Emergency telephone number

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9-1-1 is an emergency telephone number used in the United States, Canada, as well as in some Latin American countries - for example, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Paraguay and Uruguay

In many countries the public telephone network has a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number) that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. The emergency number differs from country to country; it is typically a three-digit number so that it can be easily remembered and dialed quickly. Some countries have a different emergency number for each of the different emergency services; these often differ only by the last digit. In the European Union, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and others "112" was introduced as a common emergency call number during the 1990s, and as the GSM standard it is now a well known mobile telephone emergency number around the globe[1] alongside the North American "911".

Configuration and operation[edit]

The emergency telephone number is a special case in the country's telephone number plan. In the past, calls to the emergency telephone number were often routed over special dedicated circuits. Though with the advent of electronic exchanges these calls are now often mixed with ordinary telephone traffic, they still may be able to access circuits that other traffic cannot. Often the system is set up so that once a call is made to an emergency telephone number, it must be answered. Should the caller abandon the call, the line may still be held until the emergency service answers and releases the call.

An emergency telephone number call may be answered by either a telephone operator or an emergency service dispatcher. The nature of the emergency (police, fire, medical) is then determined. If the call has been answered by a telephone operator, they then connect the call to the appropriate emergency service, who then dispatches the appropriate help. In the case of multiple services being needed on a call, the most urgent need must be determined, with other services being called in as needed.

Emergency dispatchers are trained to control the call in order to provide help in an appropriate manner; they can be assisted by computer aided call handling systems (CACH). The emergency dispatcher may find it necessary to give urgent advice in life-threatening situations. Some dispatchers have special training in telling people how to perform first aid or CPR.

In many parts of the world, an emergency service can identify the telephone number that a call has been placed from. This is normally done using the system that the telephone company uses to bill calls, making the number visible even for users who have unlisted numbers or who block caller ID. For an individual fixed landline telephone, the caller's number can often be associated with the caller's address and therefore their location. However, with mobile phones and business telephones, the address may be a mailing address rather than the caller's location. The latest "enhanced" systems, such as Enhanced 911, are able to provide the physical location of mobile telephones. This is often specifically mandated in a country's legislation.

History of emergency services numbers[edit]

Operator assistance[edit]

When an emergency happened in the pre-dial (or "manual") telephone era, the user simply picked up the telephone receiver and waited for the operator to answer "number, please?" The user responded with "get me the police," "get me the fire service," or "I need an ambulance/doctor." Even in large cities, it was seldom necessary to ask for these services by number.

In small towns, operators frequently provided additional services, knowing where to reach doctors, veterinarians, and law enforcement personnel at all times. Frequently, the operator was also responsible for activating the town's fire alarm.

When manual switching systems began to be replaced by automatic, or "dial" systems, there was frequently concern among users that the very personalized emergency service provided by manual operators would be lost.

Because numbers were different for every exchange, callers either had to dial the operator or look up the telephone number. An example of this was Auckland, New Zealand before the introduction of 111 in the 1960s – the city had 40 exchanges, all with different emergency numbers, and finding the telephone number for the local exchange would require having to search through the city's 500-page telephone directory.[2]

This problem was at least partially solved in the United States, Canada, and the UK by dialling "0" for the local assistance operator in case of emergency, although faster service could be obtained if the user dialled the full number for the Police or Fire Department. This system remained essentially unchanged throughout most of North America until the 1970s.

