Emerald ash borer
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (January 2013)|
||It has been suggested that this article be split into articles titled Emerald ash borer infestation in North America. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2013.|
|Emerald ash borer|
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, is a green beetle native to Asia.
In North America the emerald ash borer is an invasive species, highly destructive to ash trees in its introduced range. The potential damage of this insect rivals that of Chestnut blight and Dutch Elm Disease. Since its accidental introduction into the United States and Canada in the 1990s, and its subsequent detection in 2002, it has spread to 14 states and adjacent parts of Canada. It has killed at least 50 to 100 million ash trees so far and threatens to kill most of the 7.5 billion ash trees throughout North America. The emerald ash borer is now one of the most destructive non-native insects in the United States; it and other wood-boring pests cause an estimated $3.5 billion in annual damages in the U.S.
The insect threatens the entire North American Fraxinus genus, unlike past invasive tree pests, which have only threatened a single species within a genus. The green ash and the black ash trees are preferred. White ash is also killed rapidly, but usually only after green and black ash trees are eliminated. Blue ash displays some resistance to the emerald ash borer by forming callous tissue around EAB galleries; however, usually they are eventually killed also.
Life cycle 
A. planipennis may take one or two years to complete its life-cycle depending on 1) the timing of egg deposition, 2) the health and stress level of the tree, and 3) local temperatures. The one-year EAB life-cycle is described below.
Adults The adult beetle is dark metallic green, bullet-shaped and about 8.5 millimetres (0.33 in) long and 1.6 mm (1⁄16 in) wide. The body is narrow and elongated, and the head is flat with black eyes. Adults begin to emerge from the trunks of ash trees after the accumulation of 400-500 growing degree days base 50°F (GDD). Peak adult emergence occurs at ~1000 GDD. After emergence, adults fly into the ash canopy where they feed on leaves throughout their lives. EAB adults start mating one week after emergence, and females begin laying eggs 2–3 weeks later. In the field, EAB adults are readily observed mating and egg-laying on the trunks of ash trees on warm, sunny afternoons and evenings. The adults of both sexes are strong fliers.
Eggs A female EAB may lay >100 eggs in her lifetime, depositing them individually or in groups on the bark along the trunk and portions of the major branches. Eggs are laid in areas where the bark is rough, and between bark layers or in bark crevices. Eggs are approximately 1.0 mm long x 0.6 mm wide and creamy white when laid; fertile eggs gradually turn amber after a few days. The eggs hatch after about two weeks.
Larvae Newly hatched larvae bore through the bark to the phloem and outer layer of new sapwood where they feed until the weather gets too cold in the fall. There are four stages of larval development (instars). As they feed, the larvae create long serpentine galleries filled with frass, which enlarge in width as they grow. Larvae are creamy white, and dorso-ventrally flattened. When fully mature, fourth-instar larvae are 26 to 32 mm long. Their head is mostly retracted into the prothorax with only the dark brown mouthparts visible. The prothorax is enlarged, with the mesothorax and metathorax more narrow. Larvae have 10 bell-shaped abdominal segments and a pair of small brown structures called urogomphi, which are characteristic of all larvae in the genus Agrilus.
Overwintering larvae, pre-pupae, pupae, and adults In the fall, mature fourth-instar EAB larvae excavate pupal chambers in the sapwood or outer bark where they fold into overwintering “J-shaped larvae”. In the spring, the J-shaped larvae shorten into prepupae then shed their cuticle to become naked pupae. Pupae are initially creamy white, but the eyes turn red and the body begins to darken as they develop. To emerge from ash trees, adults chew D-shaped exit holes through the bark and are capable of immediate flight upon emergence. EAB larvae that are immature as cold weather arrives in the fall will simply overwinter in their larval gallery. Larger larvae complete development the following spring, whereas smaller larvae may require another summer of feeding to complete development.
Eleven-year cycle: from introduction to large-scale ash death 
The Emerald Ash Borer infestation pattern is similar to a locust plague in that populations grow exponentially after it is introduced into an area. In approximately 11 years, it can wipe out all the ash trees within a sizable perimeter. A typical Emerald Ash Borer female will lay approximately 100 eggs during her 2-month life; 56% of these eggs on average will be female. In a typical scenario, each year the EAB population multiplies by a factor of 50. By year 9 of an infestation, the EAB population originating from this one female, will be nearly 1 trillion insects. In year 10 it will be 50 trillion. These insects will then move on and create an expanding wake of destruction.
