Eluru

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For the Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency, see Eluru (Lok Sabha constituency).
Eluru
ఏలూరు
Helapuri / Ellore
City
A montage of Eluru
A montage of Eluru
Eluru is located in Andhra Pradesh
Eluru
Eluru
Coordinates: 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1Coordinates: 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District West Godavari
Government
 • M.P Maganti Venkateswara Rao (Babu) -Telugu Desam Party 2014
 • M.L.A Badeti Kota Ramarao (Bujji)-Telugu Desam Party 2014
Area
 • City 50 km2 (20 sq mi)
Elevation 22 m (72 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 214,414
 • Rank 12th (in AP)
 • Density 4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 250,693
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 534 xxx
Telephone code +91–8812
Vehicle registration AP–37
Website Eluru Municipal Corporation

Eluru is a city in West Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the district headquarters of West Godavari district and also the mandal headquarters of Eluru mandal. The city is one of the 13 municipal corporations in the state.[3][4] As of 2011 census, the city had a population of 214,414 and an urban agglomeration population of 250,693.[1][2] Eluru is situated on the national highway NH 5 connecting Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam. Eluru was earlier called Helapuri and has a rich cultural and political history. It was believed to have been the capital of Vishnukundinas at one time.[citation needed]

History[edit]

History of Eluru dates back to 2nd century and has great prominence in the history of Andhra. Vengi (Pedavegi, Chinavegi, and Denduluru) near Eluru was capital of Andhra from 2nd century to 12th century, ruled by Salankayanas, Vishnukudinas, and Eastern Chalukyas. Vengi was capital of Andhra for many years than other city. Helapuri (Eluru) was part of the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi. Historical evidence can be found at the villages of Pedavegi and Guntupalli (Jilakarragudem).

Salankayana Period (2nd Century to 4th Century)

The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the part of Telangana and Andhra regions between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi near Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. The Salankayanas succeeded the Andhra Ikshvaku dynasty and were vassals of the Pallava kings of southern India. During their time the script for Telugu and Kannada began to clearly separating from that of the other South Indian and North Indian languages.

Vishukundina Period (5th century to 7th century):

Eluru was believed to have been the capital of Vishnukundinas. Vishnukundin reign might be fixed between the end of the Salankayana and the rise of the Eastern Chalukyan power in 624 AD. In the late 5th century, the Salankayanas were conquered by Madhavarma II of the Vishnukundinas. During the reign of Madhava Varma the Great, they became independent and conquered coastal Andhra from the Salankayanas and might have shifted their capital to a place in the Coastal Andhra.

Eastern Chalukyas Period (7th century to 12th century):

Eastern Chalukyas, or Chalukyas of Vengi,(Kannada) were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi (Pedavegi and Denduluru, near Eluru) and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi now (Pedavegi, Chinavegi and Denduluru) near Eluru of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).

Kakathiya, Kalinga, Vijayanagara, and Golkonda's Period (13th Century to 16th Century):

Eluru was later captured by Kakatiyas and then became a part of the Kalinga Empire until 1471. Later it fell into the hands of the Gajapathis. In 1515 Srikrishnadevaraya captured it. After the fall of the Vijayanagara Kingdom, it was taken by the Sultan of Golkonda, Kutub Shah.

Modern History:

Eluru (Ellore) was one of the five Northern Circurs, a former division of British India's Madras Presidency. Salabat Jang, the son of the Nizam al Mulk, granted Northern Circurs to French East India Company and was necessarily transferred from the French to the British. After the British established control over South India, Eluru and surrounding areas were merged into the Madras Presidency.

During the division of Northern Cirkars into districts, Eluru was made a part of Machilipatnam district. Later, it was included in the Godavari District in 1859. Subsequently, Eluru was made part of the Krishna District. Finally, in 1925, West Godavari District was formed with Eluru as its headquarters. All district offices and regional offices were set up in Eluru city.

Eluru was upgraded from a municipality to a corporation in April 2005 and eventually grew into a well developed town. In the process, some of the surrounding villages were merged in the city, raising the city's population to 285,900.

Climate[edit]

Eluru city falls in the hot humid region of the country and it is less than 40 miles (64 km) from Bay of Bengal. The climate of the city is very hot in the summers and it is pleasant during the winter. The hottest day falls in the month of May with shift to June during some years. The maximum temperature observed is 51.7 C and the minimum temperature observed is 12.9 C.

Topographical features[edit]

The city is situated on the border of the Kolleru Lake. The Tammileru river passes through the city. The Eastern part of Tammileru borders the entire North of the city, while the Western Tammileru flows to the West of the city. The Krishna – Eluru canal passes through the heart of the city from South – West towards North – East.

The Godavari - Eluru canal, The Krishna – Eluru canal and the Tammileru River and join together at the border of Eluru in a village called Malkapuram (Palagudem) on their way to Kolleru Lake.

  • Tammileru River

It originates from the reserve forests near Palvancha in Khammam district. It traverses a distance of almost 200 km (120 mi) through Khammam, Krishna and West Godavari Districts before emptying itself into the Kolleru lake. Tammileru divides into two streams near FCI godowns and joins the lake at two different points — Mondikodu and Pedayadlagadi.

