Emanuel Tov

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Emanuel Tov

Emanuel Tov (Hebrew: עמנואל טוב‎; born 1941) is Professor in the Department of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Biography[edit]

Emanuel Tov was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands during the German occupation (1941). When he was one-year old his parents entrusted him to the care of a Christian family. His parents perished in the Holocaust, and following the war he grew up with his uncle and aunt as one of their children. He studied at a “gymnasium”, where he learned classical and modern European languages, and at the same time learned Hebrew at Talmud Torah. From age 14, he was active in the Zionistic youth movement “Ichud Habonim” and served as one of its leaders. At age 18, the movement sent him to Israel for training as a leader and in 1960 he became the general secretary of that movement in the Netherlands. In 1961, he immigrated to Israel. He studied at the Hebrew University (B.A. Bible; M.A. Bible and Greek literature), while serving also as an assistant in the Bible Dept. and at the Hebrew University Bible Project. In 1967-1969, he continued his studies at the Dept. for Near Eastern Studies and Languages at Harvard University. His dissertation, written under the guidance of Professors Shemaryahu Talmon of the Hebrew University and Frank Moore Cross of Harvard University, was submitted to the Hebrew University in 1973 as “The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch.” Upon his return to Israel, he served as an “assistant” at the University of Haifa and at the Hebrew University.

In 1986, he was appointed Professor at the Hebrew University and in 1990 he became the J. L. Magnes Professor of Bible Studies. Served as visiting Professor at the Universities of Oxford, Uppsala, Doshisha (Kyoto), Macquarie and Sydney (Australia), Stellenbosch (South Africa), Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the Pontifical Gregorian University (Rome). He stayed at Institutes for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, NIAS (the Netherlands), and Annenberg (Philadelphia). [1] [2] [3]

He was one of the editors of the Hebrew University Bible Project. He is a member of the editorial board of the journal Dead Sea Discoveries, and served on the Academic committee of the Magnes Press. He is the co-founder and chairman (1991–2000) of the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation, a Member of the Academic Committee of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Senior Associate Fellow of the Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. [4]

From 1990-2009 he served as the Editor-in-Chief of the international Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project, which during those years produced 32 volumes of the series Discoveries in the Judean Desert as well as two concordances .[5]

He also published a CD containing editions of all the non-biblical Qumran scrolls and a six-volume printed edition of the scrolls meant for the general public. [6]

Emanuel Tov is married to Lika (née Aa). They have three children and four granddaughters.

Prizes and honorary titles[edit]

Research[edit]

Septuagint[edit]

Emanuel Tov’s studies on the Septuagint focused first on inner-translational developments and gradually moved to the importance of this translation for the study of the Bible: the early revisions of the Septuagint, translation technique, the reconstruction of the Hebrew parent text of the Greek translation, the value of the Septuagint for the textual study of the Hebrew Bible, the importance of certain Septuagint books for the exegesis of the Hebrew books and the understanding of their literary development, the place of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint in the development of the text of the Bible. [9]

Tov’s initial publications on the Septuagint deal with that translation’s early revisions that were intended to approximate the Greek text to the Hebrew text current in Israel from the 1st century BCE until the 2nd century CE. For that research, he established sound principles by determining the criteria for defining and characterizing the revisions. His preoccupation with matters of translation technique and the reconstruction of the Hebrew parent text of the Septuagint was influenced by his practical work in the HUBP (Hebrew University Bible Project). In that research, he combined the field work in that project with the formulation of abstract rules for the evaluation of details in the Septuagint, constantly cross-fertilizing both areas. These rules were formulated in his theoretical book on the Septuagint that grew out of his courses at the Hebrew University, each year on a different Bible book ‏‏[10] .