In individually infested trees, it is difficult to see symptoms in the first 1–2 years of infestation. Typically in the third year after infestation, the tree will exhibit significant dieback. By the end of the 4th year after the original infestation begins, the tree will be dead. After 5 years (1 year after death) the dead ash trees will become brittle and start to drop major limbs. Because the volume of trees that die at one time is often so large, cities and homeowner groups are being caught unprepared and are not able to remove the trees because of the lack of resources as well as available removal services.
Exponential beetle population explosion phase 
It is common for all the trees in a single neighborhood to die at the same time. In a typical small town/city situation, the 4-year period, from year 8 through year 11 after infestation, will see 60 - 70% of their trees die in that region. They are calling this the curve of death because on a graph that charts time and tree death after beetle introduction, the plotted line angles almost straight up during those 4 years, ending in all the local ash trees being dead. As insects migrate, new epicenters of Ash tree mortality pop up more and more frequently. These then begin to coalesce. This pattern will continue until eventually, all the ash are dead.
Wake of destruction 
As of this writing, April 2012, there are many millions of dead standing trees in southwestern Michigan, much of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. And this scenario is coming soon to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the east coast. Cities that were not prepared for this onslaught of dead ash trees are now dealing with tree limbs falling and the inability to either raise the dollars or find the skilled manpower needed to remove the trees. Insurance companies are being hit with claims coming from trees falling on vehicles, buildings, and even people. A recent report showed that in a number of studied cities, where emerald ash borer has killed all the ash trees, heart attack rates and lung disease deaths are higher than before the ash died. With 10-25% of their urban canopy gone, air pollution is more prevalent.
Environmental and economic impact 
Cities such as Minneapolis, Minnesota have slightly more than 20% of their urban forest as ash. This is typical, as many cities have high ash populations because of their ability to tolerate urban stress and survive poor planting practices that plague urban cities today. The Minneapolis – Saint Paul metro area has between 2 and 2.5 million ash.
All towns and cities with significant ash populations will be eventually invaded by the Emerald ash borer and go through the EAB curve of death. How a town or a city prepares for this arrival is important. Having no plan will mean trees will die quickly. Dead ash trees will be everywhere, faster than expected. Dealing with this scenario carries a very high cost. However, having a planned management strategy will cost far less, spreading these costs out significantly longer. In addition, important ash trees will be alive for many years - for less expense than removal and replacement.
Current thoughts on management 
The first step in any management plan is to take inventory of what you have. This is done by either doing a formal tree inventory, or through a more basic counting and measuring of trees. Each tree should receive a rating - there is a scale that is used by some cities that assigns a number to each tree based on condition, location, age, value, and density. A low score of 1 would be assigned to Ash that are hazardous and potentially dangerous. The highest rating would be a 5 for specimen or heritage trees.
The fact that there are now effective, low cost treatments, changes how ash trees are managed in two very important ways. It allows cities to save trees far more cost effectively than removal and replanting new trees, and preserves the important tree canopy. This allows removal and replanting cost to be spread over time by providing for the opportunity of a slow transition of the ash trees out of the urban forest. Treatment can also be used to stage trees that are slated to be removed in the future, thus allowing the city to remove trees as they choose, instead of being forced to remove all their ash trees over a few years. There is a value calculator for urban trees created by Purdue University, http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/treecomputer/. This can help determine what trees are worth to a city or neighborhood, and is useful in determining which trees should be removed /replaced, and which trees are worth saving.
Implementation of the management plan should begin with removing the hazardous and weak trees. This can be started immediately and is a good idea even if the Emerald Ash Borer has not arrived yet. The most effective method to monitor for the Emerald ash borer is to utilize a purple trap. Once the insect is found - begin treating the trees you intend to save as well as the trees you want to stage for removal. Trees treated with insecticide will slow down the borers population build up.
Preventative treatments 
Three treatments are currently recommended as effective, according to a multi-university study. New treatments being tested may soon be recommended as well. However, some marketed products have no proven efficacy. In particular, store-brand 2.94% imidacloprid formulations are effective only on trees having a diameter under 8 inches (DBH). Larger trees require professional-strength formulations with the "2X imidacloprid" label.
