Musk at the The Summit 2013 in Dublin
|Born||Elon R. Musk
June 28, 1971
Pretoria, South Africa
|Residence||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Nationality||South African, Canadian, American|
|Education||Pretoria Boys High School|
|Alma mater||Queen's University
University of Pennsylvania (B.S. in economics and B.S. in physics)
|Occupation||Entrepreneur, engineer, inventor, investor|
|Known for||Co-founding SpaceX, PayPal, Tesla Motors, Hyperloop, Zip2, Solar City|
|Salary||$1 at Tesla Motors (2014)|
|Net worth||$12 billion (March 2014)|
|Title||CEO and CTO of SpaceX,
Product Architect and CEO of Tesla Motors,
Chairman of SolarCity
Elon R. Musk (/ /; born June 28, 1971) is a South African-born, Canadian-American business magnate, inventor, and investor. He is currently the CEO and CTO of SpaceX and CEO and Chief Product Architect of Tesla Motors. He was an early investor in SpaceX, PayPal, Inc. Tesla Motors, and Zip2, and is widely considered a co-founder of each. He has also envisioned a conceptual high-speed transportation system known as the Hyperloop.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Philosophy and philanthropy
- 4 Awards and recognition
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Marriages
- 7 Extended family
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early life and education
Musk was born in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1971, to a Canadian mother (Maye Musk) and a South African-born British father. He taught himself computer programming and at age 12 sold the computer code for a video game called Blastar for $500. After his parents divorced in 1980, Musk lived mostly with his father, Errol, in multiple locations in South Africa.
Musk attended Waterkloof House Preparatory School and graduated from Pretoria Boys High School and moved to Canada in 1988 at the age of 17, after obtaining Canadian citizenship through his mother. He did so in advance of his South African military service, reasoning that it would be easier to immigrate to the United States from Canada than from South Africa.
In 1992, after spending two years at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Musk transferred to the University of Pennsylvania where he received a bachelor's degree in physics. He stayed on a year to finish his second bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School. He moved to California to pursue a PhD in applied physics at Stanford but left the program after two days to pursue his entrepreneurial aspirations in the areas of the Internet, renewable energy and outer space. In 2002, he became an American citizen.
Musk started Zip2, a web software company, with his brother, Kimbal. The company developed and marketed an Internet "city guide" for the newspaper publishing industry. Musk obtained contracts with The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune and persuaded the board of directors to abandon plans for a merger with a company called CitySearch. Compaq acquired Zip2 for US$307 million in cash and US$34 million in stock options in 1999. Musk received 7% or $22 million from the sale.
X.com and PayPal
In March 1999, Musk co-founded X.com, an online financial services and e-mail payment company. One year later, the company merged with Confinity, which operated a subsidiary called PayPal. PayPal and X.com each had a person-to-person email-based payment system. The original intent was to merge the two systems, but it never happened.
Musk strongly favored the PayPal brand over the X brand. After initially co-branding PayPal with the X brand, including making X.com a subdomain of PayPal he moved to officially remove the X.com brand for good. Following this, the board appointed PayPal founder Peter Thiel as interim CEO. PayPal's early growth was due in large part to a successful viral growth campaign created by Musk. In October 2002, PayPal was acquired by eBay for US$1.5 billion in stock, of which $165 million was given to Musk. Before its sale, Musk, the company's largest shareholder, owned 11.7% of PayPal's shares.
Musk co-founded his third company with rocket propulsion engineer Tom Mueller. Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) was founded in June 2002. Musk is CEO and CTO of the Hawthorne, California-based company. SpaceX develops and manufactures space launch vehicles with a focus on advancing the state of rocket technology. The company's first two launch vehicles are the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets, and its first spacecraft is the Dragon.
SpaceX was awarded a $1.6 billion NASA contract on December 23, 2008, for 12 flights of its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station, replacing the Space Shuttle after it retired in 2011. Falcon 9/Dragon is designed to replace the cargo transport function of the Space Shuttle and astronaut transport will be handled by the Soyuz. SpaceX designed Falcon 9/Dragon with astronaut transport in mind and the Augustine commission recommended that astronaut transport be handled by commercial companies like SpaceX.