Direct-dial numbers[edit]

The first emergency number system to be deployed anywhere in the world was in London on 1 July 1937 [3][4] using the number 999, and this was later extended to cover the entire country.[3] When 999 was dialled, a buzzer sounded and a red light flashed in the exchange to attract an operator's attention.[4]

Because of loop disconnect dialing, attention was devoted to making the numbers difficult to dial accidentally by making them involve long sequences of pulses, such as with the UK 999 emergency number.[4] However in modern times, where repeated sequences of numbers are easily accidentally dialled on mobile phones, this is problematic, as mobile phones will dial an emergency number while the keypad is locked or even without a SIM card.[5][6] Some people have reported accidentally dialling 112 by loop-disconnect for various technical reasons, including while working on extension telephone wiring, and point to this as a disadvantage of the 112 emergency number, which takes only four loop disconnects to activate.[7]

Southern California Telephone Co. began using 116 as an emergency line for Los Angeles, California in 1946.[8] The emergency number 999 was adopted in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1959 at the urging of Stephen Juba, mayor of Winnipeg at the time.[9] The city changed the number to 911 in 1972, in order to be consistent with the newly adopted U.S. emergency number.

The first 911 emergency phone systems went into use in Haleyville, Alabama in 1968.[10] On February 16, 1968, the first-ever 9-1-1 call was placed by Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite, from Haleyville City Hall, to U.S. Rep. Tom Bevill, at the city's police station. However, 911 systems were not in widespread use until the 1980s when the number 911 was adopted as the standard number across most of the country under the North American Numbering Plan.[citation needed]

The implementation of 911 service in the USA was a gradual and haphazard process. Because telephone service boundaries did not always exactly match governmental and other jurisdictional boundaries, a user might dial 911, only to discover that he had been connected to the wrong dispatch center because he had telephone service from one location but lived within the boundaries of another jurisdiction.[citation needed]

Electromechanical switching equipment still in use made it difficult to adapt to recognize 911, especially in small towns and rural areas where the call might have to be switched over a considerable distance.[11] For this reason, there are still county sheriff departments that have toll-free "800" area code numbers.[citation needed]

Gradually, various problems were overcome; "smart" or "enhanced" 911 systems were developed that not only would display the caller's number and address at the dispatch center but also could be configured so that 911 calls were automatically routed to the correct dispatch center, regardless of what central office the caller was served from. In the United States, most cities have E911 systems either in use, or in their emergency systems design plans.

The rapid replacement of electromechanical switching systems in the 1980s with electronic or digital systems eliminated the problem of older switches that would not recognize 911. At this point, 911 service is available in most of North America, but there is still the occasional small, remote town that does not have it.[12]

In France, many telephone exchanges were closed at night but it was still possible to make emergency calls. An operator had to connect the emergency calls only. In 1913, an automatic system was set up. It made provision for calling the police by dialling 17 and the fire brigade by dialling 18. As more manual telephone exchanges were converted to dial operation, more and more subscribers had access to these special numbers.[13] The service was not widespread until the 1970s.

The CEPT recommended the use of 112 in 1972. The European Union subsequently adopted the 112 number as a standard on 29 July 1991. It is now a valid emergency number throughout EU countries and in many other CEPT countries. It works in parallel with other local emergency numbers in about 2/3 of EU states.

In January 2008, the Internet Engineering Task Force released a set of RFC documents pertaining to emergency calls in IP networks.[14]

Emergency numbers and mobile telephones[edit]

Mobile phones can be used in countries with different emergency numbers. This means that a traveller visiting a foreign country does not have to know the local emergency numbers. The mobile phone and the SIM card have a preprogrammed list of emergency numbers. When the user tries to set up a call using an emergency number known by a GSM or 3G phone, the special emergency call setup takes place. The actual number is not even transmitted into the network, but the network redirects the emergency call to the local emergency desk. Most GSM mobile phones can dial emergency numbers even when the phone keyboard is locked, the phone is without a SIM card, emergency number is entered instead of the PIN or there isn't a network signal (busy network).

Most GSM mobile phones have 112, 999 and 911 as pre-programmed emergency numbers that are always available.[15] The SIM card issued by the operator can contain additional country-specific emergency numbers that can be used even when roaming abroad. The GSM network can also update the list of well-known emergency numbers when the phone registers to it.

Using an emergency number recognized by a GSM phone like 112 instead of another emergency number may be advantageous, since GSM phones and networks give special priority to emergency calls. A phone dialing an emergency service number not recognized by it may refuse to roam onto another network, leading to trouble if there is no access to the home network. Dialing a known emergency number like 112 forces the phone to try the call with any available network.

