Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

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Elizabeth Stuart
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia from NPG.jpg
Queen consort of Bohemia
Tenure 4 November 1619 – 8 November 1620
Coronation 7 November 1619
Spouse Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Issue
Henry Frederick, Hereditary Prince of the Palatinate
Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Elisabeth of the Palatinate
Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland (Prince Rupert of the Rhine)
Prince Maurice
Princess Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate
Louis
Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern
Princess Henriette Marie of the Palatinate
Prince Philip of the Palatinate
Princess Charlotte
Sophia, Electress of Hanover
Prince Gustavus
House House of Stuart (by birth)
House of Palatinate-Simmern
(by marriage)
Father James VI of Scotland and I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born 19 August 1596
Falkland Palace, Fife
Died 13 February 1662(1662-02-13) (aged 65)
London, England

Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was, as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Electress Palatine and briefly Queen of Bohemia. Because her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasted for just one winter, Elizabeth is often referred to as The Winter Queen. She was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scots, England and Ireland, and his wife Anne of Denmark.

With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I of Great Britain, initiating the House of Hanover line of succession. The reigning British monarch, Elizabeth II, is Elizabeth Stuart's direct descendant of the eleventh generation.

Early life[edit]

Princess Elizabeth aged 7 by Robert Peake the Elder

Elizabeth was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on the 19 August 1596 at 2 o'clock in the morning. At the time of her birth, her father was King of Scots only. Named in honour of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the young Elizabeth was christened on 28 November 1596 in the Chapel Royal at Holyroodhouse. During her early life in Scotland, Elizabeth was brought up at Linlithgow Palace, "one of the grandest of Scotland’s royal residences",[1] where she was placed in the care of Lord Livingstone and his wife. A couple of years later the king's second daughter Margaret was placed in their care as well. Elizabeth "did not pay particular attention to this younger sister", as even at this young age her affections were with her brother Henry.[2]

Move to England[edit]

When the Queen of England died in 1603, Elizabeth's father James succeeded to the thrones of both England and Ireland. Along with her elder brother Henry,[3] Elizabeth made the journey South towards England with her mother "in a triumphal progress of perpetual entertainment".[4]

Elizabeth remained at court for a few weeks but "there is no evidence that she was present at her parents' coronation" on 25 July 1603.[5] It seems likely that by this time the royal children had already been removed to Oatlands, an old Tudor hunting lodge near Weybridge. On 19 October 1603 "an order was issued under the privy seal announcing that the King had thought fit to commit the keeping and education of the Lady Elizabeth to the Lord Harrington and his wife".[6]

Under the care of Lord Harrington at Coombe Abbey Elizabeth met Anne Dudley with whom she was to strike up a lifelong friendship.

Gunpowder Plot[edit]

Coombe Abbey painted in 1797 by Maria Johnson

Part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to assassinate Elizabeth's father and the Protestant aristocracy, kidnap the nine-year-old Elizabeth from Coombe Abbey, and place her on the throne of England–and presumably the thrones of Ireland and Scotland–as a Catholic monarch. The conspirators chose Elizabeth after considering the other available options. Prince Henry, it was believed, would perish alongside his father, Charles was seen as too feeble (having only just learnt to walk) and Mary too young. Elizabeth on the other hand had already attended formal functions and the conspirators knew that "she could fulfil a ceremonial role despite her comparative youth".[7]

They aimed to cause an uprising in the Midlands to coincide with the explosion in London and at this point secure Elizabeth's accession as a puppet queen. She would then be brought up as a Catholic and later married to a Catholic bridegroom.[8] The plot failed when the conspirators were betrayed and Guy Fawkes was caught by the King's soldiers before he was able to ignite the powder.[9]

Education[edit]

Elizabeth aged about 10 years old by Robert Peake the Elder

Elizabeth was given a comprehensive education for a princess at that time. This education included instruction in natural history, geography, theology, languages, writing, history, music and dancing. She was denied instruction in the classics as her father believed that "Latin had the unfortunate effect of making women more cunning".[10] By the age of twelve, Elizabeth was fluent in several languages, including French, "which she spoke with ease and grace" and would later use to converse with her husband.[11] She was also an excellent rider, had a thorough understanding of the Protestant religion, and had an aptitude for writing letters that "sounded sincere and never stilted".[12] She was also extremely literary and "several mementoes of her early love of books exist".[13]

Courtship and Marriage[edit]

Suitors[edit]

As the daughter of a reigning monarch the hand of the young Elizabeth was seen as a very desirable prize.[14] Suitors came from across the continent and were many and varied. They included:

Each suitor brought to the proposed marriage the prospect of power and greatness for the young Elizabeth. The marriage would also cost Elizabeth her father and her father’s kingdom. When James had succeeded to the English throne in 1603, England had acquired a new role in European affairs. Unlike the childless Elizabeth I, James by simply "having children, could play an important role in dynastic politics".[15] The selection of Elizabeth's spouse had therefore little to do with her personal preference and a great deal more to do with the benefits the match could bring.