Subsequently, the focus of Tov’s interest moved to the importance of the Septuagint for biblical scholarship, both for textual and literary criticism. In several books, the Septuagint reflects a Hebrew basis that needs to be taken into consideration in the exegesis of those books beyond small details, both when, according to Tov, the Hebrew parent text of the Septuagint preceded the Masoretic Text (Joshua, 1 Samuel 16–18, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, etc.) and when it serves as an exegetical layer reacting to the forerunner of the Masoretic Text (1 Kings, Esther, and Daniel). According to Tov, in all these books the exegete of the Hebrew books must take the Greek translation into consideration. A precondition for this procedure is that the analysis of the translation technique as described in the previous paragraph will have established that the Septuagint is a good source for analyzing the text that lay in front of him. From among all the early witnesses of the biblical text, the best ones for analyzing the stages of its literary development are the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, a few Qumran texts and the Samaritan Pentateuch. Tov believes that the analysis of early witnesses such as the Septuagint enriches our exegesis and helps us in understanding the last stages of the development of the biblical literature in specific books.

Development of the Bible text[edit]

Emanuel Tov does not describe the development of the biblical text based on abstract theories, but tries to take the evidence of the ancient manuscripts and versions as his point of departure. It is clear that in antiquity many versions of the Bible were circulating, as is evident from the textual plurality at Qumran. All the manuscripts differed from one another, but within that plurality one may recognize some groups (families). Tov brought some stability to the description of this plurality by providing a statistical description of the Qumran scrolls. He also described the Judean Desert scrolls as representing a socio-religious reality. According to him, most Judean Desert scrolls (except for those from Qumran) represent the circles of the Sages (later: rabbinic Judaism), adhering to the text that was later to become the Masoretic Text, while the Qumran scrolls reflected a different reality, one of freedom and plurality. [11]

An important link in this argumentation is the so-called 4QReworked Pentateuch. Ten years after Tov published this document ,[12] he realized that it does not reflect a non-biblical rewritten Pentateuch composition, but biblical texts that included many exegetical elements. These texts also reflect a link in the series of developing biblical texts [13] .

Tov’s studies on the Septuagint and 4QReworked Pentateuch led him to new thoughts regarding the development of the last stages of the biblical books and the original text of these books. In his view, the early stages of the biblical books such as reflected in the Septuagint of 1 Samuel, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, show that the formulations of these books developed stage by stage. This reconstructed development makes it difficult to posit an original text of the biblical books. In Tov’s view, there was not one original text, but a series of “original texts.” This view developed after the appearance of the second edition of his introduction to textual criticism (2001). [14]

Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran scribes[edit]

Emanuel Tov dealt with various aspects of the Qumran scrolls, but his most central publications pertain to the Qumran scribes. In 2004, he published a detailed monograph on the Qumran scribes, suggesting that the information about scribal habits allows us to obtain a better understanding of the Qumran scrolls [15] . This monograph describes the technical aspects of all the Judean Desert texts, such as the measurements of the columns and sheets, the beginnings and ends of scrolls, systems of correcting mistakes, orthography systems, and a classification of the scrolls according to these parameters.

An important part of this description is Tov’s theory on the Qumran scribes. Since 1986, Tov has suggested the division of the Qumran scrolls into two groups distinguished by external features. Group 1 is written in a special spelling (forms like ki’), specials forms (like malkehemah, me’odah), and special scribal habits (writing the divine name in the old Hebrew script, erasing elements with lines and dots above and below words and letters, dots in the margins guiding the drawing of the lines). The great majority of the Qumran sectarian scrolls belong to this group; hence Tov’s suggestion that these scrolls were written by sectarian scribes, possibly at Qumran. These scribes copied biblical as well as non-biblical scrolls, altogether one-third of the Qumran scrolls, while the other scrolls (group 2) were brought to Qumran from outside, from one or more localities. [16]

Computer-assisted research of the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls[edit]

Emanuel Tov believes that the examination of the Bible and Dead Sea Scrolls needs to be aided by computer-assisted research and that therefore databases and computer programs need to be developed. He himself supervised the electronic encoding of the Leningrad Codex in the 1980s [17] . At that time, he also embarked upon a research project together with Prof. Robert A. Kraft of the University of Pennsylvania (CATSS = Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies). That project, based in Philadelphia and Jerusalem, created a comparative database of all the words in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. It was published as a module within the Accordance program (subsequently also within Bible Works and Logos). With the aid of that program, which allows for advanced searches and statistical information, several studies have been written by Tov and others. Another database edited by Tov contains all the texts and images of the non-biblical Dead Sea Scrolls, in the original languages and in translation, with morphological analysis and search programs. All these programs serve the international community [18] .