On some networks a GSM phone without a SIM card may be used to make emergency calls and most GSM phones accept a larger list of emergency numbers without SIM card, such as 112, 911, 118, 119, 000, 110, 08, and 999. However, some GSM networks will not accept emergency calls from phones without a SIM card, or even require a SIM card that has credit. For example, Latin American networks typically do not allow emergency calls without a SIM. Also, GSM phones sold in some countries like Singapore do not accept 112 as an emergency number even if they have a SIM card inserted.

The GSM phones may regard some phone numbers with one or two digits as special service codes. It might be impossible to make an emergency call to numbers like 03 or 92 with a mobile phone. In those cases the emergency number has to be called by using a landline telephone or with an additional first/last digit (for example 922 or 992 instead of 92 and 003 or 033 instead of 03).[16]

In the United States, the FCC requires networks to route every mobile-phone and payphone[verification needed] 911 call to an emergency service call center, including phones that have never had service, or whose service has lapsed.[17][18] As a result, there are programs that provide donated used mobile phones to victims of domestic violence and others especially likely to need emergency services. Over the next six years emergency responders will be able to better locate callers who dial 911 on their cellphones from indoors as the U.S. wireless industry improves caller-location for the majority of such calls.The "heightened location accuracy," available to supporting networks and handsets, will find callers through nearby devices connected to Wi-Fi or Bluetooth that will be logged with a specific location in a special emergency-services database.[19]

Mobile phones generate additional problems for emergency operators, as many phones will allow emergency numbers to be dialed even while the keypad is locked. Since mobile phones are typically carried in pockets and small bags, the keys can easily be depressed accidentally, leading to unintended calls. A system has been developed in the UK to connect calls where the caller is sent to an automated system, leaving more operators free to handle genuine emergency calls.[20]

Emergency numbers[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Algeria 17 14 National Gendarmerie - 1055; Counter Terrorist Unit - 1548; Support for children - 3033; Mobile phones - 112.
 Angola 113[21] 112[21] 115[21]
 Botswana 911 Police - 999; Ambulance - 997; Fire - 998; Mobile phones - 112.
 Cameroon 112 Police - 117; Ambulance - 119; Fire - 118.
 Chad 17 18[22]
 Djibouti 17 19[23] 18
 Egypt 122 123 180 Tourist Police – 126; Traffic Police – 128; Electricity emergency – 121; Gas emergency – 129.
 Ghana 999 Police - 191; Ambulance - 193; Fire - 192.
 Mali 17 15 18 Ambulance, Fire - 112.[24]
 Mauritius 112 114 115 Police - 999; Fire - 995.
 Morocco 19 15 Royal Gendarmerie - 177; Drugs & alcohol service - 113; Racial discrimination - 114; Non-emergency disturbances - 110; General information - 160; National Freeway Call Center - 5050.
 Nigeria 112
 Rwanda 112[25] 912 112[25] Traffic accident - 113.
 Sierra Leone 019 999
 Somalia 888 999 555 Traffic accident - 777.
 South Africa 10 111 10 177 Mobile phones - 112; Emergency in Cape Town - 107.
 Sudan 999 Traffic Police - 777 777.
 Tunisia 197 190 198 National guard – 193.
 Uganda 112 911 112 Police, Fire - 999.
 Zambia 999 991 993 Mobile phones - 112.
 Zimbabwe 999 Police - 995; Ambulance - 994; Fire - 993; Mobile phones - 112.

