Embraer ERJ 145 family

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ERJ 145 family
ERJ 135/ERJ 140/ERJ 145
RAEerj145.jpg
An ERJ-145 of Air France Régional
Role Regional airliner
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
First flight August 11, 1995
Introduction December 1996
Status In Service
Primary users ExpressJet Airlines (As United Express)
Envoy Air
Produced 1989-present
Number built 890 as of January 2012[1]
Developed from Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia
Variants R-99 and P-99
Embraer Legacy 600

The Embraer ERJ 145 family is a series of regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company. Family members include the ERJ 135 (37 passengers), ERJ 140 (44 passengers), and ERJ 145 (50 passengers), as well as the Legacy business jet and the R-99 family of military aircraft. The ERJ 145 is the largest of the group. Each jet in the series is powered by two turbofan engines. The family's primary competition comes from the Bombardier CRJ regional jets.

Development[edit]

Early design[edit]

The ERJ 145 was launched at the Paris Airshow in 1989 as a stretched and turbofan-powered modification of the EMB 120 Brasilia. Key components of this design included:

  • Straight wing (with winglets)
  • Rear Fuselage-mounted engines
  • Range of 2500 km
  • 75% parts commonality with the EMB 120.

Interim design[edit]

Flight deck of an ERJ 135
Embraer ERJ 145 of BMI in planform view
Embraer ERJ 145XR wing with winglet detail

By 1990, Embraer engineers found that results from wind-tunnel testing were less than satisfactory, and began considering a significantly different design from the EMB 120. The proposed modified design included a slightly (22.3°) swept wing with winglets, as well as engines mounted in underwing nacelles. This second design showed markedly better aerodynamic performance, but the combination of swept wings and wing-mounted engines required an unusually high (and therefore heavy) undercarriage.[2]

Production design[edit]

The design evolved until late 1991, at which time it was frozen. Though the aircraft went through many alterations before it was finalized, it did retain a few of the original influences of the EMB 120 such as the three abreast seating (2+1) configuration which was a similar configuration used for the Embraer/FMA CBA 123 Vector design which never reached production. The key features of the production design included:

The first design was intended to retain as much commonality as possible with the EMB 120. However, the aircraft has sold well thus overcoming the initial setbacks. Embraer delivered 892 units of all variants through 2006, and predicted that another 102 units would be delivered in the 2007-2016 time period.[3]

Derivatives[edit]

The ERJ 140 is based on the ERJ 145 with 96% parts commonality and the same crew type rating. The only significant changes are a shorter fuselage, a slightly derated engine and an increased range. At launch, Embraer estimated the cost of an ERJ 140 to be approximately US$15.2 million. The estimated cost of development of the ERJ 140 was US$45 million. The ERJ 135, with a service entry date of 1999, has 95% parts commonality with the ERJ 145, but is 11.7 feet (3.6 m) shorter.

The ERJ 145 seats 50 passengers, the ERJ 140 seats 44, and the ERJ 135 seats 37. The ERJ 140 was designed with fewer seats in order to meet the needs of some major United States airlines, which have an agreement with the pilots' union to limit the number of 50-seat aircraft that can be flown by their affiliates.

In 2003, Embraer entered a partnership with the Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation of Harbin, China. The resulting company, Harbin Embraer, began producing the ERJ 145 for the Chinese market by assembling complete knock down kits premanufactured by other worldwide Embraer operations.

Operations[edit]

The first flight of the ERJ 145 was on August 11, 1995, with the first delivery in December 1996 to ExpressJet Airlines (then the regional division of Continental Airlines flying as Continental Express). ExpressJet is the largest operator of the ERJ 145, with 270 of the nearly 1000 ERJ 145s in service. The second largest operator is American Eagle, with 206 ERJ 145 aircraft. Chautauqua Airlines also operates 95 ERJ 145s through its alliances with American Connection, Delta Connection, US Airways Express, and United Express.

NovoAir Embraer ERJ 145 preparing to take off from its hub Shahjalal International Airport in Bangladesh.

By some accounts, the ERJ 145 has a cost of ownership of about $2,500,000 per year.

In March 2007 ExpressJet entered into a short-term agreement to operate some regional routes for JetBlue Airways using its ERJ 145 aircraft.

The ERJ 140 was introduced in September 1999, first flew on June 27, 2000 and entered commercial service in July 2001. Envoy Air, the regional jet subsidiary of American Airlines flying as American Eagle, operates the majority of the ERJ 140s built, including the first to be delivered, N800AE. Chautauqua Airlines also operate the ERJ 140.

As of early 2005, 74 ERJ 140s had been delivered.