Honorary volume[edit]

  • Emanuel, Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov (ed. S. M. Paul, R. A. Kraft, L. H. Schiffman, and W. W. Fields, with the assistance of E. Ben-David; VTSup 94; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2003)
  • From Qumran to Aleppo: A Discussion with Emanuel Tov about the Textual History of Jewish Scriptures in Honor of his 65th Birthday (ed. A. Lange et al.; FRLANT 230; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009)

Books authored[edit]

1. The Book of Baruch Also Called I Baruch (Greek and Hebrew) (Texts and Translations 8, Pseudepigrapha Series 6; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1975).

2. The Septuagint Translation of Jeremiah and Baruch: A Discussion of an Early Revision of Jeremiah 29–52 and Baruch 1:1–3:8 (HSM 8; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1976).

3. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Jerusalem Biblical Studies 3; Jerusalem: Simor, 1981).

3*. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged; Jerusalem Biblical Studies 8; Jerusalem: Simor, 1997).

4. With J. R. Abercrombie, W. Adler, and R. A. Kraft: Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (CATSS), Volume 1, Ruth (SCS 20; Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1986).

5. A Computerized Data Base for Septuagint Studies: The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (CATSS Volume 2; JNSLSup 1; 1986).

6. With D. Barthélemy, D. W. Gooding, and J. Lust: The Story of David and Goliath, Textual and Literary Criticism, Papers of a Joint Venture (OBO 73; Fribourg/Göttingen: Éditions universitaires/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1986).

7. Textual Criticism of the Bible: An Introduction (Heb.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1989).

7*. Second corrected printing of: Textual Criticism of the Bible: An Introduction (Heb.; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1997).

7a. Expanded and updated version of 7: Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolis and Assen/Maastricht: Fortress Press and Van Gorcum, 1992).

7a*. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2d rev. ed.; Minneapolis and Assen: Fortress Press/Royal Van Gorcum, 2001).

7b. German version of 7a (revised and updated): Der Text der Hebräischen Bibel: Handbuch der Textkritik (trans. H.-J. Fabry; Stuttgart/Berlin/Cologne: Kohlhammer, 1997).

7c. Russian version of 7b (revised and updated): Tekstologiya Vetchoga Zaveta (trans. K. Burmistrov and G. Jastrebov; Moscow: Biblisko-Bagaslovski Institut Sv. Apostola Andrjeya [St. Andrews Theological Seminary], 2001).

8. With the collaboration of R. A. Kraft: The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXIIgr) (The Seiyal Collection I) (DJD VIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1990).

8*. Revised edition of 8: The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever (8HevXIIgr) (The Seiyal Collection I) (DJD VIII; Oxford: Clarendon, “Reprinted with corrections 1995”).

9. With the collaboration of S. J. Pfann: The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judean Desert, with a Companion Volume (Leiden: E. J. Brill/IDC, 1993).

9*. Revised edition of 9: Companion Volume to The Dead Sea Scrolls Microfiche Edition (2d rev. ed.; Leiden: E. J. Brill/IDC, 1995).

10. With C. Rabin and S. Talmon: The Hebrew University Bible, The Book of Jeremiah (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1997).