Asia[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Afghanistan 100[26] 102 101[26]
 Bahrain 999 Mobile phones - 112.
 Bangladesh 999 199 9 555 555 Those numbers are valid for Dhaka and Chittagong only.
 Burma 999 Police - 199; Ambulance - 192; Fire - 191.
 Cambodia 117 119 118
 People's Republic of China 110 120 119 Traffic accident (road police) - 122; Private ambulance service (Beijing) - 999. Dialling 112 on mobile phones in China plays a bilingual message in English and Chinese about other accessible emergency numbers.
 East Timor 112
 Hong Kong 999 Mobile phones - 112; Deaf fax (fixed line) or SMS (mobile phones) - 992 (connects to all emergency services).
 India 100 102 101 Chennai Traffic Police - 103; Delhi Traffic Police - 1095; Kolkata Traffic Police - 1073. 108 is used as a general emergency number in Bangalore, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
 Indonesia 110 118 113 Mobile phones - 112; Ambulance - 119; Search & rescue - 115; Natural disasters - 129; Electricity emergency - 123.
 Iran 110 115 125 Mobile phones - 112.
 Israel 100 101 102 Mobile phones - 112. Israel Electric Corporation - 103; Municipal hazards (non-emergency) - 106.
 Japan 110 119 Coast guard - 118;[27] Emergency question - # 7119 (free call), # 9110 (pay call).
 Jordan 911 Mobile phones - 112.
 Kazakhstan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 119 Mobile phones - 112. Operators speak Korean, some may speak English, Russian or Chinese.
South Korea Republic of Korea 112 119 National security - 111; Reporting spies - 113; Missing persons - 182; Phone service provider - 114.[28]
 Kuwait 112
 Lebanon 112 140 175 Police - 160.
 Macau 999 Mobile phones - 110 or 112.
 Maldives 119 102 118
 Malaysia 999 Mobile phones - 112.
 Mongolia 105 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101.
   Nepal 100 102 101 Traffic police - 103; Mobile phones - 112.
 Oman 999 Mobile phones - 112.
 Pakistan 15 1122 16 Traffic police - 1915; Mobile phones - 112.
 Philippines 117 Mobile phones - 112 or 911. 117 may also be texted from mobile phones. Motorist assistance - 136 (Metro Manila only); Child abuse (Bantay Bata area) - 163.
 Qatar 999 Mobile phones - 112.
 Saudi Arabia 999 997 998 Traffic police - 993; Ambulance - 08, 112 or 911.
 Singapore 999 995 Mobile phones - 112 or 911.
 Sri Lanka 119 110 Accident service - 11 269 11 11.
 Syria 112 110 113
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 110 119 Mobile phones - 112.
 Tajikistan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
 Thailand 191 1669 199 Bangkok EMS Ambulance (Bangkok only) - 1646; Tourist Police - 1155; Traffic Control Center (Bangkok Metro only) - 1197; Highway Patrol - 1193; Mobile phones - 112.
 United Arab Emirates 112 Police - 999; Ambulance - 998; Fire - 997; Coast guard - 996; Non-emergency police - 901.
 Vietnam 113 115 114

Europe[edit]

