Emergency telephone number

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9-1-1 is an emergency telephone number used in the United States, Canada, as well as in some South American countries - for example, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Paraguay and Uruguay

In many countries the public telephone network has a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or occasionally the emergency services number) that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. The emergency number differs from country to country; it is typically a three-digit number so that it can be easily remembered and dialed quickly. Some countries have a different emergency number for each of the different emergency services; these often differ only by the last digit. In the European Union, Russia, Ukraine and Switzerland and others "112" was introduced as a common emergency call number during the 1990s, and as the GSM standard it is now a well known mobile telephone emergency number around the globe[1] alongside the North American "911".

Configuration and operation[edit]

The emergency telephone number is a special case in the country's telephone number plan. In the past, calls to the emergency telephone number were often routed over special dedicated circuits. Though with the advent of electronic exchanges these calls are now often mixed with ordinary telephone traffic, they still may be able to access circuits that other traffic cannot. Often the system is set up so that once a call is made to an emergency telephone number, it must be answered. Should the caller abandon the call, the line may still be held until the emergency service answers and releases the call.

An emergency telephone number call may be answered by either a telephone operator or an emergency service dispatcher. The nature of the emergency (police, fire, medical) is then determined. If the call has been answered by a telephone operator, they then connect the call to the appropriate emergency service, who then dispatches the appropriate help. In the case of multiple services being needed on a call, the most urgent need must be determined, with other services being called in as needed.

Emergency dispatchers are trained to control the call in order to provide help in an appropriate manner; they can be assisted by computer aided call handling systems (CACH). The emergency dispatcher may find it necessary to give urgent advice in life-threatening situations. Some dispatchers have special training in telling people how to perform first aid or CPR.

In many parts of the world, an emergency service can identify the telephone number that a call has been placed from. This is normally done using the system that the telephone company uses to bill calls, making the number visible even for users who have unlisted numbers or who block caller ID. For an individual fixed landline telephone, the caller's number can often be associated with the caller's address and therefore their location. However, with mobile phones and business telephones, the address may be a mailing address rather than the caller's location. The latest "enhanced" systems, such as Enhanced 911, are able to provide the physical location of mobile telephones. This is often specifically mandated in a country's legislation.

History of emergency services numbers[edit]

Operator assistance[edit]

When an emergency happened in the pre-dial (or "manual") telephone era, the user simply picked up the telephone receiver and waited for the operator to answer "number, please?" The user responded with "get me the police," "get me the fire service," or "I need an ambulance/doctor." Even in large cities, it was seldom necessary to ask for these services by number.

In small towns, operators frequently provided additional services, knowing where to reach doctors, veterinarians, and law enforcement personnel at all times. Frequently, the operator was also responsible for activating the town's fire alarm.

When manual switching systems began to be replaced by automatic, or "dial" systems, there was frequently concern among users that the very personalized emergency service provided by manual operators would be lost.

Because numbers were different for every exchange, callers either had to dial the operator or look up the telephone number. An example of this was Auckland, New Zealand before the introduction of 111 in the 1960s – the city had 40 exchanges, all with different emergency numbers, and finding the telephone number for the local exchange would require having to search through the city's 500-page telephone directory.[2]

This problem was at least partially solved in the United States, Canada, and the UK by dialling "0" for the local assistance operator in case of emergency, although faster service could be obtained if the user dialled the full number for the Police or Fire Department. This system remained essentially unchanged throughout most of North America until the 1970s.