Most of her suitors were quickly rejected for a variety of reasons. Some were simply not of high enough birth, had no real prospects to offer or in the case of Gustavus Adolphus, who on all other grounds seemed like a perfect match, because "his country was at war with Queen Anne’s native Denmark".[16] Furthermore England could not face another religious revolution and therefore the religious pre-requisite was paramount.

Portrait of Frederick believed to have been painted in 1613 the year of his marriage to Elizabeth by Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt

The man chosen was Frederick V, Count Palatine of the Rhine. Frederick was of undeniably high lineage. His ancestors included the kings of Aragon and Sicily, the landgraves of Hesse, the dukes of Brabant and Saxony and the counts of Nassau and Leuven. He and Elizabeth also shared a common ancestor in Henry II of England. He was "a senior Prince of the Empire" and a staunch defender of the Protestant faith.[17]

Courtship[edit]

Frederick arrived in England on 16 October 1612 and the match seemed to please them both from the beginning. Their contemporaries noted how Frederick seemed to "delight in nothing but her company and conversation".[18] Frederick also struck up a friendship with Elizabeth’s eldest brother, Prince Henry, which delighted his prospective bride immensely. King James did not concern himself with the couple's happiness but saw the match as "one step in a larger process of achieving domestic and European concord".[19] The only person seemingly unhappy with the match was Queen Anne. As the daughter of a king, the sister of a king, and the wife of a king, she expected to be the mother of a queen. She is said to have been somewhat fond of Frederick's mild manner and generous nature, but simply felt that he was of low stock.

On 6 November 1612 Henry, Prince of Wales, died. His death took its toll emotionally on Elizabeth and her new position as second in line to the throne made her an even more desirable match. Queen Anne and those like-minded who had "always considered the Palsgrave to be an unworthy match for her, were emboldened in their opposition".[20] Elizabeth stood by Frederick, whom her brother had approved, and whom she found to have the sentiments of a fine gentleman. Above all, he was "regarded as the future head of the Protestant interest in Germany".[21]

Marriage to Frederick V[edit]

Portrait of Elizabeth by an unknown artist

The wedding took place on 14 February 1613 at the royal chapel at the Palace of Whitehall and was a grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit that court of England.[22] The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".[23]

It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg including mass feats and lavish furnishings which cost nearly £50,000 and near enough bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentines Day". A contemporary author viewed the whole marriage as a prestigious event that saw England "lend her rarest gem, to enrich the Rhine".[24]

Electress Palatine[edit]

After an almost two-month stay in London for continued celebrations, the couple began their journey to join the Electoral court in Heidelberg. The journey was filled with meeting people, sampling foods and wines and being entertained by a wide variety of performers and companies. At each place the young couple stopped Elizabeth was expected to distribute presents. The cash to allow her to do so was not readily available, so she had to use one of her own jewels as collateral so that a jeweller would "provide her with suitable presents on credit".[25]

Her arrival in Heidelberg was seen as "the crowning achievement of a policy which tried to give the Palatinate a central place in international politics" and was long anticipated and welcomed.[26] Elizabeth’s new husband transformed his seat at Heidelberg Castle, creating an "English Wing" for her, a monkey-house, a menagerie and the beginnings of a new garden in the Italian Renaissance garden style popular in England at the time.[27] The garden, the Hortus Palatinus was constructed by Elizabeth's former tutor, Salomon de Caus.[28] and was dubbed the "Eighth Wonder of the World" by contemporaries.[29]

Gold medal made c1616 depicting Elizabeth, Frederick and their son Frederick Henry

Although Elizabeth and Frederick were considered to be genuinely in love and remained a romantic couple throughout the course of their marriage, problems had already begun to arise.[30] Before the couple had left England, King James had made Frederick promise that she "would take precedence over his mother...and always be treated as if she were a Queen".[31] This at times made life in the Palatinate uncomfortable for Elizabeth as Frederick's mother Louise Juliana had "not expected to be demoted in favour of her young daughter-in-law" and as such their relationship was never more than cordial.[32]

Elizabeth gave birth to three children in Heidelberg: Frederick Henry, Hereditary Prince of the Palatinate (sometimes called Henry Frederick) was born in 1614, Charles in 1617, and Elisabeth in 1619.

