|Motto: The Heart of Northeast Nevada|
Location of Elko, Nevada
|Designated County Seat||1869|
|• Mayor||Chris Johnson|
|• Senate||Dean Rhoads (R)|
|• Assembly||John Ellison (R)|
|• U.S. Congress||Mark Amodei (R)|
|• Total||14.5 sq mi (37.5 km2)|
|• Land||14.5 sq mi (37.5 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||5,066 ft (1,544 m)|
|• Density||1,153.3/sq mi (445.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature ID||0845452|
Coordinates: Elko (Shoshoni: Natakkoa, 'Rocks Piled on One Another') is a city in Elko County, Nevada, United States. The population was 18,297 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Elko County. The city straddles the Humboldt River.
Elko is the principal city of the Elko Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that covers Elko and Eureka counties and had a combined population of 48,594 at the 2010 census. It is the largest city for over 130 miles (210 km) in all directions, making it, as its city motto states, "The Heart of Northeast Nevada".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Arts, culture and tourist attractions
- 7 Media
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Though Elko lies along the route of the historic California Trail, it was first inhabited only in 1868, when it was at the east end of the railroad tracks built by Central Pacific Railroad (the portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad built from California to Utah). When the railroad crews moved on, Elko remained, serving as a center for ranching, mining, rail freight and general supplies.
Elko is said to have been named by Charles Crocker, a superintendent of the Central Pacific Railroad. He was especially fond of animal names and added the letter "o" to Elk. There is no definitive evidence of this naming history, but it has become the widely accepted version.
The first Elko County Courthouse was built in 1869. Elko was officially incorporated as a city in 1917.
In 1925, the Kelly Act (also known as the Airmail Act of 1925) authorized the U.S. Post Office to contract with private airlines for the feeder routes that fed the main transcontinental route. The first commercial airmail flight in the United States was on the 487 mile Airmail Route #5 from Pasco, Washington to what would become Elko Regional Airport on April 6, 1926. The flight was piloted by Leon D. Cuddeback and included a brief stop in Boise, Idaho to pick up more mail.
Elko’s climate is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk). January is normally the coldest month of the year, with a daily average temperature of 25.1 °F (−3.8 °C). July is normally the warmest month of the year, with a daily average of 70.2 °F (21.2 °C). There is an average of 1.8 days with 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs, 44 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 24 days that do not top freezing, 198 nights with freezing lows, and 12 nights with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows; the growing season here is short, as the average window for freezing temperatures is September 10 thru June 9. Annual precipitation averages 9.89 inches (251 mm), falling on an average of 81 days. Annual snowfall averages with 41.5 inches (105.4 cm). There are normally 130 sunny days each year. The highest temperature on record is 107 °F (42 °C), most recently on July 4, 1981, and the lowest on record is −43 °F (−42 °C) on January 21, 1937. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 4.13 inches (104.9 mm) on August 27, 1970. The most rainfall in one month was 5.71 inches (145.0 mm) in January 1916. The most rainfall in one calendar year was 18.34 inches (465.8 mm) in 1983, and the least 4.35 inches (110.5 mm) in 1919. The most snowfall in one month was 69.0 inches (175 cm) in January 1890, with the most in one season being more than 91.00 inches (2.31 m) from July 1889 to June 1890 (some days being missing) and the least 6.00 inches (0.15 m) from July 1939 to June 1940.
|Climate data for Elko, Nevada (Elko Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||65
|Average high °F (°C)||36.3
|Average low °F (°C)||13.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−43
|Precipitation inches (mm)||1.12
|Snowfall inches (cm)||10.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.1||8.3||8.8||8.8||8.1||4.8||3.4||3.4||4.2||5.3||7.7||9.2||81.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||7.4||5.7||4.8||3.3||0.8||0||0||0||0||0.7||4.0||7.2||33.9|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1890–present)|
As of the census of 2000, there were 16,708 people, 8,505 households, and 5,287 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,153.3 people per square mile (445.2/km²). There were 6,948 housing units at an average density of 479.6 per square mile (185.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.2% White, 0.3% African American, 2.7% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 8.6% from other races, and 2.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.4% of the population.
There were 8,505 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.8% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.5 years. For every 100 females there were 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $48,656, and the median income for a family was $52,263. Males had a median income of $42,155 versus $26,823 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,680. About 6.1% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
Elko's economy is based on heavily on gold mining, with ranching and tourism providing additional jobs. The city is considered the capital of Nevada's goldbelt. The state of Nevada produces more gold than all but four countries, most of which is mined near Elko. This has caused the town to have a boom and bust economy consistent with the rises and declines in the price of gold. The town is surrounded by hundreds of abandoned mining camps, and viewing them is a popular local activity. A gold boom in the 1980s that ended in a bust in the late 1990s left the town with large numbers of abandoned homes and left the local governments struggling to survive on reduced tax revenues. With a new gold boom starting in 2009, city officials have been reluctant to hire new employees and have decided to build a reserve in the city budget to prepare for the next bust.
Elko has struggled to bring in other industries, mostly because of its isolation, and the surrounding harsh desert environment. Hunter S. Thompson quipped that in Elko, "The federal government owns 90% of this land, and most of it is useless for anything except weapons testing and poison-gas experiments".
Arts, culture and tourist attractions
Annual cultural events
Elko is also the home of the annual National Cowboy Poetry Gathering, and has been for the last 27 years. This festival is held each January and is a week-long celebration of life in the rural West, features poetry, music, stories, gear, film, photography, and food.
Every July, since 1963, Elko is host to the National Basque Festival. in 2013 they will be celebrating their 50th Anniversary. Humorously referred to as the "Basquo Fiasco," it is a celebration of traditional Basque culture and its ties to the Elko community. The festival includes strongman competitions, handball, a running of the bulls, traditional food and wine, and Basque Dancing.