Direct-dial numbers[edit]

The first emergency number system to be deployed anywhere in the world was in London on 1 July 1937 [3][4] using the number 999, and this was later extended to cover the entire country.[3] When 999 was dialled, a buzzer sounded and a red light flashed in the exchange to attract an operator's attention.[4]

Because of loop disconnect dialing, attention was devoted to making the numbers difficult to dial accidentally by making them involve long sequences of pulses, such as with the UK 999 emergency number.[4] However in modern times, where repeated sequences of numbers are easily accidentally dialled on mobile phones, this is problematic, as mobile phones will dial an emergency number while the keypad is locked or even without a SIM card.[5][6] Some people have reported accidentally dialling 112 by loop-disconnect for various technical reasons, including while working on extension telephone wiring, and point to this as a disadvantage of the 112 emergency number, which takes only four loop disconnects to activate.[7]

Southern California Telephone Co. began using 116 as an emergency line for Los Angeles, California in 1946.[8] The emergency number 999 was adopted in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1959 at the urging of Stephen Juba, mayor of Winnipeg at the time.[9] The city changed the number to 911 in 1972, in order to be consistent with the newly adopted U.S. emergency number.

The first 911 emergency phone systems went into use in Haleyville, Alabama in 1968.[10] On February 16, 1968, the first-ever 9-1-1 call was placed by Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite, from Haleyville City Hall, to U.S. Rep. Tom Bevill, at the city's police station. However, 911 systems were not in widespread use until the 1980s when the number 911 was adopted as the standard number across most of the country under the North American Numbering Plan.[citation needed]

The implementation of 911 service in the USA was a gradual and haphazard process. Because telephone service boundaries did not always exactly match governmental and other jurisdictional boundaries, a user might dial 911, only to discover that he had been connected to the wrong dispatch center because he had telephone service from one location but lived within the boundaries of another jurisdiction.[citation needed]

Electromechanical switching equipment still in use made it difficult to adapt to recognize 911, especially in small towns and rural areas where the call might have to be switched over a considerable distance.[11] For this reason, there are still county sheriff departments that have toll-free "800" area code numbers.[citation needed]

Gradually, various problems were overcome; "smart" or "enhanced" 911 systems were developed that not only would display the caller's number and address at the dispatch center but also could be configured so that 911 calls were automatically routed to the correct dispatch center, regardless of what central office the caller was served from. In the United States, most cities have E911 systems either in use, or in their emergency systems design plans.

The rapid replacement of electromechanical switching systems in the 1980s with electronic or digital systems eliminated the problem of older switches that would not recognize 911. At this point, 911 service is available in most of North America, but there is still the occasional small, remote town that does not have it.[12]

In France, many telephone exchanges were closed at night but it was still possible to make emergency calls. An operator had to connect the emergency calls only. In 1913, an automatic system was set up. It made provision for calling the police by dialling 17 and the fire brigade by dialling 18. As more manual telephone exchanges were converted to dial operation, more and more subscribers had access to these special numbers.[13] The service was not widespread until the 1970s.

The CEPT recommended the use of 112 in 1972. The European Union subsequently adopted the 112 number as a standard on 29 July 1991. It is now a valid emergency number throughout EU countries and in many other CEPT countries. It works in parallel with other local emergency numbers in about 2/3 of EU states.

In January 2008, the Internet Engineering Task Force released a set of RFC documents pertaining to emergency calls in IP networks.[14]

Emergency numbers and mobile telephones[edit]

Mobile phones can be used in countries with different emergency numbers. A traveller visiting a foreign country does not have to know the local emergency numbers, however. The mobile phone and the SIM card have a preprogrammed list of emergency numbers. When the user tries to set up a call using an emergency number known by a GSM or 3G phone, the special emergency call setup takes place. The actual number is not even transmitted into the network, but the network redirects the emergency call to the local emergency desk. Most GSM mobile phones can dial emergency calls even when the phone keyboard is locked, the phone is without a SIM card, or an emergency number is entered instead of the PIN.

Most GSM mobile phones have 112, 999 and 911 as pre-programmed emergency numbers that are always available.[15] The SIM card issued by the operator can contain additional country-specific emergency numbers that can be used even when roaming abroad. The GSM network can also update the list of well-known emergency numbers when the phone registers to it.

Using an emergency number recognized by a GSM phone like 112 instead of another emergency number may be advantageous, since GSM phones and networks give special priority to emergency calls. A phone dialing an emergency service number not recognized by it may refuse to roam onto another network, leading to trouble if there is no access to the home network. Dialing a known emergency number like 112 forces the phone to try the call with any available network.