Queen of Bohemia[edit]

In 1619 Elizabeth’s husband Frederick was one of those offered the throne of Bohemia.

Bohemia was "an aristocratic republic in all but name", whose nobles elected the monarch. It was one of the few successful pluralist states.[33] The country had enjoyed a long period of religious freedom, but in March 1619, on the death of King Matthias, this seemed about to change. The Habsburg heir apparent, Archduke Ferdinand, was a fervent Catholic, who brutally persecuted Protestants in his realm of Styria. The Bohemian nobles had to choose between "either accepting Ferdinand as their king after all or taking the ultimate step of deposing him".[34] They decided on deposition, and, when others declined because of the risks involved, the Bohemians "pandered to the elector’s royalist pretensions" and extended the invitation to Elizabeth’s husband.[35]

Frederick, though doubtful, was persuaded to accept. Elizabeth "appealed to his honour as a prince and a cavalier, and to his humanity as a Christian", aligning herself with him completely.[36] The family moved to Prague, where "the new King was received with genuine joy".[37] Frederick was officially crowned on 4 November 1619, followed by Elizabeth's coronation as Queen of Bohemia three days later.

Frederick and Elizabeth as king and queen of Bohemia

The royal couple's third son, Prince Rupert, was born in Prague one month after the coronation, to great popular rejoicing. Frederick's reign in Bohemia had thus begun well, but only lasted one year. The Bohemian crown ‘had always been a corner-stone of Habsburg policy’ and the heir Ferdinand, now Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, would not yield.[38] Frederick's reign ended with his defeat by Ferdinand at the Battle of White Mountain (the trigger-event of the Thirty Years’ War) on 8 November 1620.

Elizabeth is remembered as the "Winter Queen" (zimní královna in Czech), and Frederick as the "Winter King", in reference to the brevity of their reign and to the season of the battle.

Exile[edit]

Fearing the worst, by the time of the defeat at White Mountain Elizabeth had already left Prague and was awaiting the birth of her fifth child at the Castle of Custrin, about fifty miles outside of Berlin. It was here on 6 January 1621 that she ‘in an easy labour lasting little more than an hour’ was delivered of a healthy son, Maurice.[39]

Elizabeth with her son Prince Gustavus by Gerard van Honthorst

The defeat, however, meant that there was no longer a prospect of a returning to Prague and the whole family were forced to flee. They could no longer return to the Palatinate as, despite the assistance of Elizabeth’s father, it was occupied by the Catholic league and a Spanish contingent. So after a courteous invitation from the Prince of Orange was extended their way, they made their move towards The Hague. The Stuart princess turned electress was now a queen in exile.

Elizabeth arrived in The Hague in the spring of 1621 with only a small nucleus court, and it would be here that Elizabeth would remain for the rest of her life. Exile in The Hague, although relatively safe and comfortable, was not a particularly friendly or pleasant place to be and consequently Elizabeth’s heart was never really in it. Despite this Elizabeth’s sense of duty to assist her husband out of the political mess they had found themselves in meant that ‘she became much more an equal, if not the stronger, partner in the marriage’.[26]

Whilst in exile Elizabeth produced a further eight children, four boys and four girls. The last, Gustavus, was born on 2 January 1632 and baptised in the Cloister Church where the two children who had died young, Louis and Charlotte, were buried. Later that same month Frederick said farewell to Elizabeth and set out on a journey to join the King of Sweden on the battle field. Things for Frederick did not go as planned and, after declining conditions set out by King Gustavus Adolphus that would have seen the Swedish King assist in his restoration, the pair parted with Frederick heading back towards The Hague. Unfortunately he never returned, as since the beginning of October 1632 he had been suffering from an infection, and died on the morning of 29 November 1632.

