Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
|This article uses citations that link to broken or outdated sources. (June 2013)|
|Type||Broadcaster (Television, Radio & Online)|
|Launch date||1938 (radio)
23 February 1966 (TV)
|Dissolved||11 June 2013|
|Former names||EIR (National Radio Foundation) (1938–1970)
EIRT (National Radio Television Foundation) (1970–1974), ERT (Hellenic Radio Television) (1975–present)
|Digital channel||Channel 52, 23|
|Analogue channel||Channel 23, 41|
|Picture format||576i 16:9 (SDTV)
1080i 16:9 (HDTV)
|Official website||ERT (Under construction)|
The Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation[broken citation] (Greek: Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση, Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi or ERT, literally "Greek Radio-Television") is the Greek state-owned public radio and television broadcasting corporation. It is a member of the EBU. Around 88% of ERT's funding came from television licence fees.[broken citation]
On 11 June 2013 it was reported that ERT will cease operating under its present model, under guidance from the Greek government, which continues to be under serious financial pressure. 2,656 ERT employees will lose their jobs. Employees of the state broadcaster protested against the closure. Despite the announcement, ERT employees returned to work. After ERT transmitters and its website were shut down on 12 June, broadcasts continued through a satellite wildfeed with European Broadcasting Union equipment. The EBU also began providing Internet streaming of the ERT broadcast.
On 12 June 2013, the Greek government proposed a successor organization, New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television (Νέα Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία, Ίντερνετ και Τηλεόραση), shortened to NERIT (ΝΕΡΙΤ). The new media organization is expected to launch its service(s) in August 2013.. This is a movement towards giving control of all the Greek television media to a sole private digital platform provider (Digea) as the latter along with ERT are the two national providers.
As protests against the decision of the present government (Coalition of Nea Dimocratia, PASOK, DHMAR), continued on 15 June, the Samaras government offered a proposal to return ERT to service immediately, by having an emergency committee rehire selected employees. This offer was rejected by the ERT employees and Samaras' coalition partners. On 17 June, the Council of State (Συμβούλιο της Επικρατείας) has canceled the government decision because of its illegitimacy and stated the immediate re-opening of the broadcasting chain, at least until the possible institution of a new company. Since the early morning hours of 17 June, a new channel started to broadcast, blank for the time being, the legitimacy of which is doubted by many, as the new company (NERIT) is not yet established.
ERT began broadcasting in 1938, initially limited to radio services from Athens. At that time the company was known as the EIR (National Radio Foundation). In the years of World War II, broadcasting stopped during the Nazi occupation of Greece. After World War II, broadcasting resumed and the radio services were expanded to three national radio services as well as international radio services for emigrant Greeks. EIR was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
Test television broadcasts began in 1965 and full TV service began in 1966. In 1970, the company was renamed EIRT (National Radio and Television Foundation). At that time there were only two TV services – ERT and a second one (ΥΕΝΕΔ/YENED) that was operated and controlled by the Greek Army. It was used as a propaganda medium by the military government of Greece until its fall in 1974. The station retained its name and military orientation until the early 1980s, when it was renamed ERT2 by the then PASOK government. On 1 September 1987, a third station was added – ET3, based in Thessaloniki, with mostly regional programming focused on Macedonia and the rest of Northern Greece.
During the first 20 years of TV services in Greece, ERT broadcasting was limited, starting at around 5pm to between midnight and 2am. Since 1997 the three ERT TV channels are known as ET1, NET and ET3, and broadcast round the clock. ET1 is an entertainment channel whereas NET is focused on news services. ET3 is still focused on Northern Greece issues, although it broadcasts nationwide.
ERT was a major national sponsor and the official broadcaster of the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. It has been broadcasting the Olympic Games in Greece since the Mexico City Games of 1968. It also broadcasts IAAF games while it is shown on privately owned channels mainly in the United States. Today it broadcasts documentaries, some from the private sector, and a few animated shows. With the introduction of independent privately owned channels in Greece in the late 1980s, programme quality changed to a more commercial variety, in order to survive the fierce competition for ratings. This was a major shift in the network's principles that was dominated by wider variety, alleged "higher quality" programmes including documentaries and World Cinema.
On 19 August 2011 the Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation announced a planned restructuring of the company; ERT's main channels became NET and ET3, while ET1 was incorporated into the program of NET and ET3. Additionally the digital channels Cine+ and Sport+ ceased broadcasting, and their programming were again incorporated into that of the company's two major domestic channels. ERT World also saw changes in its programming to reflect the needs of the Greek diaspora as identified by a survey conducted by ERT. The Minister of State also said that the company would become public but no longer state-owned.[broken citation]
At 17:45 on 11 June 2013 the Greek government announced ERT would close by the end of the day. All 2,600 ERT employees would lose their jobs.
ERT was dissolved through a decree with immediate effect by the government led by New Democracy, using a law which delays the need for parliamentary approval until October. Despite running a budget surplus on income from a license fee outside the state budget, in a televised statement, Simos Kedikoglou, a government spokesperson, said that the ERT was a "haven of waste" that cost more and had fewer viewers than private stations.
Later in the evening, riot police forced their way into at least one of the transmitting stations, and all ERT transmitters were closed down around Greece, as was eventually the worldwide ERT World feed. Using satellite offices and other spaces that had not been closed down, ERT journalists continued to broadcast to the Internet.
On 12 June at noon local time, the AS and IP range of ERT, the official domain names "ert.gr", "ert3.gr", and "voiceofgreece.gr" were cancelled in the Greek Internet registry, meaning that live broadcasts on the Internet (ERT LIVE) have stopped, as well as the publication of all news articles. Emails sent to the broadcasters are no longer delivered. Other Internet assets registered by ERT are at risk of being closed (because their owner and contact address are no longer valid), notably the official Facebook page and Twitter account. ERT LIVE is relayed by other sites, such as the University of Greece.