Musk has said that multiplanetary life may serve as a hedge against threats to the survival of the human species. "An asteroid or a super volcano could destroy us, and we face risks the dinosaurs never saw: an engineered virus, inadvertent creation of a micro black hole, catastrophic global warming or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. Humankind evolved over millions of years, but in the last sixty years atomic weaponry created the potential to extinguish ourselves. Sooner or later, we must expand life beyond this green and blue ball—or go extinct." His goal is to reduce the cost of human spaceflight by a factor of 10. He founded SpaceX with $100 million of his early fortune. In seven years, SpaceX designed the family of Falcon launch vehicles and the Dragon multi-purpose spacecraft from the ground up.
In September 2009, SpaceX's Falcon 1 rocket became the first privately funded liquid-fuelled vehicle to put a satellite into Earth orbit. NASA selected SpaceX to be part of the first program that entrusts private companies to deliver cargo to the International Space Station. This contract, which has a minimum value of $1.6 billion and a maximum value of $3.1 billion, has become a cornerstone of the Space Station's continued access to cargo delivery and return. In addition to these services, SpaceX's goals include simultaneously lowering the price of orbital spaceflight and improving reliability, both by an order of magnitude, while creating the first fully reusable orbital launch vehicle. He has stated his personal goal of eventually enabling human exploration and settlement of Mars. In a 2011 interview, he said he hopes to send humans to Mars' surface within 10–20 years.
The company was co-founded by Martin Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning, JB Straubel, Ian Wright, and Musk, after initial incorporation by Eberhard and Tarpenning. Musk became involved with the company in 2004, as a Series A investor. Other Series A investments groups included SDL Ventures and Compass Technology Partners. Following the financial crisis in 2008, Musk assumed leadership of the company as CEO and product architect, positions he still holds today. Tesla Motors first built an electric sports car, the Tesla Roadster, with sales of about 2,500 vehicles to 31 countries. Tesla began delivery of its four-door Model S sedan on 22 June 2012 and unveiled its third product, the Model X, aimed at the SUV/minivan market, on 9 February 2012. Model X is scheduled to begin production in early 2015. In addition to its own cars, Tesla sells electric powertrain systems to Daimler for the Smart EV and Mercedes A Class and to Toyota for the RAV4 EV. Musk was able to bring in both companies as long-term investors in Tesla.
Musk has favored building a sub-$30,000 subcompact and building and selling electric vehicle powertrain components so that other automakers can produce electric vehicles at affordable prices without having to develop the products in house. Several mainstream publications have compared him with Henry Ford for his work on advanced vehicle powertrains.
To overcome the range limitations of electric cars, Musk said in an interview with All Things D in May 2013 that Tesla is "dramatically accelerating" their network of supercharger stations, tripling the number on the East and West Coasts that June, with plans for more expansion across North America, including Canada, throughout the year. He is reported to have a 32% stake in Tesla, which is valued at $18 billion, as of November 2013. His annual salary at Tesla is one dollar, and similar to Steve Jobs and others, the remainder of his compensation is in the form of stock and performance-based bonuses.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk announced in a press release and conference call and blog  on June 12, 2014 that the company will allow its technology patents for use by anyone in good faith, in a bid to entice automobile manufacturers to speed up development of electric cars. "The unfortunate reality is electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn't burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales," he said at the time.
Musk provided the initial concept for SolarCity, which was then co-founded by his cousins Lyndon and Peter Rive. Musk remains the largest shareholder. SolarCity is now the second largest provider of solar power systems in the United States.
The underlying motivation for funding both SolarCity and Tesla is to help combat global warming. In 2012, Musk announced that SolarCity and Tesla Motors are collaborating to use electric vehicle batteries to smooth the impact of rooftop solar on the power grid, with the program going live in 2013.