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Eluru urban agglomeration had a population of 515,000, out of which males were 260,000 and females were 255,000. The literacy rate was 75.98 per cent. Eluru municipal corporation had a population of 327,533.[5][6] The population of the city increased from 33,521 in 1901 to 3,12,866 in 1991 registering a growth of 65% during the period from 1901 to 1991. The literacy rate of the city has been 72% as per 1991 census. The city recorded a growth rate of 26.63% during 1981–91. In 2001 the population increased slightly to 215,642. In the middle of the year 2005 the city has the population of around 150,000. In 2009 it was about 211,400. The population of the city has increased to 515,000 as per 2011 census.

Geography[edit]

Eluru is located at 16°42′N 81°06′E / 16.7°N 81.1°E / 16.7; 81.1. It has an average elevation of 22 metres (72 feet). It is a small and colorful city, with Krishna-Godavari Canal slicing the town into two parts, One Town and Two Town. Distances to other Major Cities and Towns:

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Eluru is well connected to most cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh by the state road transport corporation APSRTC. The city is situated at a distance of 60 km North East of Vijayawada, on the National Highway 5 (which connects Chennai and Kolkatta). Numerous buses run by private bus owners like Sree Kaleswari Travels, Kesineni Travels, Sai Krishna Travels, etc. cut across the city on a regular basis, especially from Hyderabad and Bengaluru. The distance between Hyderabad and Eluru is about 330 km, with direct buses and indirect buses via Vijayawada running throughout the day. Eluru is situated at a distance of 90 km from rajahmundry, 70 km from Narsapur, 75 km from Tanuku, 61 km from Bhimavaram, 50 km from Jangareddy Gudem and 51 km from Tadepalligudem. The city is accessible by train and bus and there are frequent buses from Narsapur, Palakollu, Tadepalligudem, Tanuku and Jangareddy gudem. There are buses running every 10 mins or less from Vijayawada. NH 5, part of the golden quadrilateral (i.e., Kolkata to Chennai), passes through Eluru. From Eluru connect to the total State like Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Khammam, Vishakhapatnam, Tirupati, Puttaparti, Rajahmundry, Bhadrachalam, Dwaraka Tirumala (Chinna Tirupati), and some other states like Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu).

Rail[edit]

Eluru Station

The broad gauge Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada section of the Howrah-Chennai main line on the east coast connecting Madras and Kolkata passes through the city. There are daily express trains to Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and passenger trains to Vijayawada, Vishakapatnam, Kakinada and Tirupati throughout the day. The major railway stations in Eluru are Eluru railway station, Power Pet Station and Vatlur with Eluru Station being the biggest and busiest. Eluru station is located exactly halfway between Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam, which is the busiest line in Andhra Pradesh. Eluru Railway Station is one of the biggest railway stations in West Godawari District.

Air[edit]

Gannavaram, Vijayawada is the nearest airport (40 km). AirCosta, Jet Airways, Spicejet and Air India operates regular flights from Hyderabad, Bangalore, New Delhi via Hyderabad and Chennai to Gannavaram.

Waterways[edit]

National Waterway 4 (India) (NW-4) has been declared as an Indian National Waterway and is under development.The National Waterway 4 (India) (NW-4) runs along the Coromandal Coast through Kakinada, Eluru, Commanur, Buckingham Canal and also through part of Krishna and Godavari rivers in South India. It connects the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the Union Territory of Pondicherry. It is being developed by the Inland Waterways Authority of India, and was scheduled for completion in 2013 but rescheduled to be completed positively by 2017 due to inordinate delays in Govt. Decision making!

Economy[edit]

The city is known the world over for its Persian carpets. It is also noted for hand rolled agarabathis or incense sticks as well as the local hair and jute industries. The upland areas of West Godavari District including Jangareddigudem and Chintalapudi amongst others are now harnessing groundwater and becoming financially sound due to the cultivation of rich commercial crops such as tobacco, palm oil and cocoa. Eluru acts as the major commercial centre for all these activities. It is also home to many wood industries

Eluru carpets and Eluru handlooms

Eluru is noted for its thriving woolen pile carpet industry. The Persians who migrated to this part of the world during the Muhammaddin regime developed the carpet industry. Most of the carpets produced here are exported. These industries are based in Tangellamudi, Eluru. Moody Carpets, Eluru, Hafeez Carpets is one of the best known among carpet industries, they export their handmade woolen carpets mostly to Australia and USA.

Ambica Group of industries

The corporate office of the Ambica Group of Industries is at Eluru. This group manufactures Ambica Agarbathi (incense sticks), cosmetics, and other aromatic products, ships to all places in the country and exports them as well. This group has also entered film production and distribution, hospitality industry, wind energy and software development. Directly or indirectly around 5,000 people are dependent on this group.