The common European emergency number is 112 (following Directive 2002/22/EC – Universal Service Directive) and also standard on GSM mobile phones. 112 is used in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the United Kingdom in addition to their other emergency numbers.[29][30][31][32]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Albania 112 Police - 129; Ambulance - 127; Fire - 128; Traffic police – 126.[33]
 Andorra 112 Police - 110; Ambulance - 116; Fire - 118.
 Armenia 102 103 101 Gas leaks – 104; Traffic police – 177; Search & rescue - 108.
 Austria 112 Police – 133; Ambulance – 144; Fire – 122; Gas leaks – 128; Mountain rescue – 140; Doctors – 141; Crisis-hotline – 142; Support for children and teens – 147.
 Azerbaijan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Traffic police – 126.
 Belarus 102 103 101 Fire - 112; Gas leaks – 104.
 Belgium 112[34][35] Police – 101; Fire, Ambulance - 100; Missing children – 116 000; Mental problems – 106; Red Cross – 105. If dialing 112 for police, operator has to redirect the caller to 101.[36]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 112 Police - 122; Ambulance - 124; Fire - 123; Civil protection - 121.
 Bulgaria 112
 Croatia 112 Police - 192; Ambulance - 194; Fire - 193; Search & rescue at sea – 195; Road help1987.
 Cyprus 112 or 199
 Czech Republic 112 Police – 158; Ambulance – 155; Fire – 150; Municipal police – 156.
 Denmark 112 Non-emergency police - 114; Helpline for guidance from doctors and nurses - 1813.
 Estonia 112[37]
 Faroe Islands 112
 Finland 112
 France 112 Police – 17; Hospital-operated ambulance (SAMU) – 15; Fire brigade-operated ambulance, Fire – 18; Homeless - 115; Deaf FAX/SMS - 114 (connects to all emergency services).
 Georgia 112
 Germany 112 Police - 110.
 Gibraltar 112 or 999 Fire, Ambulance – 190; Police - 199.
 Greece 112 Police100; Ambulance – 166; Fire199; Forest fire – 1591; Coast guard108; Counter-narcotics – 109; Tourist police – 171; Social aid – 197.
 Greenland 112 Mobile phones only. If using a landline phone, you must call the local police station, hospital or fire brigade.
 Hungary 112 Police – 107; Ambulance – 104; Fire – 105.
 Iceland 112 Non-emergency police (Reykjavík Area) – 444 10 00. 911 redirects to 112 on mobile phones.
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 112 or 999
 Italy 112 Ambulance – 118; Fire115; State Police113; Carabinieri112; Forest Service1515; Guardia di Finanza (Customs/Financial Police) – 117; Coast guard1530. 911 redirects to 112.
 Kosovo 112 Police – 192; Ambulance – 194; Fire – 193.
 Latvia 112 Police – 110; Ambulance – 113; Gas leaks – 114.
 Lithuania 112 [38]
 Luxembourg 112 Police – 113.
 Republic of Macedonia 112 Police – 192; Ambulance – 194; Fire – 193.
 Malta 112
 Moldova 902 903 901 Police - 112.
 Monaco 112 Police - 17; Hospital-operated ambulance - 15; Fire brigade-operated ambulance, Fire - 18.
 Montenegro 112 Police – 122; Ambulance – 124; Fire – 123.
 Netherlands 112 Text phone – 0800 81 12; Non-emergency police – 0900 88 44[a] or 034 357 88 44;[39] Non-emergency police (text phone) 0900 18 44; Suicide prevention – 0900 01 13; Animal emergency - 144; Child abuse - 0900 123 12 30;[a] Anti-Bullying - 0800 90 50.
 Norway 112 113 110 Non-emergency police – 02 800; Child abuse and family violence - 116 111; Text phone - 1412.
 Poland 112 Police – 997; Ambulance – 999; Fire – 998; Municipal police – 986; Gas leaks – 992.
 Portugal 112 Forest fire – 117; Social emergency – 144.
 Romania 112
 Russia 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
 San Marino 113 118 115 Carabinieri - 112.
 Serbia 192 194 193 Civil protection - 1985; 112 redirects to 192.
 Slovakia 112 Police – 158; Ambulance – 155; Fire – 150.
 Slovenia 112 Police – 113.
 Spain 112 Police - 091; Ambulance - 061; Fire - 080; Local police - 092; Civil guard - 062; Coast guard - 902 202 202; Civil protection - 1006.
 Sweden 112 Non-emergency police - 114 14; Non-emergency medical advice - 1177; Information during accidents and crises - 113 13.
  Switzerland 112 Police – 117; Ambulance – 144; Fire – 118; Poison control – 145; Traffic accident – 140; Psychological support (free, anonymous) – 143; Psychological support for teens and children (free, anonymous) – 147; Helicopter air-rescue (Rega) – 1414 or by radio on 161.300 MHz; Air rescue (Air Glaciers) (Valais only) – 1415.[40]
 Turkey 112[41] Police – 155; Fire brigade – 110; Gendarmerie – 156; Coastguard – 158; Municipal police - 153; Gas leaks - 197; Electricity emergency - 186; Water emergency - 185; Poison emergency - 114; Child abuse and family violence - 183; Forest fire - 177.
 Ukraine 112 Fire - 101; Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Gas leaks - 104.
 United Kingdom 112 or 999 Non-emergency police (local authorities in some areas) - 101; Non-emergency health issues - 111 Deaf people and people who are unable to speak can text 999 after registration by sending a text message with the word 'Register' to 999, details at www.emergencysms.org.uk.
  Vatican City 113 118 115 Carabinieri - 112.