On June 17, 2014, Musk committed to building a Solar City advanced production facility in Buffalo, NY that would triple the size of the largest solar plant in the United States. Musk stated the plant will be "one of the single largest solar panel production plants in the world," and it will be followed by one or more even bigger facilities in subsequent years.
On August 12, 2013, Musk unveiled a proposal for a new form of transportation between the Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area, after being disappointed with the approved California High-Speed Rail system. He named it "hyperloop," a hypothetical subsonic air travel machine that stretches approximately 350 miles (560 km) from Sylmar (a northern district of Los Angeles) to Hayward (east of San Francisco) and would theoretically allow commuters to travel between the cities in 30 minutes or less, providing a shorter traveling time than even a commercial airplane can currently provide. Musk's proposal, if technologically feasible at the costs he has cited, would make travel cheaper than any other mode of transport for such long distances. The system is proposed to use a partial vacuum to reduce aerodynamic drag, which it is theorized would allow for high speed travel with relatively low power. He has estimated the total cost of the system at $6 billion, but this amount is speculative. It was proposed to rely completely on solar energy for all power requirements.
Philosophy and philanthropy
Musk is chairman of the Musk Foundation, which focuses its philanthropic efforts on science education, pediatric health and clean energy. He is a trustee of the X Prize Foundation, promoting renewable-energy technologies. He sits on the boards of The Space Foundation, The National Academies Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, The Planetary Society, and Stanford Engineering Advisory Board. Musk is a member of the board of trustees of Caltech.
Musk began a program through his foundation in 2010 to donate solar-power systems for critical needs in disaster areas. The first such solar-power installation was donated to a hurricane response center in Alabama that had been neglected by state and federal aid. To make it clear that this was not serving his commercial interests, SolarCity noted that it had no presence or planned business activity in that state. In a 2011 visit to Soma City in Fukushima, Japan, which had been devastated by tsunami, he donated a solar power project valued at $250,000 to this city.
Musk had plans for a "Mars Oasis" project in 2001, which would land a miniature experimental greenhouse on Mars, containing food crops growing on Martian regolith. His long-term goal is to help humanity through SpaceX by creating a true spacefaring civilization. Musk's philosophy and description of what is needed to solve the problem are provided in the IEEE podcast "Elon Musk: a founder of PayPal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX" and article "Risky Business."
Musk joined The Giving Pledge in April 2012, offering an ethical commitment to donate the majority of his fortune to philanthropic causes. Musk became a member of the campaign first popularised by Warren Buffett and Bill Gates with a class of 12 of America's wealthiest families and individuals.
Car blog Jalopnik reported on August 16, 2012 that Musk was supporting an effort by Matthew Inman of The Oatmeal to preserve the site of Nikola Tesla's lab on Long Island, New York and turn it into a museum, the Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe. After further discussion with Inman, Elon Musk agreed to donate $1 million toward the construction of a museum on the Wardenclyffe property. As well, Musk pledged to build a Tesla Supercharger station for use in the museum's parking lot.
Musk had been a supporter of the U.S. Political action committee FWD.us, which was started by fellow high-profile entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg and advocates for immigration reform. However, in May 2013, Musk publicly withdrew his support in protest of advertisements the PAC was running that supported causes like the Keystone Pipeline. Musk and other members, including David Sacks, pulled out, criticizing the strategy as "cynical."
Awards and recognition
- Listed as one of Time's 100 people who most affected the world in 2010.
- The world governing body for aerospace records, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, presented Musk in 2010 with the highest award in air and space, the FAI Gold Space Medal, for designing the first privately developed rocket to reach orbit. Prior recipients include Neil Armstrong, Burt Rutan of Scaled Composites and John Glenn.
- Named as one of the 75 most influential people of the 21st century by Esquire magazine.
- In June 2011, Musk was awarded the $500,000 Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization
- In February 2011, Forbes listed Musk as one of "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under".
- Recognized as a Living Legend in Aviation in 2010 by the Kitty Hawk Foundation for creating the successor to the Space Shuttle (Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft). Other recipients include Buzz Aldrin and Richard Branson.
- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics George Low award for the most outstanding contribution in the field of space transportation in 2007/2008. Musk was recognized for his design of the Falcon 1, the first privately developed liquid fuel rocket to reach orbit.
- National Space Society's Von Braun Trophy in 2008/2009, given for leadership of the most significant achievement in space. Prior recipients include Burt Rutan and Steve Squyres.
- National Wildlife Federation 2008 National Conservation Achievement award for Tesla Motors and SolarCity. Other 2008 recipients include journalist Thomas Friedman, U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), and Florida Governor Charlie Crist.
- The Aviation Week 2008 Laureate for the most significant achievement worldwide in the space industry.
- R&D Magazine Innovator of the Year for 2007 for SpaceX, Tesla and SolarCity.
- Automotive Executive of the Year (worldwide) in 2010 for demonstrating technology leadership and innovation via Tesla Motors. Prior awardees include Bill Ford Jr, Bob Lutz, Dieter Zetsche and Lee Iacocca. Musk is the youngest ever recipient of this award.
- Inc Magazine Entrepreneur of the Year award for 2007 for his work on Tesla and SpaceX.
- 2007 Index Design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster. Global Green 2006 product design award for his design of the Tesla Roadster, presented by Mikhail Gorbachev.
- In 2010, Musk was elected to the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology.
- In 2011, Musk was honored as a Legendary Leader at the Churchill Club Awards.
- In 2012, Musk was awarded with the Royal Aeronautical Society's highest award – a Gold Medal.
Musk is a Director of the Planetary Society, a Trustee of The X-Prize Foundation and a member of the Stanford University Engineering Advisory Board. He has previously served as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, he was ranked as the No. 10 (tied with rocketry pioneer and scientist Wernher von Braun) most popular space hero.
- Honorary doctorate in design from the Art Center College of Design
- Honorary doctorate (DUniv) in aerospace engineering from the University of Surrey
Musk has described himself as a workaholic and has said he can work up to 100 hours per week running Tesla Motors and SpaceX. The SpaceX factory was used as a filming location for Iron Man 2, and Musk has a cameo in the movie.
Musk previously owned a McLaren F1 sports car and a Czech-made jet trainer aircraft Aero L-39. The 1994 model Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft used in the 2005 film Thank You for Smoking is registered to Musk (N900SX), and Musk had a cameo as the pilot of his plane, opening the door for Robert Duvall and escorting Aaron Eckhart aboard.
Musk owns Wet Nellie, the Lotus Esprit from the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. He plans to convert it into the functional car-submarine from the film. Musk attended the Burning Man festival in 2004 and has said he first thought up the idea for SolarCity at the festival.
Musk met his first wife, the Canadian author Justine Musk (née Wilson), while both were students at Ontario's Queen's University, Kingston. They married in 2000 and separated eight years later, after having six sons of whom they share custody. Their eldest son, Nevada Alexander, died of SIDS when he was 10 weeks old.
Musk announced in January 2012 that he had recently ended a four-year relationship with his second wife, British actress Talulah Riley. On January 18, 2012, he tweeted to Riley, "It was an amazing four years. I will love you forever. You will make someone very happy one day." However, on February 11, 2014, Musk was invited to attend a state dinner at the White House. The guest list included Mr. Elon Musk and Mrs. Talulah Musk. In a 60 Minutes interview on March 30, 2014 with CBS journalist Scott Pelley, Elon and Talulah Musk are shown to still be together with Elon's five children from his first marriage.
Tosca Musk, Elon's sister, is the founder of Musk Entertainment and has produced various movies. Tosca was the executive producer of her first movie, Puzzled. His brother Kimbal was the CEO of a social search company OneRiot and owner of The Kitchen restaurant with locations in Boulder and Denver, Colorado. The Musks' cousin Lyndon Rive is co-founder and CEO of SolarCity.