This version is marketed as ERJ 140, but on the company's internal documents and on Federal Aviation Administration certification, the version is designated EMB 135KL.

Variants[edit]

Civilian models[edit]

City Airline Embraer ERJ 135.
Embraer ERJ 145 of the Brazilian Federal Police.
  • ERJ 135ER - Extended range, although this is the Baseline 135 model. Simple shrink of the ERJ 145, seating thirteen fewer passengers, for a total of 37 passengers.
  • ERJ 135LR - Long Range - increased fuel capacity and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ 140ER - Simple shrink of the ERJ 145, seating six fewer passengers, for a total of 44 passengers.
  • ERJ 140LR - Long Range (increased fuel capacity (5187 kg) and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ 145STD - The baseline original, seating for a total of 50 passengers.
  • ERJ 145EU - Model for European market. Same fuel capacity as 145STD (4174 kg) but an increased MTOW[4] 19990 kg
  • ERJ 145ER - Extended Range, although this is the Baseline 145 model.
  • ERJ 145EP - Same fuel capacity as 145ER (4174 kg) but an increased MTOW 20990 kg.
  • ERJ 145LR - Long Range - increased fuel capacity (5187 kg) and upgraded engines.
  • ERJ 145LU - Same fuel capacity as 145LR (5187 kg) but an increased MTOW 21990 kg.
  • ERJ 145MK - Same fuel capacity (4174 kg), landing weight (MLW) and MTOW as in the 145STD, but a changed MZFW[5] (17700 kg).
  • ERJ 145XR - Extra-long Range (numerous aerodynamic improvements, including winglets, strakes, etc. for lower cruise-configuration drag, a ventral fuel tank (aft location) in addition to the two main larger capacity wing tanks (same tanks as in the LR models), increased weight capacity, higher top speed and more powerful engines.
  • Legacy 600 - Business jet variant based on the ERJ 135.
  • Harbin Embraer ERJ145 - joint venture with Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation

The physical engines are the same (Rolls-Royce AE 3007), however, the FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine/Electronic Control) logic is what differs between the various models in regards to total thrust capability.

The extended range version, the ERJ 145ER, has Rolls Royce AE 3007A engines rated at 31.3 kN(7036 lb) thrust, with the option of more powerful AE 3007A1 engines. A, A1, A1P models are mechanically identical but differ in thrust due to variations in FADEC software. The A1E engine, however, has not only new software, but significantly upgraded mechanical components.

The long-range ERJ 145LR aircraft is equipped with Rolls Royce AE 3007A1 engines which provide 15% more power. The engines are flat rated at 33.1 kN (7440 lb) thrust to provide improved climb characteristics and improved cruise performance in high ambient temperatures.

The extra-long-range ERJ 145XR aircraft is equipped with Rolls-Royce AE 3007A1E engines. The high performance engines provide lower specific fuel consumption (SFC) and improved performance in hot and high conditions. The engines also yield a higher altitude for one-engine-inoperable conditions."[1] ExpressJet is the sole operator of the ERJ 145XR. February 2011 Embraer presented its new EMB-145 AEW&C for India.

Luxair Embraer ERJ 135LR

Despite the multiple variants, pilots need only one type rating to fly any variant of the ERJ aircraft. Companies like American Eagle and ExpressJet Airlines utilize this benefit with their mixed fleet of ERJ135ER/LR and ERJ145EP/LR/XR. Shared type ratings allows operators to utilize a single pilot pool for any ERJ aircraft.

Military models[edit]

Operators[edit]

Civilian operators[edit]

In May 2011 a total of 990 ERJ 135/140/145 remain in service, with 5 further firm orders.[6][7]

Current major civilian operators include :

bmi ERJ 145EP at Bristol Filton Airport.

Some 26 other airlines also operate the aircraft in smaller numbers.

Military operators[edit]

Belgian Air Force ERJ 135LR in 2010.
 Angola
 Belgium
  • Belgian Air Component (operates two ERJ 135 and two ERJ 145 since 2001 in passenger transport and VIP roles)
 Brazil
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Greece
 India
 Mexico
 Panama
 Thailand

Notable accidents[edit]

The ERJ 145 family of aircraft has no reported crashes or fatalities due to mechanical malfunction in over 15 million hours (as of June 2009) of flight time for the fleet.[10]