11. The Greek and Hebrew Bible—Collected Essays on the Septuagint (VTSup 72; Leiden/ Boston/Cologne: E. J. Brill, 1999).

12a. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 1, Texts Concerned with Religious Law) (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004)

12b. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 2, Exegetical Texts (Leiden/ Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

12c. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 3, Parabiblical Texts (Leiden/ Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

12d. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 4, Calendrical and Sapiential Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

12e. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 5, Poetic and Liturgical Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

12f. With D. W. Parry: The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Part 6, Additional Genres and Unclassified Texts (Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2005).

13. Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (STDJ 54; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004).

11.* Unchanged paperback edition of The Greek and Hebrew Bible—Collected Essays on the Septuagint (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006).

14. Hebrew Bible, Greek Bible, and Qumran—Collected Essays (TSAJ 121; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008).

15. Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2010).

Electronic publications[edit]

1. The Dead Sea Scrolls Database (Non-Biblical Texts) (The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library, vol. 2; Prepared by the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies [FARMS]) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1999).

2. In collaboration with A. Groves: The Hebrew text in ˚nt, JPS Hebrew–English Tanakh: The Traditional Hebrew Text and the New JPS Translation (2d. ed.; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999).

3. The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Accordance computer program, 2002 (with updates 2003 – ).

4. “Electronic Resources Relevant to the Textual Criticism of Hebrew Scripture,” TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism 8 (2003) [1]

3a. The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Logos computer program, 2004 (with updates, 2005 – ).

3b. With F. H. Polak: The Parallel Aligned Text of the Greek and Hebrew Bible (division of the CATSS database, directed by R. A. Kraft and E. Tov), module in the Bible Works computer program, version 7, 2005 (with updates, 2006 – ).

5. The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library, Brigham Young University, Revised Edition 2006, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library of E. J. Brill Publishers (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2006).

Books edited[edit]

1. The Hebrew and Greek Texts of Samuel, 1980 Proceedings IOSCS, Vienna (Jerusalem: Academon, 1980).

2. A Classified Bibliography of Lexical and Grammatical Studies on the Language of the Septuagint and Its Revisions (3rd ed.; Jerusalem: Academon, 1982).

3. With C. Rabin: Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 11 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1984).

4. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 12 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1985).

5. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 13 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986).

6. With M. Klopfenstein, U. Luz, and S. Talmon: Mitte der Schrift? Ein jüdisch-christliches Gespräch. Texte der Berner Symposions 1985 (Judaica et Christiana 11; Bern: Peter Lang, 1987).

7. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 14 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988). 183 pp.

8. Textus, Studies of the Hebrew University Bible Project, vol. 15 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1990).

9. With M. Fishbane and with the assistance of W. Fields: “Sha’arei Talmon”: Studies in the Bible, Qumran, and the Ancient Near East Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1992).

10. With A. Hurvitz and S. Japhet: I. L. Seeligmann, Studies in Biblical Literature (Heb.; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992).

10*. With A. Hurvitz and S. Japhet: I. L. Seeligmann, Studies in Biblical Literature (Heb.; 2d rev. ed.; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1996).

11. Max L. Margolis, The Book of Joshua in Greek, Part V: Joshua 19:39–24:33 (Monograph Series, Annenberg Research Institute; Philadelphia 1992).

12. J. Jarick with the collaboration of G. Marquis, A Comprehensive Bilingual Concordance of the Hebrew and Greek Texts of the Book of Ecclesiastes (CATSS: Basic Tools Volume 3; SCS 36; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993).

13. Area editor (Dead Sea Scrolls) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (ed. R. J. Z. Werblowsky and G. Wigoder; New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

14. Area editor in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, vols. 1–2 (ed. L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam; Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

15. With L. H. Schiffman and J. VanderKam: The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years After Their Discovery—Proceedings of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/The Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000).

16. F. H. Polak and G. Marquis, A Classified Index of the Minuses of the Septuagint, Part I: Introduction; Part II: The Pentateuch (CATSS Basic Tools 4, 5; Stellenbosch: Print24.com, 2002).