- "Elon R. Musk profile at". Businessweek.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- "Elon Musk (South African entrepreneur)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Rich people who make $1 a year". New Republic. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "Bloomberg Billionaires". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- Junod, Tom (November 15, 2012). "Triumph of His Will". Esquire. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Profile, inventors.about.com; accessed April 27, 2014.
- Profile, forbes.com; accessed April 27, 2014.
- , wsj.com; accessed April 27, 2014.
- Profile, businessinsider.com; accessed April 27, 2014.
- Elon Musk, "The World's Billionaires", Forbes, retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "History". PayPal. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- Friedman, Josh (April 22, 2003), Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space, The Los Angeles Times
- Kidder, David; Hoffman, Reid (2013). The Startup Playbook: Secrets of the Fastest Growing Start-Ups from the founding Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. pp. 2224–228.
- "Tesla Motors and PayPal co-founder Elon Musk buys $17 million Bel Air mansion". San Francisco Chronicle. January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "#162 - Elon Musk". Forbes. April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "Stock in Tesla Motors, the electric carmaker he founded, is up 625% in the past year...Musk left for the U.S. at 17 and made his first fortune as a co-founder of PayPal"
- "Billionaire space entrepreneur wants vegetarian-only colony on Mars". RT.com. January 8, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "A US billionaire and co-founder of PayPal, Elon Musk"
- "Start-Ups Aim to Conquer Space Market". The New York Times. March 16, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, started by the Tesla founder Elon Musk"
- "Trust Your Own Focus Group of One". Entrepreneur.com. April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX"
- "Something New Under the Sun". Slate. November 4, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014. "Musk, his eldest cousin, billionaire co-founder of PayPal, SpaceX, and Tesla."
- Elon Musk Explains the Hyperloop, the Solar-Powered High-Speed Future of Inter-City Transportation
- Friend, Tad (2009). "Plugged In". The New Yorker 85 (23–30): 53. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Masia, Seth (May 2011). "A Family Leads to the Installer Universe". Solar Today. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Elliott, Hannah (March 3, 2012). "At Home With Elon Musk: The (Soon-to-Be) Bachelor Billionaire". Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Belfiore, Michael (2007). "Chapter 7: Orbit on a Shoestring". Rocketeers. HarperCollins. pp. 166–95. ISBN 978-0-06-114902-3.
- Hall, Dana (2014-04-11). "Rocket Man: The otherworldly ambitions of Elon Musk". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- Davis, Johnny (August 4, 2007). "One more giant leap". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Diggelen, Alison van (February 7, 2013). "Iron Man, Growing up in South Africa". Fresh Dialogues. Retrieved November 1, 2013. "I actually filled out the forms for her and got her a Canadian passport, and me too. Within three weeks of getting my Canadian passport, I was in Canada."
- Halvorson, Todd (January 29, 2005). "Elon Musk Unveiled". Florida Today. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
- Inspirations with Elon Musk. OnInnovation. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Elon Musk Biography". Advameg. August 23, 2005.
- Junnarkar, Sandeep (February 16, 1999). "Compaq buys Zip2". News. CNet.
- Jackson, Erik (2004). The PayPal Wars. Los Angeles, CA: World Ahead Publishing. pp. 40, 69, 130, 163.
- Friedman, Josh (April 22, 2003). "Entrepreneur Tries His Midas Touch in Space". The Los Angeles Times.
- "SEC 10-K" (PDF). eBay. December 31, 2002.
- "SEC 10-K". Paypal. December 31, 2001.
- The Full Story behind Elon Musk and Tom Mueller's SpaceX
- Wayne, Leslie (February 5, 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- Hinton, Christopher (August 13, 2009). "NASA committee seeks more private industry involvement". Marketwatch.
- Carroll, Roy (July 17, 2013). "Elon Musk's mission to Mars". The Guardian (London, UK). Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "75 most influential people: Elon Musk". Esquire. October 1, 2008.