The European Broadcasting Union was quick to criticise the closure, issuing a statement the same evening where they expressed "profound dismay on behalf of Europe’s entire public service media" and urged the prime minister to reverse the decision. The EBU made the ERT stream available on satellite to its members.
At 21:55 on June the 17th, 2013 the Council of State cancelled the decision of the government, determining "ipso facto" the need of re establishing immediately the broadcasting activities of ERT.
NERIT (New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television)
On 12 June 2013 a Greek government spokesperson, Simos Kedikoglou, announced the formation of a new public service broadcaster, New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television (NERIT). The companies services are expected to launch on 29 August 2013. The service provider was supposed to employ between 1,000 to 1,200 and will continue to be funded by advertising and tax contributions. The broadcasting activities of NERIT did not took place anyway, because of the decision of Council of State.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Timeline is too complicated, see talk page.. (June 2013)|
|Late 1990s and early 2000s||
ERT broadcasted radio programmes under the name of ERA (Elliniki Radiofonia, "Greek Radio"), since 1988. Under this name, ERT broadcasts four national radio services. The ERA 1 (Πρώτο Πρόγραμμα), primarily a news-oriented station, with some current affairs and talk programming. ERA2 (Δεύτερο Πρόγραμμα) was primarily a music station, while ERA3 (Τρίτο Πρόγραμμα) was more of a classical music/arts & culture station (with some drama thrown in). ERA Sport (ERA4) a sports-oriented station, with regular news every hour and sports news every half-hour. During the late night hours all ERA programmes aired a common night program. For regional audiences, ERT had 19 regional stations with relays. The regional station in Macedonia was the only one with two separate programme streams and a shortwave service. The interval signal for all ERA programmes were several opening bars of the folk song "Tsopanakos Imouna" (Once I Was A Shepherd Boy).
In the cities of Athens and Corinth, two additional programmes were aired. KOSMOS primarily a world music station, on FM exclusively in Athens. FILIA was a multilingual station directed mostly towards immigrants, on FM and AM in both Athens and Corinth; the AM channel also aired KOSMOS in the late night hours.
ERT broadcasted the Voice of Greece (ERA 5) for an international audience, using shortwave. Under the name of the ERA International Network, Voice of Greece and some ERA domestic programmes were rebroadcast on AM and FM stations throughout the globe. In addition, the ERT regional station in Macedonia can also be heard on shortwave. In September 2004, ERA Spor & ERA 5 were added to Dish Network's lineup of Greek channels, giving viewers in North America access to two of Greece's public radio stations.
On 12 June 2013 all ERT radio stations shut down.
There were three nation-wide channels in Greece, two (ET1 & NET) from the Radiomegaron in Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, the main ERT headquarters. The building's size is 360,000m². There is a large television facility north-east of Athens at Mesogeion Avenue. The third channel, ET3, broadcasts from Thessaloniki and is a regional channel which caters to Northern Greece and broadcasts nation-wide.
ERT also broadcasted an international channel, ERT World (formerly ERT Sat), which is only available to international audiences, outside of Greece. ERT World broadcasts as a subscription service or FTA to Europe, North America, Asia & Australia.
All but NET and ET3 ceased transmission 11 June 2013:
- ET1 – broadcasting from Athens
- NET – broadcasting from Athens
- ET3 – broadcasting from Thessaloniki
- ERT HD – HD channel started transmissions on 27 April 2011
- ERT World – a compendium of all ERT programming, mainly intended for the Greek diaspora via satellite
- Ciné+ – movies
- Sport+ – sports
- Prisma+ – program for hearing impaired
- Cinesport+ – movies and sports
- Studio+ – music (in association with MAD TV)
- Info+ – news and current affairs
For a list of programmes, see list of programmes broadcast by ERT.
ERT was mainly funded by license fees which represented the vast majority of the resources of the public group. The fee was a fixed percentage of each electricity bill (4.30 euros per month in 2013) and was paid along with this bill, along with other applicable taxes. This was not connected with actual ownership of a TV set.
There are modest grants from the government for contributing to educational public missions. And since 2008, some commercial resources from advertisers (even though the channels have lost significant parts of audiences) and the economical crisis in Greece has severely impacted the profitability of advertising and of commercial cooperation for the joint production of programs, as well as the collection of license fees on electricity bills.
- "Δημόσια και ανεξάρτητη ΕΡΤ" [A public and independent ERT]. www.ert.gr. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Mass Firings Seen Set at ERT | Greece.GreekReporter.com Latest News from Greece
- "Greek public broadcaster ERT to be shut down, reopened with fewer employees". ekathimerini.com. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- ERT shutdown: European Broadcasting Union sets up makeshift studio | Media | guardian.co.uk
- Monitor ERT online
- "Νέα Ελληνική Ραδιοφωνία, Ίντερνετ και Τηλεόραση" [New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television]. www.minpress.gr. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Fallout in Athens and Brussels over Greek TV shutdown | euronews, world news
- "Greece shuts down state broadcaster in search for new savings". Guardian. 12 June 2013.
- ERT LIVE relayed by the University of Greece, on Blogspot. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- ERT LIVE relayed on the Internet by SevenArt.gr. Also ERT LIVE on ThePressProject.gr providing the feed. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "EBU urges Greek government to reverse decision on ERT". EBU. 11 June 2013.
- ERT: the day after | euronews, world news
- Ignatidou, Sophia. "Why closing Greek broadcaster is make or break moment." (Opinion) CNN. 14 June 2013.