Oceania[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Australia 000 Mobile phones - 112; State Emergency Service132 500; National Relay Service - 106; Non-emergency police – 131 444 (NSW, QLD, SA,WA, NT, TAS ACT); Crime Stoppers – 1 800 333 000; Threats to national security – 1 800 123 400.
 Fiji 000 or 911 Crime Stoppers - 919.[42]
 New Zealand 111 Traffic - *555 (mobile phones only). 112 and 911 redirect to 111 on mobile phones.[43] 000 and 999 plays a pre-recorded message advising the caller to call 111. Deaf TTY - 0800 161 610; Deaf fax - 0800 161 616; Deaf SMS - 111 (registered mobile phones only); Crime Stoppers - 0800 555 111.
 Solomon Islands 999 There are also local numbers in cities which are quicker than dialling 999.[44]
 Vanuatu 112

North America[edit]

See also: 9-1-1
Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Canada 911 Non-emergency - 311 (some areas only). 112 redirects to 911 on mobile phones.
 Mexico 066 065 068 Not all these three numbers are available in every state. Information about emergencies - 060.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 17 15 18
 United States of America 911 Various services are available through regional or national N11 codes (e.g.: 311 for non-emergency police or city services) in certain areas. 112 may redirect to 911, but should not be relied upon.[45]
 Barbados 911 Police - 211;[46] Ambulance - 511;[47] Fire - 311[48]
 The Bahamas 911 or 919[49] Mobile phones - 112.
 Cayman Islands 911
 Costa Rica 911 Mobile phones - 112.
 Dominican Republic 911 112 redirects to 911 on mobile phones.
 Guatemala 110 120 123 Private medical insurance - 911.
 El Salvador 911
 Haiti 114 118 115
 Honduras 199 195 198
 Jamaica 119 110
 Nicaragua 911 Police - 118; Ambulance - 128; Fire - 115.
 Panama 911 Police - 104; Fire - 103.
 Trinidad and Tobago 999 990

South America[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Argentina 101 107 100 Police - 911; Civil defense - 103; Forest fire - 105; Coast guard - 106. 112 redirects to 911 on mobile phones.
 Bolivia 110 118 119 911 redirects to 110.
 Brazil 190 192 193 Federal highway police - 191; Federal police - 194; Civil police - 197; State highway police - 198; Civil defense - 199; Human rights - 100; Emergency in Mercosul area - 128. 112 and 911 redirect to 190 on mobile phones.
 Chile 133 131 132 Useful mnemonic is ABC123: Ambulancia (Ambulance) 131, Bomberos (Fire) 132, Carabineros (Police) 133. 911 redirects to 133.
 Colombia 123 Police - 112; Ambulance - 132; Fire - 119; Traffic accident - 127, GAULA (anti-kidnapping) - 165.
 Ecuador 911 Police - 101; Fire - 102; Any emergency in Guayaquil - 112; Traffic accident in Guayaquil - 103; Red Cross - 131.
 French Guiana 112 Police - 17; Ambulance - 15; Fire - 18.
 Guyana 911 913 912
 Paraguay 911 141 131
 Peru 105 117 116 Civil defense - 115; Domestic violence - 100.
 Suriname 112 Police - 111; Ambulance - 113; Fire - 110.
 Uruguay 911 Ambulance - 105; Fire - 104.
 Venezuela 911