Emamectin benzoate 
Emamectin benzoate (trade name Tree-age) is applied through holes that are drilled into the ash trunk. An average 20" diameter tree requires 6 holes. Each hole has a plug that is designed to prevent the solution from coming back out and to create a reservoir from which the solution is absorbed by the tree. This product is the most toxic to the insect and had the highest score in terms of having the least amount of living larvae in treated trees. Only professional and licensed certified applicators can apply this product.
The Positive Aspects of Emamectin Benzoate are: 
- It is directly injected into the tree. Can be used in environmentally sensitive areas.
- It lasts for 2 years. In 2009, City of Chicago started experiment with higher dose 3 year applications.
- Strongest protection
- Is the best rescue treatment.
- A larvicide that has an effect on all stages of Borers.
Downsides of Emamectin Benzoate 
- Holes must be drilled into the tree every two years. Ash are tough, and could be treated a few times without issue, but over many years drilling and chemical wounds will compromise the tree's health.
- It can only be applied by a professional. Homeowners or do-it-yourself people cannot use this product as it is a restricted use material.
- Plugs needed for the injection holes are required and cost 0.50 each.
Cost of Emamectin Benzoate
- Milwaukee, which is the single largest user, claims it costs them $45 per year per tree to treat (2 year treatment). Their average ash size is 16" diameter. They provide their own labor.
- Other cities with fewer trees can expect to pay about 10% - 30% more.
- Bids in The Chicago metro area for city contracts have been going for as Low as $5 – $9 an inch depending on number of trees.
- The average time in manhours to inject one tree averages between 25 minutes and 1 hour.
- The average homeowner will pay between $7 – $15 per diameter inch, typically larger trees and multiple trees cost less per inch.
Imidicloprid (trade names Merit, Xytect, Optrol, ArmorTech, Enforce, Hawk-I, Turfthor, Malice, Premis, Criterion, Hunter, Submerge, Tuchstone, ZENITH, Bandit...) is applied to the soil within 1 foot of the tree trunk at a depth of 3 - 4 inches. It is most commonly applied using a soil injector that injects it evenly around the trunk. It can also be applied as a drench or in a small moat around the tree trunk. In university research, Imidacloprid treated trees only survived the most severe level of infestation when treated at the 2X rate. The trees treated with the standard Imidacloprid rate died. This research led to the EPA amending the Rainbow Treecare Xytect imidacloprid label to allow this higher rate for treating the emerald ash borer. This product is typically applied by a professional Arborist. However, Imidacloprid is not restricted and homeowners can protect their own trees without a needing a license. Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub II has 1.47%-2.94% active Imidacloprid, which shows most effectiveness on small trees 8 inches in diameter (DBH) or less. 22%, 44% and 75% active ingredient of Imidacloprid is available for treating trees larger than 8 inches in (DBH) diameter.
Whether higher or lower percentage product used, all achieve same end dose. Higher percentage insecticide just calls for less powder amount. Imidacloprid "Falls" out of water quicker, the higher the percentage of active ingredient is used. Tree-injection methods use the 5%-10% active ingredient amount of Imidacloprid. Special proprietary Injectable formulations of Imidacloprid are refined to facilitate uptake of product through trees small diameter drinking straws called the xylem.
The Positive Aspects of Imidacloprid Are 
- Lowest cost treatment. Cities and neighborhood can treat an average tree for between $15– $20.
- Tree is not wounded by the treatment application method.
- Proven to provide an excellent level of defense when used at the 2X rate.
- Homeowners can apply to their own trees.
Downsides of Imidacloprid 
- Treatment is annual. (Required for effectiveness) 
- Should not be applied to trees within 10 feet of creeks, ponds, or lakes. It can harm water insects and insect larvae if applied directly to water.
- After application it takes 30 to 60 days for imidacloprid to move up into the tree with enough strength to become effective.
Costs of Imidacloprid
- Large city bids for thousands of trees are ranging from $1.05 to $1.25 per diameter inch (DBH) for a professional application.
- Smaller communities with fewer trees can expect to pay more.
- Communities can save about 20% by treating their own trees.
- Homeowners costs are higher, and range from $4.00 - $8.00 per diameter inch (DBH) for a single tree treated by a professional.