When Elizabeth received the news of Frederick’s death she became senseless with grief and for three days did not eat, drink or sleep. When Charles I heard of Elizabeth’s state he invited her to return to England. But no matter how much she must have longed to return, she refused. The rights of her son and Frederick’s ‘heir Charles Louis remained to be fought for’.[40] From this point on the headstrong Elizabeth fought for her son's rights, but even after he regained the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1648, Elizabeth remained in exile in The Hague.

Elizabeth as a widow painted in 1642 by Gerard van Honthorst

Elizabeth filled the remainder of her time with copious letter writing and making marriage matches for her children. Her life after Frederick, however, seems to have been fraught with heartache. Between his death in 1632 and her own death 30 years later she would see the death of a further four children, Gustavus in 1641, Philip in 1650,[41] Henriette Marie in 1651 and Maurice in 1652. She would also suffer through the execution of her brother Charles I, King of England in early 1649. The relationships with her remaining living children also became somewhat estranged, although she did spend time with her growing number of grandchildren. She was now beginning to pay the price for being "a distant mother to most of her own children" and the idea of going to England was now uppermost in her thoughts.[42]

Death[edit]

Elizabeth arrived in England on 26 May 1661 and made her way to London to visit her nephew Charles II. By July she was no longer planning on returning home and made plans for the remainder of her furniture, clothing and other property to be sent to her. She then proceeded to move to Drury House where she established a small but impressive and welcoming household. She made a further move to Leicester House on 29 January 1662 but by this time was quite unwell.[43] Elizabeth was suffering from pneumonia and on 10 February 1662 she haemorrhaged from the lungs and died soon after midnight on 13 February 1662.

Her death caused little public stir as by then her "chief, if not only, claim to fame was as the mother of Rupert of the Rhine, the legendary Cavalier general".[44] On the evening of 17 February when her coffin left Somerset House, where her remains had been removed to the previous day, Rupert was the only one of her sons to follow the funeral procession to Westminster Abbey.[45] There in the chapel of Henry VII, "a survivor of an earlier age, isolated and without a country she could really call her own" was laid to rest among her ancestors and close to her elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales.[26]

Josephine Ross notes how in his 1612 Epithalamium, or Marriage Song, John Donne likened Elizabeth Stuart to a phoenix.[46]

Issue[edit]

Elizabeth and Frederick had 13 children:

  1. Henry Frederick, Hereditary Prince of the Palatinate (1614–1629); drowned
  2. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617–1680); married Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, had issue; Marie Luise von Degenfeld, had issue; Elisabeth Hollander von Bernau, had issue
  3. Elisabeth of the Palatinate (1618–1680)
  4. Rupert, Duke of Cumberland (1619–1682); had two illegitimate children
  5. Maurice of the Palatinate (1620–1652)
  6. Louise Hollandine of the Palatinate (18 April 1622 – 11 February 1709)
  7. Louis (21 August 1624 – 24 December 1624)
  8. Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern (1625–1663); married Anna Gonzaga, had issue
  9. Henriette Marie of the Palatinate (7 July 1626 – 18 September 1651); married Prince Sigismund of Siebenbuergen on 16 June 1651
  10. John Philip Frederick of the Palatinate Frederick (26 September 1627 – 16 February 1650[41]); also reported to have been born on 15 September 1629
  11. Charlotte of the Palatinate (19 December 1628 – 14 January 1631)
  12. Sophia, Electress of Hanover (14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714); married Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, had issue including King George I of Great Britain
  13. Gustavus Adolphus of the Palatinate (14 January 1632 – 1641)

Ancestry[edit]

Legacy[edit]

Under the English Act of Settlement 1701 the succession to the English and Scottish crowns (later British crown) was settled on Elizabeth’s youngest daughter Sophia of Hanover and her issue. In August 1714, Sophia's son (and Elizabeth's grandson) George I ascended to the throne, with the future Royal family all descendants of him, and hence also descendants of Elizabeth.

The Elizabeth River in Southeastern Virginia was named in honour of the princess, as was Cape Elizabeth a peninsula, and today, a town in the U.S. state of Maine. John Smith explored and mapped New England and gave names to places mainly based on the names used by Native Americans. When Smith presented his map to Charles I, he suggested that the king should feel free to change the "barbarous names" for "English" ones. The king made many such changes, but only four survive today, one of which is Cape Elizabeth.[47]

According to legend, William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven, built Ashdown House in Berkshire, England, in honour of Elizabeth, although she died before the house was completed.

