Ellen Day Hale
|Ellen Day Hale|
Self-Portrait, oil on canvas, 1885, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
February 11, 1855|
|Died||February 11, 1940
|Known for||Painting, printmaking|
|Notable work(s)||Un Hiver Americain, An Old Retainer, A New England Girl, June|
Ellen Day Hale (February 11, 1855 in Worcester, Massachusetts – February 11, 1940 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an American Impressionist painter and printmaker from Boston. She studied art in Paris and during her adult life lived in Paris, London and Boston. She exhibited at the Paris Salon and the Royal Academy of Arts. Hale wrote the book History of Art: A Study of the Lives of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, and Albrecht Dürer.
Her father was author and orator Edward Everett Hale, her brother was Philip Leslie Hale and she was related to author Harriet Beecher Stowe, educator Catherine Beecher, and Revolutionary War soldier Nathan Hale.
Her parents were author and orator Edward Everett Hale and Emily Baldwin Perkins. Her father was a Unitarian chaplin in the U.S. Senate from 1904 until his death in 1909. Philip Leslie Hale, her brother, and his wife, Lilian Wescott Hale, were painters. She was one of eight children, and she helped raise her siblings. Her mother became disabled, after which point she was a hostess for her father during his time as a Senate chaplain.
Her great-aunt was Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Educator Catherine Beecher was also a great-aunt. Nathan Hale, a Revolutionary War soldier was her great-great uncle. She was also related to writer and social reformer Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
She was a "New Woman": a successful, highly trained woman artist from the 19th century who never married. Other New Women include Elizabeth Coffin, Mary Cassatt, Elizabeth Nourse and Cecilia Beaux. She lived in Europe and the United States before settling down in her 50s.
Her aunt, Susan Hale, gave Ellen her first lessons in art. She then studied under Bostonian William Rimmer, Helen M. Knowlton, and Boston painter William Morris Hunt. She was taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1878 and 1879. Her subsequent studies at the Académie Julian[nb 1] and Académie Colarossi in Paris between 1882 and 1885 were highly influential to her, as she was one of several American women and men to study art in Europe in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Hale was an Impressionist painter, best known for her figure paintings, including many portraits and self-portraits. She made sophisticated, aesthetic paintings with good command of light, shadow and technical skill. She exhibited at the Boston Art Club in 1876. In Europe, she lived in both London and Paris, where she exhibited at Paris Salon in 1885 her paintings An Old Retainer and Un Hiver Americain. In London's Royal Academy of Arts, she exhibited A New England Girl. Hale traveled to Italy and Spain. In the United States she lived in Boston. She was also a teacher.
In 1883, she met Gabrielle DeVeaux Clements, who became a lifelong companion and taught her etching. Together they pioneered color etching in the United States in the late 1880s. Hale was very active in exhibiting her work, but only achieved marginal recognition of her art.
She made a self-portrait in 1885, which was described by an art critic, meaning to compliment her work, as displaying "a man’s strength." The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: "Hale's forthright presentation, her strong dark colors, and the direct manner in which she engages the viewer recall the work of one of the French painters she most admired, Edouard Manet. Manet had been known for his confrontational images, strongly painted without subtle nuances of light and shadow." Hale, Elizabeth Nourse, and Elizabeth Coffin "created compelling self-portraits in which they fearlessly presented themselves as individuals willing to flout social codes and challenge accepted ideas regarding women's place in society. Indeed, the New Women portraits of the 1880s and 1890s are unforgettable interpretations of energetic, self-confident and accomplished women."
Hale returned to the United States from Paris in 1885 and exhibited paintings at the North, Central and South America Exposition in late 1885. She also participated in other world's fairs and traveling exhibitions.
Her works were shown in the latter part of the 20th century and early 21st century, in group exhibitions and in solo exhibitions of her work in 1989 to 1990 and in 2013's "Wanderer: Travel Prints by Ellen Day Hale".
- History of Art: A Study of the Lives of Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, and Albrecht Dürer. Boston and Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co., G.H. Ellis. 1888. OCLC 32953577
- Ellen Day Hale. National Museum of Women in the Arts. February 17, 2014.
- Self-Portrait - Ellen Day Hale. Museum of Fine Arts. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Hale, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- American Women Artists 1830-1930. Washington, D.C.: The National Museum of Women in the Arts. 1987. ISBN 0-940979-02-0
- Holly Pyne Connor; Newark Museum; Frick Art & Historical Center. Off the Pedestal: New Women in the Art of Homer, Chase, and Sargent. Rutgers University Press; 2006. ISBN 978-0-8135-3697-2. p. 25.
- Works of Art in the United States Capitol Building, Charles Edward Fairman, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1913
- Kirsten Swinth. Painting Professionals: Women Artists & the Development of Modern American Art, 1870-1930. UNC Press Books; 2001. ISBN 978-0-8078-4971-2. p. 63.
- Phyllis Peet (1999). "Hale, Ellen Day". American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Holly Pyne Connor; Newark Museum; Frick Art & Historical Center. Off the Pedestal: New Women in the Art of Homer, Chase, and Sargent. Rutgers University Press; 2006. ISBN 978-0-8135-3697-2. p. 27, 39.
- Early Vegetables, Charleston, S.C.. The Johnson Collection, Spartanburg, South Carolina. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- Darcy J. Dapra. Ellen Day Hale: Homosociality and the Nineteenth-century Woman Artist. University of California, Davis; 2003.
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