On some networks a GSM phone without a SIM card may be used to make emergency calls and most GSM phones accept a larger list of emergency numbers without SIM card, such as 112, 911, 118, 119, 000, 110, 08, and 999. However, some GSM networks will not accept emergency calls from phones without a SIM card, or even require a SIM card that has credit. For example, Latin American networks typically do not allow emergency calls without a SIM. Also, GSM phones sold in some countries like Singapore do not accept 112 as an emergency number even if they have a SIM card inserted.

The GSM phones may regard some phone numbers with one or two digits as special service codes. It might be impossible to make an emergency call to numbers like 03 with a GSM phone.

In the United States, the FCC requires networks to route every mobile-phone and payphone[verification needed] 911 call to an emergency service call center, including phones that have never had service, or whose service has lapsed.[16][17] As a result, there are programs that provide donated used mobile phones to victims of domestic violence and others especially likely to need emergency services.

Mobile phones generate additional problems for emergency operators, as many phones will allow emergency numbers to be dialed even while the keypad is locked. Since mobile phones are typically carried in pockets and small bags, the keys can easily be depressed accidentally, leading to unintended calls. A system has been developed in the UK to connect calls where the caller is sent to an automated system, leaving more operators free to handle genuine emergency calls.[18]

Emergency numbers[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Algeria 17 14 National Gendarmerie - 1055; Counter Terrorist Unit - 1548; Support for children - 3033.
 Botswana 911 Police - 999; Ambulance - 997; Fire - 998.
 Cameroon 112 Police - 117; Ambulance - 119; Fire - 118.
 Chad 17 18
 Djibouti 17 351351 18
 Egypt 112 Police - 122; Ambulance - 123; Fire - 180; Tourist Police – 126; Traffic Police – 128; Electricity emergency – 121; Gas emergency – 129.
 Ghana 999 Police - 191; Ambulance - 193; Fire - 192.
 Mali 17 15 18
 Mauritius 999 114 115
 Morocco 19 15 Country police - 177.
 Nigeria 199
 Rwanda 112 Police - 999; Ambulance - 912; Fire - 111; Traffic accident - 113.
 Sierra Leone 999 Police - 019.
 Somalia 888 999 555 Traffic accident - 777.
 South Africa 10111 10177 112 from mobile phones; 107 in Cape Town.
 Sudan 999 Traffic Police - 777777.
 Tunisia 197 190 198 National guard – 193.
 Uganda 999 112 from mobile phones.
 Zambia 999 991 993 112 from mobile phones.
 Zimbabwe 999 Police - 995; Ambulance - 994; Fire - 993; Mobile phones - 112.