- "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation". SpaceX. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Elon Musk: I'll Put a Man on Mars in 10 Years". Market Watch (New York: The Wall Street Journal). April 22, 2011. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
- Harwood, William. "SpaceX Dragon returns to Earth, ends historic trip". CBSNews. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- Morrison, Chris (October 15, 2008). "Musk steps in as CEO". The New York Times.
- "Model X". Tesla Motors. October 29, 2012.
- Musk, Elon (August 2, 2006). "The Secret Tesla Motors Master Plan (just between you and me)". Tesla Motors.
- Hamilton, Tyler (October 12, 2009). "Tesla CEO following in Henry Ford's tracks". Toronto Star.
- Del Ray, Jason (May 29, 2013), Musk: You'll Be Able to Drive Your Tesla Cross-Country by Year's End With Supercharger Expansion, All Things D.
- "Tesla Should Be Profitable in 2013, CEO Musk Says – Video". Bloomberg.com.
- Melby, Caleb. "How Elon Musk Became A Billionaire Twice Over". Forbes.
- "Musk get $4.3 million of stock options for Model X work". Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "Tesla Motors decides to make patents available to boost electric cars". Big News Network. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- "Management Team". SolarCity.
- Kanellos, Michael (February 15, 2008). "Newsmaker: Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power". CNet.
- The unveiling of the Tesla Motors Electric Car. Autoblog. Retrieved 2006-07-26.
- Diggelen, Alison van. "Tesla and SolarCity Collaborate on Clean Energy Storage". KQED. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- "Hyperloop Designed for Quick, Convenient Commute". ABC News. Go. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
- "Hyperloop". SpaceX. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- "Elon Musk and SolarCity Donate Solar Power Project to Coastal Response Center in Alabama". Enhanced Online News. Business Wire.
- "Elon Musk Donates Solar Power Project to Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan". BusinessWire.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- McKnight, John Carter (September 25, 2001). "Elon Musk, Life to Mars Foundation". Mars Now, a weekly column. Space Frontier Foundation.
- Musk, Elon. "Risky Business". IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Elon Musk (September 8, 2006). "SpaceX wins NASA competition to replace Space Shuttle". SpaceX.
- Perry, Tesla. "Elon Musk: a founder of Paypal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX" (Podcast). IEEE Spectrum.
- Kroll, Luisa (April 19, 2012). "The Giving Pledge Signs on 12 More Wealthy Americans Including Tesla's Elon Musk And Home Depot's Arthur Blank". Forbes.
- Hardigree, Matt (August 16, 2012). "Elon Musk Pledges To Support Nikola Tesla Museum Project". Jalopnik. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- Elon Musk Will Help Fund Tesla Museum
- So, I had a call with Elon Musk earlier this week ...
- Steven Kovach, "Elon Musk Says He Quit Mark Zuckerberg's PAC Because It Was Too Cynical", BusinessInsider.com, May 31, 2013.
- "The 2010 Time 100". Time. April 29, 2010.
- Dula, Art (June 16, 2011). "Heinlein Prize Honors Elon Musk of SpaceX". The Heinlein Prize.
- Smith, Jacquelyn (February 14, 2011). "America's 20 Most Powerful CEOs 40 And Under". Forbes. Retrieved 2011-02-18. "To make this list, you had to be the chief executive of one of the 20 biggest publicly traded companies in the U.S. (as of Feb. 11, by market capitalization) with a CEO aged 40 or under."
- "Living Legend in Aviation Awards". Kittie Hawk Air Academy. 2010.
- "SPACEX SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES FALCON 1 TO ORBIT". Space Exploration Technologies Corp. 2008.
- "Space Community Gathers at National Space Society's ISDC 2009" (Press release). National Space Society. June 17, 2009.
- "Connie Awards". National Wildlife Federation. 2008.
- Michels, Jennifer (March 4, 2009). "Aviation Week Reveals Laureate Award Winners". Aviation Week.
- "Rocket Man". R&D. September 4, 2007.
- "Automotive Executive of the Year". DNV Certification. 2010.
- Chafkin, Max (December 1, 2007). "Entrepreneur of the Year, 2007: Elon Musk". inc.com.