Fiction[edit]

  • Polish baroque poet Daniel Naborowski wrote a short poem praising Elizabeth's eyes.[48] He saw her in 1609, when he visited London on a diplomatic mission.
  • The young Elizabeth Stuart is the subject of Christie Dickason's novel The King's Daughter (2009). As the older, exiled Elizabeth of Bohemia, she also makes an appearance in Dickason's novel A Noble Assassin (2011).
  • Elizabeth is a central character in Jane Stevenson's novel The Winter Queen (2003).
  • In W. G. Sebald's novel Vertigo (1990), a woman appears whom the narrator, travelling through Heidelberg by train in 1987, recognises instantly "without a shadow of a doubt" as Elizabeth when she enters his carriage. – It seems most likely, however that the Elizabeth the narrator recognises is actually Elisabeth of the Palatinate sometimes called Elisabeth of Bohemia, Elizabeth’s daughter.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night, Bonfirenight.net, retrieved 2013-02-13 
  • The Marriage of prince Fredericke, and the King’s daughter the Lady Elizabeth..., London: Thomas Creede, 1613 
  • Allyne, Robert (1613), Tears of joy shed at the happy departure from Great Britaine, of... Frederick and Elizabeth..., London: Thomas Archer 
  • Asch, Ronald G. (2004), "Elizabeth, princess (1596-1662)", Oxford dictionary of national biography (Oxford: OUP) 
  • Asch, Ronald (1997), The Thirty Years War, the Holy Roman Empire and Europe: 1618-1648, London: Macmillan Press 
  • Bonney, Richard (1991), The European Dynastic State: 1494-1660, New York: OUP 
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elizabeth (d. of James I.)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Curran, Kevin (2006). "James I and fictional authority at the Palatine wedding celebrations". Renaissance Studies 20 (1): 51–67. 
  • Erskine, Frances (1825), Memoirs Relating to the Queen of Bohemia, Vol.1, London: Longhurst 
  • Everett Green, Mary Anne (2010) [1855], Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia (1909 ed.), Milton Keynes: Bibliolife, ISBN 9781117402697 
  • Fraser, Antonia (2002), The Weaker Vessel: Woman’s Lot in Seventeenth-Century England, part Two, London: Phoenix, ISBN 1407216120 
  • Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  • Hay, Marie (1910), The Winter Queen: being the unhappy history of Elizabeth Stuart, electress palatine, queen of Bohemia; a romance, Boston, New York: Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin company 
  • Jardine, Lisa (24 February 2013). "A Point of View: The Winter Queen of Bohemia". BBC Magazine. 
  • Kassel, Richard (2006), The Organ: An Encyclopedia, London: Routledge.
  • Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  • Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  • Spencer, Charles (2008) Prince Rupert: the Last Cavalier, London: Phoenix.
  • Stevenson, Jane (2002), The Winter Queen: A Novel, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-14912-0  (alternative ISBN 0-618-38267-4)
  • Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945], Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry (3rd) ed.), Boston: Houghton Mifflin 
  • Turner, Tom (2005), Garden History: Philiosophy and Design, 2000 BC – 2000 AD, London: Spon Press 
  • Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977), Elizabeth, the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, ISBN 0-200-72472-X 
  • Wilson, Peter H. (June 2008). "The Causes of the Thirty years War 618-48". English Historical Review. CXXIII (502): 554–586. 
  • Yates, Frances (1972), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-7380-1 , devotes its early chapters to describing her 1613 wedding and the reputation she and her husband had in Europe at the time.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 3, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  2. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, p. 4, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  3. ^ Charles remained in Scotland for the time being, Margaret had died in spring 1600 and Robert in May 1602.
  4. ^ Fraser, Antonia (2002) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605 (Part One), London: Phoenix, p. 70 
  5. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 8, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  6. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 9, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  7. ^ Fraser, Antonia (2002) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605 (Part One), London: Phoenix, p. 140 
  8. ^ Fraser, Antonia (2002) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605 (Part One), London: Phoenix, p. 141 
  9. ^ "Guy Fawkes and Bonfire Night". Bonfirenight.net. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  10. ^ Fraser, Antonia (2002) [1996], The Weaker Vessel: Woman’s Lot in Seventeenth-Century England, part Two, London: Phoenix, p. 71, ISBN 1407216120 
  11. ^ Erskine, Frances (1825), Memoirs Relating to the Queen of Bohemia, Vol.1, London: Longhurst, p. 83 