The annual Elko Motorcycle Jamboree, also known as the "Rumble in the Rubies Motorcycle Rally" is usually held in June.
Museums and other points of interest
Elko is the home to the Western Folklife Center, which is regional nonprofit organization that works to expand understanding of the everyday traditions of people who live and work in the American West. The Western Folklife Center is located Downtown in the old Pioneer hotel.
A number of casinos are also located in Elko, including Stockmen's Casino & Hotel, the Commercial Casino, the High Desert Casino, Gold Dust West, the Red Lion Casino, and the Gold County Inn & Casino. The Commercial Casino is notable for having a stuffed 10-foot-tall (3.0 m) polar bear on display. For many years the Red Lion brought gamblers to Elko from many parts of the country through flights on Casino Express. The flights to Elko ended in February 2006.
Several geothermal features are also located in Elko, the largest of which is the Elko Hot Hole. These features were utilized by travelers on the California Trail and subsequently by settlers. 
Notable attractions in the Elko region include the Ruby Mountains, within which is located the popular Lamoille Canyon. To the north, the Jarbidge Wilderness is among the least visited and cleanest wilderness areas in the United States.
- Elko Daily Free Press
- Elko Independent
Elko is the largest city between Salt Lake City and Reno located along Interstate 80. In addition to the interstate, Nevada State Route 225 (Mountain City Highway) connects Elko to Owyhee and southern Idaho, while Nevada State Route 227 (Lamoille Highway) extends southeast to Spring Creek and Lamoille.
Passenger service to Elko is available on Greyhound Lines, while Amtrak's twice-daily California Zephyr serves Elko Train Station and SkyWest Airlines serves Elko Regional Airport from Salt Lake City operating as the Delta Connection.
Historically, Elko was the home base of a jet air carrier, Casino Express Airlines, which operated Boeing 737-200 jetliners to many cities in the U.S. on a scheduled charter basis in support of the local casino industry. Casino Express changed its name to Xtra Airways and relocated its headquarters to Boise, Idaho.
Elko also was previously served by United Airlines with scheduled passenger jet service during the 1970s and early 1980s. According to Official Airline Guide (OAG] flight schedules as well as the airline's system timetables, United operated Boeing 737-200 jetliners into the Elko Regional Airport on a year-round basis with a daily roundtrip routing of San Francisco (SFO)-Reno (RNO)-Elko (EKO)-Ely (ELY)-Salt Lake City (SLC). United eventually discontinued all service to Elko.
- Lewis R. Bradley, Second Governor of Nevada, from 1871 to 1879; resident of Elko
- Dave Pratt, radio host, grew up in Elko before moving to Phoenix, Arizona
Cultural references in art
- Elko was the main setting for Roland Smith's novel Zach's Lie.
- Elko was one of the settings and filming locations of the 2005 film Don't Come Knocking, directed by Wim Wenders, and co-written by Wenders and Sam Shepard. The character Howard Spence (Shepard), a troubled actor in western films, runs off from a film set and visits his mother in Elko.
- Elko and Elko County are major settings in Dean Koontz's novel Strangers.
- Elko is where the ill-fated brothers end up in Willy Vlautin's first novel The Motel Life.
- "Fear and Loathing in Elko" is a short story by Hunter S. Thompson.
- Elko is mentioned as the one place he would like to be if he could choose, by the lead character, "Phil the Weatherman", played by actor Bill Murray, in the very beginning of the movie, Groundhog Day.
- Americana band Railroad Earth have a song entitled "Elko," with lyrics depicting the prostitution, gambling, and drinking. They also have an album entitled Elko (a live performance).
- The early events of the sixth-season X-Files episode "Drive" took place in Elko and the vicinity, though they were not filmed in the area.
- "Welcome to the City of Elko". Ci.elko.nv.us. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- Beverly Crum & Jon P. Dayley, Shoshoni Texts (1997, Boise State University), pg. 167
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Profile for Elko, Nevada, NV". ePodunk. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS[dead link], Office of Management and Budget, 2007-05-11. Accessed 2008-07-27.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Hickson, Howard (Fall 1983). "Elko, Nevada: 1868-1968". Northeastern Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 83 (4).
- Hickson, Howard (Fall 1970). "Dirt Runways: Elko Airport - The Early Years (1919-1926)". Northeastern Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 1 (2).
- "ELKO WB AIRPORT, NEVADA - Climate Summary". wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Ashley Powers (September 20, 2011). "Elko, Nev., takes the gold boom with a grain of doubt". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Western Folklife Center - National Cowboy Poetry Gathering Home Page". westernfolklife.org. Retrieved June 6, 2010.[dead link]
- "Elko Convention and Visitors Authority, Elko Nevada". elkocva.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010.[dead link]
- "Elko Motorcycle Jamboree - Rumble in the Rubies". elkomotorcyclejamboree.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "Western Folklife Center - Home". westernfolklife.org. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "NRS: CHAPTER 244 - COUNTIES: GOVERNMENT". leg.state.nv.us. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- "Elko Hot Springs". University of Nevada-Reno. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Nevada Governor Lewis Rice Bradley". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- Larry Rodgers "DJ diary Valley radio legend Dave Pratt's new autobiography has charitable spin." The Arizona Republic. Nov. 18, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elko, Nevada.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Elko.|
- City of Elko official website
- Elko Chamber of Commerce
- National Weather Service WFO Elko
- Elko Convention and Visitor's Authority
- County of Elko
- Elko County Economic Diversification Authority
- Elko County Library
- Western Folklife Center
- Northeastern Nevada Museum
- Great Basin College
- Northeastern Nevada Regional Hospital
- Elko Update
- City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Elko
- Western Folklife Center SAH Archipedia Building Entry