- "Tesla Roadster". Index. 2007.
- "Tesla Motors team". Tesla Motors.
- "Caltech Elects Two Innovators to Board of Trustees".
- "2011 Churchill Club Awards".
- "2012 RAeS Gold Medal".
- Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power And Propulsion. The National Academies Press. 2006.
- "Space Foundation Survey Reveals Broad Range of Space Heroes".
- "Graduation show, Art Center College of Design". Cumulusassociation.org. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
- Surrey celebrates its honorary graduates, Surrey Graduate, Surrey Alumni Society (Autumn/Winter 2009)
- "Elon Musk in Iron Man 2". April 2, 2012.
- Wayne, Leslie (5 February 2006). "A Bold Plan to Go Where Men Have Gone Before". The New York Times.
- FlightAware. "Aircraft Registration N900SK". Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- "Tesla's Elon Musk buys 007's sub to make it real" by Chris Woodyard, USAToday.com, October 18, 2013 (accessed 2013-11-13).
- Seedhouse, Erik (2013). SpaceX: Making Commercial Spaceflight a Reality. Springer. pp. 3–4.
- Musk, Justine (September 10, 2010). ""I Was a Starter Wife": Inside America's Messiest Divorce". Marie Claire. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- Lai, Jennifer (January 19, 2012). "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Elon Musk Divorce: Announces Split From Talulah Riley On Twitter". The Huffington Post. January 19, 2012.
- "Office of the First Lady". White House Press Office. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Tesla and SpaceX: Elon Musk's industrial empire". March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "Tosca Musk profile at". Musk entertainment.
- "Kimbal Musk profile at". Thekitchencommunity.com. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Elon Musk|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elon Musk.|
- Musk Foundation website; accessed April 27, 2014
- Viral Marketing, MBAs and pesky governments; accessed April 27, 2014
- Statement of Elon Musk at House Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Hearings on the Future Market for Commercial Space; accessed April 27, 2014
- Bloomberg Risk Takers (Elon Musk's August 2011 documentary)
- Gimien, Mark (August 17, 1999). "Fast Track". Salon.com.
- Hoffman, Carl. "Elon Musk Is Betting His Fortune on a Mission Beyond Earth's Orbit". Wired Magazine. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Carlson, Nicholas (February 19, 2008). "Elon Musk's Tesla caught on video smoking Scoble and Calacanis". Valleywag. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Kanellos, Michael (February 15, 2008). "Elon Musk on rockets, sports cars, and solar power". CNET News.com.
- Chafkin, Max (December 2007). "Entrepreneur of the Year: Elon Musk". Inc. Magazine.
- Bailey, Brandon. "Elon Musk: Will his Silicon Valley story have a Hollywood ending?". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- History of PayPal, gawker.com; accessed April 27, 2014
- "Science Fiction Books That Inspired Elon Musk", MediaBistro.com, March 19, 2013; accessed April 27, 2014.
- "An interview with Elon Musk". HobbySpace. August 5, 2003.
- "Lift off with Elon Musk". Carte Blanche. September 4, 2005.
- Bergin, Chris (January 20, 2006). "SpaceX's Musk and Thompson Q and A". nasaspaceflight.com.
- Video interview of Elon Musk by Zadi Diaz of EPIC FU, June 17, 2008; accessed April 27, 2014
- Gray, Sadie (January 4, 2009). "Forget the bungalow, retire to Mars". Sunday Times (London, UK). Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Musk profile onInnovation.com; accessdate April 27, 2014
- An interview at the Founders Showcase, August 5, 2010
- An interview on the Kevin Pollak Chat Show, September 17, 2009
- Elon Musk: 'I'm planning to retire to Mars', video interview for The Guardian, August 1, 2010
- 60 Minutes interview; March 18, 2012.
- A 20 minute interview about sending humans to Mars with BBC's Jonathan Amos, March 20, 2012
- Elon Musk on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, April 10, 2012
- Elon Musk: The mind behind Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity, ted.com; accessdate April 27, 2014