  12. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, pp. 11–12, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  13. ^ Everett Green, Mary Anne (2010) [1855], Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia (1909 ed.), Milton Keynes: Bibliolife, p. 23, ISBN 9781117402697 
  14. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 20, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  15. ^ Wormald, Jenny (2004), "James VI and I (1566-1625)", Oxford dictionary of national biography (Oxford: OUP) 
  16. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen, New York: Dorset Press, p. 21, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  17. ^ Sturdy, David J. (2002), Fractured Europe:1600-1721, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, p. 36 
  18. ^ Everett Green, Mary Anne (2010) [1855], Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia (1909 ed.), Milton Keynes: Bibliolife, p. 45, ISBN 9781117402697 
  19. ^ Curran, Kevin (2006). "James I and fictional authority at the Palatine wedding celebrations". Renaissance Studies 20 (1): 51. 
  20. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 25, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  21. ^ Everett Green, Mary Anne (2010) [1855], Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia (1909 ed.), Milton Keynes: Bibliolife, p. 29, ISBN 9781117402697 
  22. ^ The Marriage of prince Fredericke, and the King’s daughter the Lady Elizabeth..., London: Thomas Creede, 1613, p. 1 
  23. ^ Jardine, Lisa (24 February 2013). "A Point of View: The Winter Queen of Bohemia". BBC Magazine. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  24. ^ Allyne, Robert (1613), Tears of joy shed at the happy departure from Great Britaine, of... Frederick and Elizabeth..., London: Thomas Archer, p. 3 
  25. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, p. 40, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  26. ^ a b c Asch, Ronald G. (2004), "Elizabeth, princess (1596-1662)", Oxford dictionary of national biography (Oxford: OUP) 
  27. ^ Spencer, Charles (2008), Prince Rupert: The Last Cavalier, London: Routledge, p. 7 
  28. ^ Turner, Tom (2005), Garden History: Philiosophy and Design, 2000 BC – 2000 AD, London: Spon Press, p. 149 
  29. ^ Kassel, Richard (2006), The Organ: An Encyclopaedia, London: Routledge, p. 482 
  30. ^ Spencer, Charles (2008), Prince Rupert: The Last Cavalier, London: Routledge, p. 6 
  31. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, p. 35, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  32. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, p. 45, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  33. ^ Bonney, Richard (1991), The European Dynastic State: 1494-1660, New York: OUP, p. 190 
  34. ^ Asch, Ronald (1997), The Thirty Years War, the Holy Roman Empire and Europe: 1618-1648, London: Macmillan Press, p. 55 
  35. ^ Wilson, Peter H. (June 2008). "The Causes of the Thirty years War 618-48". English Historical Review. CXXIII (502): 583. 
  36. ^ Erskine, Frances (1825), Memoirs Relating to the Queen of Bohemia, Vol.1, London: Longhurst, p. 273 
  37. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, p. 72, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  38. ^ Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977) [1976], Elizabeth the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, p. 57, ISBN 0-200-72472X 
  39. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, p. 85, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  40. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, p. 109, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  41. ^ a b Oman, Carola (1938), Elizabeth of Bohemia, London: Hodder and Stoughton Limited 
  42. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, pp. 144–149, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  43. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, pp. 146–149, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  44. ^ Plowden, Alison (2003) [1996], The Stuart Princesses, Gloucestershire: Sutton publishing, p. 150, ISBN 0-7509-3238-4 
  45. ^ Everett Green, Mary Anne (2010) [1855], Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia (1909 ed.), Milton Keynes: Bibliolife, p. 411, ISBN 9781117402697 
  46. ^ Ross, Josephine (1986) [1979], The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: Dorset Press, pp. 1–2, ISBN 0-88029-068-4 
  47. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945], Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.), Houghton Mifflin, p. 38 
  48. ^ Mariusz Górniak, Roman Mazurkiewicz. "Daniel Naborowski - Na Oczy Królewny Angielskiej, Która Była Za Fryderykiem, Falcgrafem Reńskim, Obranym Królem Czeskim". Staropolska.pl. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 

External links[edit]

Elizabeth Stuart
Born: 19 August 1596 Died: 13 February 1662
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Anna of Tyrol
Queen consort of Bohemia
4 November 1619 – 9 November 1620
Vacant
Title next held by
Eleonor Gonzaga