17. With E. D. Herbert: The Bible as Book—The Hebrew Bible and the Judaean Desert Discoveries (London: British Library & Oak Knoll Press in association with The Scriptorium: Center for Christian Antiquities, 2002).

18. With P. W. Flint and J. VanderKam: Studies in the Hebrew Bible, Qumran and the Septuagint Presented to Eugene Ulrich (VTSup 101; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2006).

19. With M. Bar-Asher: Meghillot, Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls V-VI, A Festschrift for Devorah Dimant (Haifa/Jerusalem: University of Haifa, The Publication Project of the Qumran Scrolls/The Bialik Institute, 2007).

20. With M. Bar-Asher, D. Rom-Shiloni, and N. Wazana: Shai le-Sara Japhet (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2007).

21. With C. A. Evans: Exploring the Origins of the Bible—Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008).

Editor-in-Chief, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert

1. P. W. Skehan, E. Ulrich, and J. E. Sanderson, Qumran Cave 4.IV: Palaeo-Hebrew and Greek Biblical Manuscripts (DJD IX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1992).

2. E. Qimron and J. Strugnell, Qumran Cave 4.V: Miqsat Ma’ase ha-Torah (DJD X; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994).

3. E. Eshel et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.VI: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 1 (DJD XI; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

4. E. Ulrich and F. M. Cross, eds., Qumran Cave 4.VII: Genesis to Numbers (DJD XII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994 [repr. 1999]).

5. H. Attridge et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.VIII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 1 (DJD XIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994).

6. E. Ulrich and F. M. Cross, eds., Qumran Cave 4.IX: Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Kings (DJD XIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1995 [repr. 1999]).

7. E. Ulrich et al., Qumran Cave 4.X: The Prophets (DJD XV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

8. E. Ulrich et al., Qumran Cave 4.XI: Psalms to Chronicles (DJD XVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

9. F. M. Cross, D. W. Parry, R. Saley, E. Ulrich, Qumran Cave 4.XII: 1–2 Samuel (DJD XVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2005).

10. J. M. Baumgarten, Qumran Cave 4.XIII: The Damascus Document (4Q266–273) (DJD XVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1996).

11. M. Broshi et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.XIV: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2 (DJD XIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1995).

12. T. Elgvin et al., in consultation with J. A. Fitzmyer, S.J., Qumran Cave 4.XV: Sapiential Texts, Part 1 (DJD XX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

13. S. Talmon, J. Ben-Dov, and U. Glessmer, Qumran Cave 4.XVI: Calendrical Texts (DJD XXI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

14. G. Brooke et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.XVII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 3 (DJD XXII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1996).

15. F. García Martínez, E. J. C. Tigchelaar, and A. S. van der Woude, Qumran Cave 11.II: 11Q2–18, 11Q20–31 (DJD XXIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

16. M. J. W. Leith, Wadi Daliyeh I: The Wadi Daliyeh Seal Impressions (DJD XXIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

17. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XVIII: Textes hébreux (4Q521–4Q528, 4Q576–4Q579) (DJD XXV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

18. P. Alexander and G. Vermes, Qumran Cave 4.XIX: 4QSerekh Ha-Yah≥ad and Two Related Texts (DJD XXVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 1998).

19. H. M. Cotton and A. Yardeni, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek Documentary Texts from Nah≥al H≥ever and Other Sites, with an Appendix Containing Alleged Qumran Texts (The Seiyâl Collection II) (DJD XXVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

20. D. M. Gropp, Wadi Daliyeh II: The Samaria Papyri from Wadi Daliyeh; E. Schuller et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXVIII: Miscellanea, Part 2 (DJD XXVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

21. E. Chazon et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XX: Poetical and Liturgical Texts, Part 2 (DJD XXIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

22. D. Dimant, Qumran Cave 4.XXI: Parabiblical Texts, Part 4: Pseudo-Prophetic Texts (DJD XXX; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

23. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XXII: Textes araméens, première partie: 4Q529–549 (DJD XXXI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

24. D. Pike and A. Skinner, in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXIII: Unidentified Fragments (DJD XXXIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2001).