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Can't be accessed from foreign telephone lines

References[edit]

  1. ^ call services
  2. ^ "50 years of 111 – Planning 111". New Zealand Fire Service/New Zealand Police/St John Ambulance/Wellington Free Ambulance. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  3. ^ a b BBC London; Why 999 for an emergency?
  4. ^ a b c British Telecom Archives U.K. Telephone History
  5. ^ "Patent for SIM Free Emergency Calls". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "for emergency service access using a mobile phone". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  7. ^ EENA. EENA Operations Document: False Emergency Calls, European Emergency Number Association, 15-03-2011.
  8. ^ Staff report (Aug 19, 1946). Just Dial 116 for emergency telephone calls. Los Angeles Times
  9. ^ [Mobile Reference (2007) Chapter:History of emergency services numbers]
  10. ^ "9-1-1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  11. ^ "Villager p.13". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  12. ^ Motorcyclist Association p.58. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "Federal Communications Commission". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "RFCs prepare for Internet emergency calls". blog.anta.net. 8 January 2008. ISSN 1797-1993. Retrieved 8 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "Guidelines to select Emergency Number for public telecommunications networks" (PDF). International Telecommunications Union. 15 May 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Russia: Emergencies". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "Wireless 911 Services". Federal Communications Commission. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  18. ^ "Calls Made From Payphones". Federal Communications Commission. 26 June 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  19. ^ "Deal to spur better 911 call locating for U.S. cellphone users". Investing.com. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  20. ^ "Technology tackles bogus 999 calls". BBC News. 23 May 2002. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c http://www.justlanded.com/english/Angola/Angola-Guide/Telephone-Internet/Telephones-in-Angola
  22. ^ http://www.bing.tv/?p=362
  23. ^ http://www.itu.int/net/itu-t/inrdb/e129_important_numbers.aspx?country=60&pg_size=50
  24. ^ http://www.itu.int/net/itu-t/inrdb/e129_important_numbers.aspx?country=147&pg_size=50
  25. ^ a b http://www.itu.int/net/itu-t/inrdb/e129_important_numbers.aspx?country=194&pg_size=50
  26. ^ a b http://www.itu.int/net/itu-t/inrdb/e129_important_numbers.aspx
  27. ^ Gordenker, Alice (19 November 2009). "Keikaisen (guard ships)". The Japan Times. So, What the Heck Is That? (monthly column). Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  28. ^ "Korean Police Operation 1.. : 네이버블로그". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  29. ^ European Radiocommunications Office
  30. ^ European Union
  31. ^ "SOS 112 Europe". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  32. ^ Latest status on E-112 initiative: http://www.esafetysupport.org/en/esafety_activities/28_recommendations/
  33. ^ http://www.eena.org/ressource/static/files/1-albania.pdf
  34. ^ "EU rules on 112". Digital Agenda for Europe. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  35. ^ "112 in Belgium". Digital Agenda for Europe. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  36. ^ ""Frequently asked questions" about the emergency number 112". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ http://www.eena.it/Eusit.htm
  39. ^ "Contact". Politie. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  40. ^ "Swisscom: Emergency numbers". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  41. ^ 112 in Turkey
  42. ^ "Emergency contact numbers". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  43. ^ "Emergency 111 Frequently Asked Questions - New Zealand Police | New Zealand Police". Police.govt.nz. 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  44. ^ White Pages 2008, Solomon Islands Telephone Directory, p1
  45. ^ http://www.snopes.com/crime/warnings/fakecop.asp
  46. ^ http://www.barbadospolice.gov.bb/
  47. ^ "Queen Elizabeth Hospital Barbados". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  48. ^ "Barbados Fire Service". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  49. ^ "Reporting 919 or 911 Emergencies- RBPF". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  • Mobile Reference (2007) "Chapter:History of emergency services numbers"
  • David M. Cutler (2000) "The Changing Hospital Industry: Comparing Not-for-Profit and For-Profit" p. 118

External links[edit]