Asia[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Afghanistan 119 102 119
 Bahrain 999
 Bangladesh 999 199 9555555 Only for Dhaka and Chittagong.
 Burma 999 Police - 199; Ambulance - 192; Fire - 191.
 Cambodia 117 119 118
 People's Republic of China 110 120 119 Traffic accident - 122; Private ambulance service (Beijing) - 999. Dialling 112 on mobile phones in China plays a bilingual message about other emergency numbers.
 East Timor 112
 Hong Kong 999 112 from mobile phones; 992 as fax on fixed line and as SMS number on mobile phones (only subscribers with disabilities) connects to all emergency services.
 India 100 102 101 Chennai Traffic Police - 103; Delhi Traffic Police - 1095; Kolkata Traffic Police - 1073. Bangalore uses 108. This number is also used in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It can be called for any emergency.
 Indonesia 110 118 113 112 is supported in mobile networks. Ambulance - 119; Search and rescue - 115; Natural disaster - 129; Electricity emergency - 123.
 Iran 110 115 125 112 is supported in mobile networks.
 Israel 100 101 102 112 is supported in mobile networks. Israel Electric Corporation - 103; Municipal hazards (non-emergency) - 106.
 Japan 110 119 Coast guard - 118;[19] Emergency question - #7119 (free call), #9110 (pay call).
 Jordan 112
911
 Kazakhstan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 119 112 from mobile phones. Operators speak Korean, some may speak English, Russian or Chinese.
South Korea Republic of Korea 112 119 National security - 111; Reporting spies - 113; Missing persons - 182; 114 connects to the phone service provider.
 Kuwait 112
 Lebanon 112 140 175 Police - 999.
 Macau 999
 Maldives 999 Police - 119; Ambulance - 102; Fire - 118.
 Malaysia 999 112 for mobile phones.
 Mongolia 100 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101.
   Nepal 100 102 101 112 is supported in mobile networks. Police - 103.
 Oman 999
 Pakistan 15 115 16 Ambulance - 1122; Traffic police - 1915. 112 is supported in mobile networks.
 Philippines 117 112 and 911 for mobile phones. 117 may be texted from mobile phones. Motorist assistance - 136 (Metro Manila only); Child abuse (Bantay Bata) - 163.
 Qatar 999
 Saudi Arabia 999 997 998 Traffic police - 993; Ambulance - 911, 112 or 08.
 Singapore 999 995 112 and 911 is supported for foreign mobile phones that use roaming.
 Sri Lanka 118 110 111 Accident service - 11-2691111; Police - 119.
 Syria 112 110 113
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 110 119 112 is supported in mobile networks.
 Tajikistan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
 Thailand 999 Police - 191, Ambulance - 1669; Fire - 199. Tourist Police - 1155; Traffic Control Center (Bangkok Metro only) - 1197; Highway Patrol - 12334. 112 is supported in mobile networks.
 United Arab Emirates 999 997 Police - 112; Ambulance - 998.
 Vietnam 113 115 114

Europe[edit]