- Do it yourself homeowners can treat their own tree 20 inch diameter (DBH) for $38 – $50.
Dinotefuran (trade names Safari, Transtect) is similar to imidacloprid in that you apply it to the soil and it is most commonly applied with a soil injector. Its advantage is that it moves into the tree about 3 times faster than imidacloprid. Thus it can be used later in the season and as a rescue treatment. Dinotefuran can also be sprayed on the trunk of the tree as its high solubility allows it to move through the bark. It is available to homeowners. Dinotefuran is typically used for rescue treatments or later season treatments.
Distribution and dates of detection 
Its first confirmed North American detection was in June 2002 in Canton, Michigan. It is suspected, that it was introduced by overseas shipping containers being delivered to Yazaki North America, an automotive parts distributor. It has since been found in several other parts of the United States and Canada. Ohio, Minnesota, and Ontario have experienced emerald ash borer migration from Michigan. Additionally, Maryland and Virginia received shipments of contaminated trees from a Michigan nursery. The emerald ash borer was confirmed in Indiana in April 2004, in Central Kentucky in the Spring of 2009 and in Northeast Iowa in May 2010.
USDA APHIS PPQ used to attempt eradication of the insect, but its distribution is far too broad at this time and funds are lacking. Quarantine zones are still set up from which unprocessed raw hardwood material cannot be removed. The quarantine applies not only to the counties where the emerald ash borer has been detected but also high risk counties as well. The infected states have prohibited the movement of firewood from one state to another trying to eliminate the spread and fully enforce the quarantine zone. Large fines were imposed on a few companies that violated the ban, including one that was transplanting ash trees from southeast Michigan to Virginia and Maryland and is believed to be responsible for spreading the beetle to those states. The USDA has spent several hundreds of millions of dollars trying to minimize the ecological impact of EAB.
Michigan officials announced 2005-09-14 that ash borer infestation had crossed the Straits of Mackinac and was now in the Upper Peninsula for the first time. Wisconsin environmental officials consider it a grave threat and began preparations years ago for surveys in the state. Several counties in Indiana are under quarantine. However, states and cities are running out of money to combat the problem and many authorities feel that the borer will spread throughout North America. The EAB can move short distances by flying as well as surviving long distances in transit on ash tree nursery stock, Ash logs, branches, and firewood.
In June 2006, it was reported that emerald ash borers had been found at a home near Lily Lake, Illinois. Illinois officials have regulated several counties because it was found to be widespread. In July, 2006, further infestations were discovered in northern Cook County, Illinois, including Wilmette, Evanston, and Winnetka.
In June 2007, it was reported that emerald ash borers have been found in Cranberry Township, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On June 27, 2008, The Pittsburgh Post Gazette reported that the state Department of Agriculture says the emerald ash borer has been found in Mercer County. The invasive beetle was discovered in Butler and Allegheny counties last summer. Officials are surveying this year to gauge whether the insect has spread. Mercer joins Allegheny, Beaver, Butler and Lawrence counties in a quarantine prohibiting the movement of ash nursery stocks, green lumber and firewood.
In October 2007, an emerald ash borer larva was discovered in a West Virginia Department of Agriculture "detection tree" located in Fayette County. This detection tree was located in a recreational site, with camping, mountain biking, and white water rafting. It is believed that the pest arrived in firewood that was illegally transported by tourists visiting the New River Gorge area, a popular site for white water rafting (USDA-APHIS-PPQ).
As of December 2007, a federal quarantine has been imposed on the following areas in the U. S. for Emerald Ash Borer: the lower peninsula of Michigan; Mackinac County, Michigan; the entire states of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana; Prince Georges County, Maryland; and Fayette County, West Virginia. (USDA-APHIS)
Emerald Ash Borer has also extended its distribution in Canada. As of August 2009, the following areas are regulated by the CFIA in Ontario: Essex, Lambton, Middlesex, Elgin, Huron, and Norfolk Counties, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, the Cities of Hamilton and Toronto and the Regional Municipalities of Durham, York, Peel and Halton, the City of Sault Ste. Marie, and the City of Ottawa; in Quebec: The City of Gatineau and Municipalities of Carignan, Chambly, Richelieu, Saint-Basile-le-Grand and Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu.
