 miles (6.4 km) southeast of the city limits, named the Elizabeth City Regional Airport (IATA: ECG, ICAO: KECG, FAA LID: ECG).
Scheduled domestic and international passenger services are available at Norfolk International Airport (IATA: ORF, ICAO: KORF, FAA LID: ORF), located about an hour away in Norfolk, Virginia.
Local public bus transportation is provided by the Inter-County Public Transportation Authority (ICPTA), with service to Pasquotank, Perquimans, Camden, Chowan, and Currituck counties.
Elizabeth City has regularly scheduled inter-city bus service through Greyhound.
The Chesapeake and Albemarle Railroad, a short line operated by the North Carolina and Virginia Railroad, extends 82 miles (132 km) between Edenton, North Carolina, and Chesapeake, Virginia. This line had first been established in 1881 as the Elizabeth City and Norfolk Railroad, later renamed the Norfolk Southern Railway. Once one of Norfolk Southern's principal lines, the decline of the region's industry and the demolition of tracks across the Albemarle Sound from Edenton to Mackey's Ferry marginalized the route, forcing the line's lease to the Chesapeake and Albemarle in 1990. The railroad still services the region, primarily carrying grain, sand and other raw materials to and from the Norfolk Southern and CSX mainlines in Chesapeake.
See also 
- Albemarle Hospital
- College of the Albemarle
- Elizabeth City State University
- Moth boat
- Museum of the Albemarle
- Southgate Mall (Elizabeth City)
- U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City
- Weeksville Dirigible Hangar
- "Harbor of Hospitality". USPTO. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Weatherbase: Weather for Elizabeth City, North Carolina". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
- "Shooting Out The Lights With Wimpy". CNN. 16 October 1967.
- Albemarle Craftsmans Fair
- Albemarle Craftsmans Fair
- Saunders, Keith. The Independent Man. Edwards and Broughton ; [S.I.] : Saunders Press, c1962, p. 1.
- "United States Coast Guard Complex". Visit NC.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Elizabeth City, North Carolina|
- Official website
- Elizabeth City Area Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Elizabeth City Area Chamber of Commerce
- Designated Historic Districts in Elizabeth City