Elm, Switzerland

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Elm
Former municipality of Switzerland
Elm -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of Elm
Canton Glarus
District n.a.
46°55′N 9°10′E / 46.917°N 9.167°E / 46.917; 9.167Coordinates: 46°55′N 9°10′E / 46.917°N 9.167°E / 46.917; 9.167
Population 626 (December 2012)
- Density 7 /km2 (18 /sq mi)
Area 90.73 km2 (35.03 sq mi)
Elevation 977 m (3,205 ft)
Postal code 8767
SFOS number 1605
Localities Müsli, Obmoos, Schwändi, Steinibach, Sulzbach, Töniberg, Untertal, Vogelsang, Wald
Surrounded by Andiast (GR), Betschwanden, Flims (GR), Laax (GR), Linthal, Luchsingen, Matt, Mels (SG), Pfäfers (SG), Pigniu (GR), Ruschein (GR), Schwanden, Siat (GR)
Website www.elm.ch/gemeinde
SFSO statistics
Elm is located in Switzerland
Elm
Elm

Elm (Romansh: Dialma) is a former municipality in the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Elm is part of the municipality of Glarus Süd.

History[edit]

Elm is first mentioned in 1344 as Elme.[1]

In 1799, Russian General Alexander Suvorov and his troops stayed the night in Elm before crossing Panix Pass to Pigniu on their retreat into Austria.

On September 11, 1881, an avalanche caused by excessive quarrying of slate killed 114 and buried 83 structures in the municipality.

Starting in 1905, the Sernftal tramway connected Elm to Schwanden and its railway station. In 1969, it was replaced with bus service.

Geography[edit]

Church of Elm

Elm has an area, as of 2006, of 90.7 km2 (35.0 sq mi). Of this area, 34.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 18.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.8% is settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (46.7%) is non-productive (rivers, glaciers or mountains).[2]

The municipality is the farthest south in the valley of the Sernf, lying at the entrance to Panix Pass, which crosses the Alps into the canton of Graubünden. It consists of the village of Elm and the hamlets of Sulzbach, Schwändi, Müsli, Untertal, Vogelsang, Töniberg, Obmoos, Steinibach und Wald.

Demographics[edit]

Elm has a population (as of 31 December 2012) of 626.[3] As of 2007, 4.8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.[4] Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -16.9%. Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (96.5%), with Portuguese being second most common ( 1.4%) and Serbo-Croatian being third ( 0.8%).[2]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SPS which received 53.8% of the vote. Most of the rest of the votes went to the SVP with 38.5% of the vote.[2]

The entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Elm about 57.6% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either University or a Fachhochschule).[2]

Population[edit]

The population of Elm has held steady since the 18th century, reaching a peak in the middle of the 19th century, as shown in the following table:[1]

Year Population
1730 516
1789 765
1850 1051
1900 913
1950 867
1990 791

Religion[edit]

Elm originally belonged to the parish of Glarus, but in 1273, a new parish was formed in Matt. In 1493, Elm received a papal dispensation to establish a new parish.

On March 22, 1528, the Reformation reached Elm, and the church was stripped of its ornaments. In 1594, the parish was separated from the parish of Matt.

Economy[edit]

Sernftal valley

Elm has an unemployment rate of 0.08%. As of 2005, there were 117 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 50 businesses involved in this sector. 58 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 8 businesses in this sector. 189 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 32 businesses in this sector.[2]

The major occupation of Elm has been agriculture, including sheepherding since 1000. In the 18th century, the wool industry (home-based) became an important economic factor. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, beef cattle were pastured in the Alps in summer for export to Italy.

The baths at Wichlen were in use since the middle ages and are first mentioned in 1547. They were very popular until they were buried by an avalanche in 1762. Many characteristic wooden structures have survived. In 1898, a new Kurhaus was opened, which flourished until World War I. Today, it is used as a retirement center.

Starting in 1861, slate was quarried from the Tschingelberg for school tablets and styluses.

From 1929 to the present, the only industry in Elm has been the mineral water firm Mineralquellen Elm AG.

Tourism[edit]

The ski resort on the Schitzer opened in 1973, and the Pleus was opened for skiing in 1982. Part of the geologic UNESCO world heritage site, Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona is a mountain cliff called Tschingelhörner located between Elm and Flims.

Climate[edit]

Between 1961 and 1990 Elm had an average of 156.1 days of rain per year and on average received 1,524 mm (60.0 in) of precipitation. The wettest month was August during which time Elm received an average of 171 mm (6.7 in) of precipitation. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 15.3 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was June, with an average of 15.9, but with only 152 mm (6.0 in) of precipitation. The driest month of the year was October with an average of 96 mm (3.8 in) of precipitation over 15.3 days.[5]

Climate data for Elm (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
3.5
(38.3)
7.1
(44.8)
11.0
(51.8)
16.2
(61.2)
18.7
(65.7)
20.8
(69.4)
20.0
(68)
16.5
(61.7)
13.0
(55.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.5
(36.5)
11.5
(52.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.1
(35.8)
6.0
(42.8)
10.6
(51.1)
13.4
(56.1)
15.4
(59.7)
15.0
(59)
11.7
(53.1)
8.1
(46.6)
2.2
(36)
−1.0
(30.2)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −4.5
(23.9)
−4.3
(24.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.3
(36.1)
6.5
(43.7)
9.5
(49.1)
11.6
(52.9)
11.4
(52.5)
8.3
(46.9)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
3.4
(38.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 102
(4.02)
100
(3.94)
121
(4.76)
109
(4.29)
138
(5.43)
162
(6.38)
186
(7.32)
191
(7.52)
147
(5.79)
102
(4.02)
127
(5)
112
(4.41)
1,596
(62.83)
Snowfall cm (inches) 87.3
(34.37)
82.7
(32.56)
71.4
(28.11)
36.1
(14.21)
6.8
(2.68)
0.1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
10.7
(4.21)
55.7
(21.93)
80.1
(31.54)
431.4
(169.84)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.2 10.0 13.5 12.7 15.0 15.7 15.1 15.3 12.2 10.4 11.9 11.8 154.8
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 9.1 8.4 8.5 5 0.9 0 0 0 0.1 1.1 6.1 9.4 48.6
 % humidity 79.1 76.0 76.2 75.1 74.5 78.0 80.1 83.0 82.2 78.6 79.5 79.5 78.5
Source: MeteoSwiss [6]

Culture[edit]

In 1981, the Wakker Prize was awarded to Elm for the development and preservation of its architectural heritage.

Notable people[edit]

  • Swiss ski mountaineer Rico Elmer was born in Elm.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Elm in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  2. ^ a b c d e Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 10-September–2009
  3. ^ Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 29 August 2013
  4. ^ Canton Glarus population growth (German) accessed 9 September 2009
  5. ^ "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009. .
  6. ^ "Climate Norm Value Tables". Climate diagrams and normals from Swiss measuring stations. Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Retrieved 23 January 2013.  The weather station elevation is 958 meters above sea level.

External links[edit]