It was confirmed by Canadian Agriculture officials to be present in the Montérégie region of Quebec. This region lies directly north of New England, therefore drastically increasing the likelihood of the insect being found in New England.
On Tuesday, July 29, 2008, it was announced that the Missouri Department of Agriculture has detected the emerald ash borer in the state. On Monday, August 4, Wisconsin confirmed that the first appearance in the state was detected in the village of Newburg, Wisconsin, in Ozaukee County.
On March 11, 2009 it was confirmed in Mifflin County, Pa. This county lies in the Eastern Central part of the state. As of August 12, 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture reports that two-thirds of the state has been infested with the EAB, most in counties west of the Pocono Mountains.
The insect was furthermore detected in Victory, Wisconsin by agricultural officials on Tuesday April 7, 2009. This town is in the western part of the state, and borders Iowa and Minnesota. It is also along the Mississippi River, which may serve as a pathway for the insect.
On May 14, 2009, spread of the emerald ash borer was confirmed by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture in St. Paul, Minnesota. This represents the most westerly location it has been found thus far in North America. Minnesota has more ash trees than any other state in the United States.
In the summer of 2011, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture introduced tiny, stingless wasps in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area as a biological control agent for the emerald ash borer.
The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation announced on June 17, 2009 that the emerald ash borer was recently discovered for the first time within the borders of New York State, in the Cattaraugus County town of Randolph.
The species was also detected in South Buffalo, New York in early 2011. As of August, 2011, the emerald ash borer was confirmed throughout Monroe County and in the City of Rochester.
In early July 2011, City workers spotted the beetle in some trees in the southeast borough of Hochelaga-Maisonneuve in the City of Montreal. 
Authorities across the US are continuing to determine the exact extent of EAB by placing purple traps nationwide.
In 2011, the Emerald Ash Borer was found in traps on Manitoulin Island. The insect was found in July 2011, according to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and was identified in late autumn. The CFIA made a presentation to Northeast Manitoulin and the Islands town council on November 17, 2011.
On September 12, 2012 it was detected in Massachusetts.
Introduction of biological control organisms 
As part of the campaign against the emerald ash borer (EAB), American scientists in conjunction with the Chinese Academy of Forestry searched since 2003 for its natural enemies in the wild leading to the discovery of several parasitoid wasps, namely Tetrastichus planipennisi, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, Oobius agrili, a solitary, parthenogenic egg parasitoid, and Spathius agrili, a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid. These have been introduced and released into the United States of America as a possible biological control of the emerald ash borer. Initial results have shown promise with T. planipennisi, and it is now being released. The USDA is assessing the application of Beauveria bassiana (a fungal pathogen with known insecticidal properties) prior to the releasing of T. planipennisi. However, some recent studies have shown that B. bassiana has had deleterious effects on the wasps themselves.
In addition to attempts to control EAB through the introduction of non-native species which kill EAB, government agencies in both the USA and Canada are utilizing a native species of wasp, known as “Smoky-Winged Buprestid Bandit” (Cerceris fumipennis) as a means of detecting areas to which EAB has spread. The females of these wasps hunt beetles in the same family as EAB and, therefore, will hunt EAB if it is present. The wasps stun the beetles and carry them back to their burrows in the ground where they are stored until the wasps’ eggs hatch and the wasp larvae feed on the beetles. Volunteers catch the wasps as they return to their burrows carrying the beetles to determine whether any of the catch consists of EAB. If it does, the agencies running the program and supervising the volunteers know that proper quarantine measure must be instituted. This methodology is known as biological monitoring, as opposed to control, because it does not appear that the wasps have a significant negative impact on EAB populations.
See also 
- "Agrilus planipennis". Data sheets on quarantine pests. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.
- Emerald Ash Borer - Don't Move Firewood Gallery of Pests (accessed 20 September 2011)
- US Forest Service (accessed 19 January 2009)
- "EmeraldAshBorer.info". EmeraldAshBorer.info. 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- ""Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States" at Journalist's Resource.org".
- Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species
- Arbor age magazine, April 2012. Emerald Ash Borer, Brad Bonham
- Dan Herms -Professor, Ohio State University
- "Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board - Emerald Ash Borer". Minneapolisparks.org. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer - written by Daniel A. Herms, Deborah G. McCullough, David R. Smitley, Clifford S. Sadof, R. Chris Williamson and Philip L. Nixon
- Tree Wound Responses Following Systemic Insecticide Trunk Injection Treatments in Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsyl- vanica Marsh.) as Determined by Destructive Autopsy, Joseph J. Doccola, David R. Smitley, Terrance W. Davis, John J. Aiken, and Peter M. Wild
- DISCOLORED AND DECAYED WOOD ASSOCIATED WITH INJECTION WOUNDS IN AMERICAN ELM by Alex L. Shigo and Richard Campana
- product label - http://www.treecarescience.com/uploads/100344TREE-age_full_label_4-15-11.pdf
- Arbor-jet website
- Survey of bids for cities in the Chicago metro area
- Personal experience after treating many 100's of trees
- www.natorp.com. "Emerald Ash Borer Treatment | Emerald Ash Borer". Natorp.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- "Bayer Shrub And Tree - Compare Prices, Reviews and Buy at Nextag". Nextag.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- survey of costs
- imidacloprid label
- "BACHMAN'S • Floral Gift & Garden". Bachmans.com. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- "Xytect 2F - Imidacloprid Soil Drench". The Tree Geek. 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- Jim Paul (2006-06-13). "Bug that kills ash trees found in Illinois". Associated Press.
- "Emerald ash borer discovered in Evanston". Illinois Department of Agriculture. 2006-06-21.
- Allison M. Heinrichs (2007-06-27). "Destructive Asian insect found in Cranberry". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review.
- Rick Steelhammer (2007-10-21). "Emerald ash borers invade Mountain State". Charleston Gazette-Mail (Sunday Edition).
- "Wood Quarantine Issued in Wayne County after Ash Borer Found - houstonherald.com | Houston Herald - Houston, MO: News". Houston Herald. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- "Emerald Ash Borer - Agrilus planipennis". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2009-08-26.
- Robert Mitchum and Melissa Patterson (2008-06-19). "Emerald Ash Borer hits Chicago". Chicago Tribune.
- Jake Griffin (2008-06-11). "Invasive emerald ash borer beetle found in Naperville". Chicago Daily Herald.
- "L'agrile du frêne s'attaque aux arbres de la région". Canoe.ca. 2008-06-27.
- "Wisconsin confirms the arrival of ash borer, putting trees at risk". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. 2008-08-04.
- "Minnesota finds first emerald ash borer infestation". Kare11.com. 2009-05-14.
- "Emerald Ash Borer Found in New York State". NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. 2009-06-17.
- "Bored to death by the emerald ash borer". Rochester City Newspaper. 2011-08-10.
- "Exotic ash borer threatens Montreal trees". CBC News. 2011-07-27.
- Gould, Juli; Bauer, Leah, "Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)", Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) website (United States Department of Agriculture), retrieved 28 April 2011
- Bauer, L.S.; Liu, H-P; Miller, D.; Gould, J. (2008). "Developing a classical biological control program for Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive ash pest in North America". Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 53 (3&4): 38–39. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "Biocontrol: Fungus and Wasps Released to Control Emerald Ash Borer". Science News. ScienceDaily. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- Harry Zirlin (23 August 2012). "American Wasps Sniff Out Foreign Beetles".
- Emerald Ash Borer-The Morton Arboretum
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Emerald ash borer|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Agrilus planipennis|
- United States Department of Agriculture Public Awareness Campaign
- Emerald Ash Borer Most Frequently Asked Questions - A site dedicated to answering the most frequently asked Emerald Ash Borer/Treatment Questions
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency
- Multinational EAB website - US states and Canadian provinces
- "Emerald ash borer". United States Department of Agriculture.
- Southeast Michigan Resource Conservation & Development Council - Ash Utilization Options Project - developing value-added products from ash trees affected by the emerald ash borer
- Emerald ash borer Indiana Information
- Indiana based EAB Research and Treatment Organization
- Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
- Ohio Department of Natural Resources page on EAB
- USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station link to research on EAB
- Ohio Department of Agriculture infestation PDF map
- Wisconsin's Emerald Ash Borer Information Source
- Minnesota releases Stingless wasps to fight against emerald ash borer
- Species Profile- Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Emerald Ash Borer.
- The short film Emerald Ash Borer: The Green Menace is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]