  • On February 11, 1998 a Continental Express, now United Express, ERJ 145ER tail number N14931 crashed in Beaumont, Texas on takeoff during a training flight. NTSB reports that after the incorrect application of rudder during a V1 cut maneuver, the left wing stalled. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. [2]
  • On December 28, 1998, a Rio-Sul pilot descended beyond the normal rates and landed at a speed significantly higher than the normal landing speed. The aircraft tail section cracked and was dragged along the runway.[11] The airplane involved was PT-SPE, an ERJ 145ER and this happened at Afonso Pena Airport, in Curitiba, Brazil. The airplane was damaged beyond economical repair.
  • On 7 December 2009, an Embraer ERJ 135 operated by South African Airlink (registration:ZS-SJW) on a scheduled flight SA-8625 from Cape Town, overshot the runway when trying to land in wet weather at George Airport; no fatalities were reported. It was determined that the aircraft touched down in the area of the fourth landing marker. According to the air traffic controller (ATC) on duty at the time, the landing appeared normal, however the aircraft did not vacate the runway but instead veered to the right and went past the ILS localizer. The aircraft collided with eleven approach lights before it burst through the aerodrome perimeter fence coming to rest in a nose-down attitude on a public road. The preliminary investigation showed the tyres did display some evidence of aquaplaning. The plane was damaged beyond economical repair.
  • On August 25, 2010, an ERJ 145 operated by Passaredo, crashed on approach to Vitória da Conquista. The plane landed short of the runway and the crew lost control, resulting in the aircraft sustaining severe damage before coming to a stop away from the runway. Two of the 27 people on board were injured. The airline said the plane was unable to lower landing gear, although observers said the landing gear was lowered while the aircraft was landing.[13]
  • On September 4, 2011, a United Express Embraer 145 slid off the runway upon landing at Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International in Ottawa, Canada. All 44 passengers aboard were uninjured. The plane sustained substantial damage to its gear and wing on the righthand side. The plane was damaged beyond economic repair.

Specifications[edit]

Line drawings of ERJ 135 & 145
Variant ERJ135 ER[14] ERJ135 LR[14] ERJ140 ER[15] ERJ140 LR[15] ERJ145 LR[16] ERJ145 XR[17]
Crew 3 (2 pilots + flight attendant)
Seating capacity 37 44 50
Length
Wing span
Height
26.33 m (86 ft 5 in)
20.04 m (65 ft 9 in)
6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)
28.45 m (93 ft 4 in)
20.04 m (65 ft 9 in)
6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)
29.87 m (98 ft 0 in)
20.04 m (65 ft 9 in)
6.76 m (22 ft 2 in)
Engines (2x) Rolls-Royce AE 3007-A1 (7800 lb thrust) or Rolls-Royce AE 3007-A1P (8300 lb thrust) Rolls-Royce AE 3007-A1E (8700 lb thrust)
Max Zero Fuel Weight (MZFW) 15,600 kg (34,392 lb) 16,000 kg (35,273 lb) 17,100 kg (37,699 lb) 17,900 kg (39,462 lb) 18,500 kg (40,785 lb)
Max payload weight 4,198 kg (9,255 lb) 4,499 kg (9,918 lb) 5,284 kg (11,649 lb) 5,292 kg (11,666 lb) 5,786 kg (12,755 lb) 5,909 kg (13,027 lb)
Max Take Off Weight 19,000 kg (41,887 lb) 20,000 kg (44,092 lb) 20,100 kg (44,312 lb) 21,100 kg (46,517 lb) 22,000 kg (48,501 lb) 24,100 kg (53,131 lb)
Maximum range 2,409 km (1,300 nmi) 3,243 km (1,750 nmi) 2,317 km (1,250 nmi) 3,058 km (1,650 nmi) 2,873 km (1,550 nmi) 3,706 km (2,000 nmi)
Basic cruising speed Mach .78, 447 kts, 515 mph, 828 km/h Mach .80, 470 kts, 530 mph, 851 km/h
Service ceiling 11,278 m (37,000 ft)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ 001-Embraer Deliveries 4Q11-Ins-VPF-I-12. Retrieved January 11th, 2012.
  2. ^ ERJ 145 information at Airliners.net. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
  3. ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 October 2007 issue, p. 66
  4. ^ MTOW - Maximum TakeOff Weight
  5. ^ MZFW - Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
  6. ^ Airfleets.net
  7. ^ Embraer.com.br
  8. ^ ExcelAire Jet Charters
  9. ^ Embraer Press Release Embraer sign contracts with the Royal Thai Army and the Royal Thai Navy
  10. ^ Embraer.com
  11. ^ Flight recorder video of Rio-Sul incident YouTube. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  12. ^ Aviation Safety Accident Description
  13. ^ "Accident: Passaredo E145 at Vitoria da Conquista on Aug 25th 2010, landed short of runway". The Aviation Herald. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  14. ^ a b E135 Specifications
  15. ^ a b E140 Specifications
  16. ^ E145 LR Specifications
  17. ^ E145 XR Specifications
Bibliography

External links[edit]