Elizabeth Magie

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Elizabeth "Lizzie" J. Phillips née Magie (1866–1948) was an American game designer and Georgist. She invented The Landlord's Game, the precursor to Monopoly, to illustrate teachings of the progressive era economist Henry George.

Early life[edit]

Elizabeth Magie was born in Canton, Illinois in 1866, and later became a follower of the economist Henry George.

Invention of Monopoly[edit]

Magie first made the game, known as The Landlord's Game, popular with friends while living in Brentwood, Maryland, and sought her first patent on it while living there. On March 23, 1903, Magie applied to the US Patent Office for a patent on her board game, which was designed to demonstrate the economic ill effects of land monopolism and the use of land value tax as a remedy for them. She was granted U.S. Patent 748,626 on January 5, 1904.

In 1906, she moved to Chicago. That year, she and fellow Georgists formed the Economic Game Co. to self-publish her original edition of The Landlord's Game. In 1910 she married Albert Phillips and Parker Brothers published her humorous card game Mock Trial. In 1912, The Landlord's Game was adapted in Scotland by the Newbie Game Co. as Bre'r Fox and Bre'r Rabbit. Although the instructions claimed it was protected by a British patent, there is no evidence this was actually done.

She and her husband moved back to the east coast of the U.S. and patented a revised version of the game in 1924; it received U.S. Patent 1,509,312. As her original patent had expired in 1921, this is seen as her attempt to reassert control over her game, which was now being played at some colleges, where students made their own copies. In 1932, her second edition of The Landlord's Game was published by the Adgame Company of Washington D. C., probably another self-publishing effort. This version was two games in one, as there were alternate rules for a game called Prosperity.

After a January 1936 interview with her appeared in a Washington D. C. newspaper, in which she was somewhat critical of Parker Brothers, they agreed to publish two more of her games.

They sold her final board game inventions Bargain Day and King's Men in 1937, and a third version of The Landlord's Game in 1939. In Bargain Day, shoppers compete with each other in a department store; King's Men is an abstract strategy game. Few copies of the Parker Brothers version of The Landlord's Game are known to exist, but Bargain Day and King's Men are less rare.

Magie died in Arlington, Virginia in 1948.


  • Walsh, Tim (2004). The Playmakers: Amazing Origins of Timeless Toys. Keys Publishing. ISBN 0-9646973-4-3. 
  • Sadowski, David, as "Clarence B. Darwin" (2006). Passing Go: Early Monopoly, 1933-37. Folkopoly Press. 

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