25. J. Strugnell, D. J. Harrington, S.J., and T. Elgvin, in consultation with J. A. Fitzmyer, S.J., Qumran Cave 4.XXIV: 4QInstruction (Musar leMevîn): 4Q415 ff. (DJD XXXIV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

26. J. Baumgarten et al., Qumran Cave 4.XXV: Halakhic Texts (DJD XXXV; Oxford: Clarendon, 1999).

27. S. J. Pfann, Cryptic Texts; P. Alexander et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Qumran Cave 4.XXVI: Miscellanea, Part 1 (DJD XXXVI; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

28. H. Cotton et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam and M. Brady, Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert (DJD XXXVIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2000).

29. E. Tov (ed.), The Texts from the Judaean Desert: Indices and an Introduction to the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Series (DJD XXXIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 2002).

30. M. G. Abegg, Jr., with J. E. Bowley and E. M. Cook, in consultation with E. Tov, The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance I. The Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003).

31. H. Stegemann with E. Schuller, and C. Newsom (translations), Qumran Cave 1.III: 1QHodayota with Incorporation of 1QHodayotb and 4QHodayota–f (DJD XL; Oxford: Clarendon, 2009).

32. É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.XXVII: Textes araméens, deuxième partie: 4Q550–575a, 580–587 et Appendices (DJD XXXVII; Oxford: Clarendon, 2009).

33. E. Ulrich and P. W. Flint, Qumran Cave 1.II: The Isaiah Scrolls (DJD XXXII; Oxford: Clarendon, forthcoming).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Emanuel Tov at Emet Prize site
  2. ^ Bibliography at his homepage
  3. ^ Emanuel Tov homepage
  4. ^ Biography of Emanuel Tov at the Emet Prize site
  5. ^ full list is in the introduction book to the series (book 39): E. Tov (ed.), The Texts from the Judaean Desert: Indices and an Introduction to the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Series (DJD XXXIX; Oxford: Clarendon, 2002‏
  6. ^ ‏The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader, Parts 1-6 (Leiden/ Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004-2005‏
  7. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) - Recipient's C.V.". 
  8. ^ "Israel Prize Official Site (in Hebrew) - Judges' Rationale for Grant to Recipient". 
  9. ^ See items 3*, 7a*, 65, 181, 207 in Tov's bibliography
  10. ^ ‏The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged; Jerusalem Biblical Studies 8; Jerusalem: Simor, 1997‏
  11. ^ look his article (Hebrew) שנתון יד (2004) 139-119.
  12. ^ ‏Together with S. A. White: “4QReworked Pentateuchb–e and 4QTemple?“ in H. Attridge et al., in consultation with J. VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4.VIII, Parabiblical Texts, Part 1 (DJD XIII; Oxford: Clarendon, 1994) 187–351, 459–63 and plates XIII–XXXXVI‏
  13. ^ look his article (Hebrew) שנתון יח (2008) 148-133.
  14. ^ See “The Many Forms of Scripture: Reflections in Light of the LXX and 4QReworked Pentateuch,” in From Qumran to Aleppo: A Discussion with Emanuel Tov about the Textual History of Jewish Scriptures in Honor of his 65th Birthday (ed. A. Lange et al.; FRLANT 230; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009) 11–28.
  15. ^ ‏Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (STDJ 54; Leiden/Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004)
  16. ^ ‏For the latest formulation of this view, see item 13 in list 4 below, "Books Authored" (Scribal Practices)
  17. ^ This encodin published among others inside: , JPS Hebrew–English Tanakh: The Traditional Hebrew Text and the New JPS Translation (2d. ed.; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1999).
  18. ^ ‏The Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Library, Brigham Young University, Revised Edition 2006, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Electronic Reference Library of E. J. Brill Publishers‏

External links[edit]