Jute industry

East India Commercial Co. Ltd's also known as Sri Krishna jute mill Jute Industry is one of the major industries in Eluru and Kotturu City. This industry buys locally grown jute as well as imports raw jute from other States and manufactures varied jute products which are then transported and sold in different parts of the state and the country. Close to 10,000 people are dependent on this industry.

Gupta Group

The Gupta Group is mainly an export-oriented industry. They export human hair, cattle horn-tips, and carpets to different countries. Many people are dependent on this Industry too. M/S. Gupta Enterprises has been receiving the Top Exporters Award from the Govt. of India for the past 19 Years consecutively. The hair collected all over India is processed at Eluru and is exported to over 35 Countries. Mr. M. M. Gupta the founder Chairman has also founded the Gupta Foundation which does many Social service and Charity oriented products including Medical Help, Educational Assistance etc. A Bi-Annual award the "Gupta Award" is also presented to distinguished personalities and eminent people from Various Fields.

Others

Eluru has many human hair exporting companies and also large quantities of sweet water fish nearly 300 trucks everyday from Eluru to various places like Bengal, Assam and north east states. Green chillies are exporting to Maharashtra, coconuts and water coconuts mainly to all over state everyday. There are many paddy dealers who export paddy to all over India, which is bought from farmers from nearby villages like kovvali, Denduluru, pallagudem etc.

Education[edit]

Many private residential junior colleges, high schools and technical institutions are present in Eluru and thousands of students from various places in the district and state study in these institutions every year. They include Eluru College of Engineering and Technology,[7] Sir C.R.R Educational Institutions, and other graduate and post-graduate polytechnic and pharmacy colleges.medical and dental education in eluru are being offered by prestigious institutions like ASRAM and St.Joseph Dental College respectively.

Tourism[edit]

There are many tourist places in and around Eluru. Few interest places are mentioned below.

Kolleru Lake

Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located just 15 km away from the city of Eluru. It is well known as pelican paradise. Rich in flora and fauna, it attracts migratory birds from northern Asia and Eastern Europe between the months of October and March. During this season, the lake is visited by an estimated 20,00,000 birds. Many birds migrate here in winter, such as Siberian crane, ibis, and painted storks. AP Tourism Resort available at Gudivakalanka, 15 km away from Eluru.

Dwaraka Tirumala

Dwaraka Tirumala's very famous temple for Lord Venkateswara known as Chinna Tirupati is located 40 kilometers from Eluru.

Buddha Park

The park with an imposing 72ft-high statue of Buddha in Abhaya posture in the heart of the Gaja Vallivari Cheruvu tank has become a major landmark of the city. Gaja Vallivari Cheruvu is one of the ancient ponds in the history of Helapuri town (ancient name of Eluru town). During the Chalukyan period elephants used to take drink water in this pond.

Guntupalli Caves

Guntupalli Group of Buddhist Monuments is located near Kamavarapukota in state Andhra Pradesh, India. It around 40 km away from Eluru.[1] The site has two Buddhist caves, two vihara made up of brick, chaitya and a group of stupas.

Holy land Replica

Holy Land of Israel has been replicated on the premises of Fr. Silvio Pasquali Memorial Convent at Duggirala on the city outskirts. Holy land (Mini Jerusalem) in Eluru is the first Holy Land of Andhra Pradesh and second one in the India.


Notable residents[edit]

  • Kommareddi Suryanarayana - Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha member in Indian Parliament, Indian freedom activist and
  • Murali Mohan - is an Indian film actor, Lok Sabha member in Indian Parliament from Rajamundry, film producer, politician and a business executive from Chataparru in Eluru Mandal.
  • Sekhar Kammula is a Telugu film director whose family originally was from Eluru.
  • Vedantam Prahlada Sarma was an expert Kuchipudi actor and dancer. moved to Kalakshetram, the leading Kuchipudi centre in Eluru, where he taught disciples like Raja and Radha Reddy.
  • Duvvuri Subbarao is an Indian Economist, Central Banker and Civil Servant. He was the 22nd Governor of Reserve Bank of India, served under Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh.
  • Silk Smitha was an Indian film artiste who worked predominantly in the South Indian languages. She became the most sought-after erotic actress in the early 1980s. In a career spanning 17 years, she appeared in over 450 films in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Hindi languages.
  • L. V. Prasad was an Indian film producer, actor, director, cinematographer and businessman. He was one of the pioneers of Indian cinema and is the recipient of the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, the highest Award for films in India. In 1980, he was awarded the Raghupathi Venkaiah Award, for his contribution to Telugu cinema. He founded Prasads Group in 1956, which include the Prasad Art Pictures, Prasad Studios, Prasads IMAX and L V Prasad Eye Institute.
  • Naga Shourya is a Telugu film actor who acted in movies like Oohalu Gusagusalade, Dikkulu Choodaku Ramayya , etc., born in Eluru.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (pdf). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (pdf). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  3. ^ "District - West Godavari". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Srikakulam District Mandals" (PDF). Census of India. p. 439. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  6. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  7. ^ Welcome! Eluru College of Engineering & Technology : Eluru

External links[edit]