The common European emergency number is 112 (following Directive 2002/22/EC – Universal Service Directive) and also standard on GSM mobile phones. 112 is used in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the United Kingdom in addition to their other emergency numbers.[20][21][22][23]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Albania 112 Police - 129; Ambulance - 127; Fire - 128; Traffic police – 126.
 Armenia 112
911
Police – 102; Ambulance – 103; Fire – 101; Gas leaks – 104; Traffic police – 177; Search & Rescue - 108.
 Austria 112 Police – 133; Ambulance – 144; Fire – 122; Gas leaks – 128; Alpine rescue – 140; Doctors – 141; Crisis-hotline – 142; Support for children and teens – 147.
 Azerbaijan 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Traffic police – 126.
 Belarus 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks – 104.
 Belgium 112[24][25] Police – 101; Fire, Ambulance - 100; Missing children – 116 000; Mental problems – 106; Red Cross – 105. If dialing 112 for police, operator will redirect the caller to 101.[26]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 112 Police - 122; Ambulance - 124; Fire - 123; Civil protection - 121.
 Bulgaria 112
 Croatia 112 Police - 192; Ambulance - 194; Fire - 193; Search & rescue at sea – 195; Road help1987.
 Cyprus 112
199
 Czech Republic 112 Police – 158; Ambulance – 155; Fire – 150; Municipal police – 156.
 Denmark 112 Nearest police (non-urgent) - 114.
 Estonia 112[27]
 Faroe Islands 112
 Finland 112
 France 112 Police – 17; Ambulance (SAMU) – 15; Ambulance (Fire Service), Fire – 18; 115 for homeless; 114 for deaf or mute people (FAX or SMS only, connects to 18, 17 or 15).
 Georgia 112
 Germany 112 Police - 110.
 Gibraltar 112 Fire, Ambulance – 190; Police - 199.
 Greece 112 Police100; Ambulance – 166; Fire199; Forest fire – 1591; Coast guard108; Counter-narcotics – 109; Tourist police – 171; Social aid – 197.
 Greenland 112 Mobile phones only; fixed line phones must call the local police or hospital.
 Hungary 112 Police – 107; Ambulance – 104; Fire – 105.
 Iceland 112 Police in Reykjavík Area (non-urgent) – 4441000. 911 is redirected to 112 on mobile phones.
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 112
999
 Italy 112 Ambulance – 118; Fire115; State Police113; Carabinieri112; Forest Service1515; Guardia di Finanza (Customs/Financial Police) – 117; Coast guard1530. 911 is redirected to 112.
 Latvia 112 Police – 110; Ambulance – 113; Fire - 112; Gas leaks – 114.
 Lithuania 112 [28]
 Luxembourg 112 Police – 113.
 Republic of Macedonia 112 Police – 194; Ambulance – 192; Fire – 193.
 Malta 112
 Moldova 112 Police - 902; Ambulance - 903; Fire - 901.
 Monaco 112 Police - 17; Ambulance - 15; Fire - 18.
 Montenegro 112 Police – 122; Ambulance – 124; Fire – 123.
 Netherlands 112 Text phone – 0800-8112; Police (non-urgent) – 0900-8844[a] or 0343-578 844;[29] Police, non urgent via text telephone 0900-1844; Suicide prevention – 0900-0113; Animal emergency - 144; Child abuse - 0900-1231230;[b] Anti-Bullying - 0800-9050.
 Norway 112 113 110 Police (non-urgent) – 02800; Child-Abuse and Family Violence - 116111; TDD (text phone) - 1412.
 Poland 112 Police – 997; Ambulance – 999; Fire – 998; Municipal police – 986; Gas emergency – 992.
 Portugal 112 Forest fire – 117; Info – 118; Social Emergency – 144.
 Romania 112
 Russia 112 Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Fire - 101; Gas leaks - 104.
 San Marino 113 118 115 Carabinieri - 112.
 Serbia 112 Police – 192; Ambulance – 194; Fire – 193.
 Slovakia 112 Police – 158; Ambulance – 155; Fire – 150.
 Slovenia 112 Police – 113.
 Spain 112 Police - 091; Ambulance - 061; Fire - 080; Local police - 092; Civil Guard - 062.
 Sweden 112 Police (non-urgent) - 11414; Medical advice (non-urgent) - 1177; Information during accidents and crises - 11313.
  Switzerland 112 Police – 117; Ambulance – 144; Fire – 118; Poison – 145; Traffic accident – 140; Psychological support (free, anonymous) – 143; Psychological support for teens and children (free, anonymous) – 147; Helicopter air-rescue (Rega) – 1414 or by radio on 161.300 MHz; Air rescue (Air Glaciers) (in Valais only) – 1415.[30]
 Turkey 112[31] Police - 155; Ambulance - 112; Fire - 110; Traffic Police – 154; Gendarmerie – 156; Coast guard - 158; Forest fire - 177.
 Ukraine 112 Fire - 101; Police - 102; Ambulance - 103; Gas leaks - 104.
 United Kingdom 112
999
In 2006 101 was made available as a non-emergency number for police (and in some areas local authorities) in England and Wales. 111 was made available (in England and Wales) as a non-emergency number for health issues. 101 was introduced in Scotland during 2013. Deaf people and people who are unable to speak can text 999 after registration by sending a text message with the word 'Register' to 999, details at www.emergencysms.org.uk.
  Vatican City 113 118 115 Carabinieri - 112.

Australia and Oceania[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Australia 000 112 from mobile phones. State Emergency Service132 500; National Relay Service - 106; Police (non-emergency) – 131 444 (NSW, QLD, SA,WA, NT, TAS ACT); Crime Stoppers – 1800 333 000; Threats to national security – 1800 123 400.
 Fiji 917 911
 New Zealand 111 Traffic - *555 (mobile phones only). 911 and 112 redirect to 111 if dialed from a GSM mobile.[32] 000 and 999 plays a pre-recorded message advising the caller to call 111. Deaf TTY - 0800 161610; Deaf fax - 0800 161616; Deaf SMS - 111 (registered mobile phones only); Crime Stoppers - 0800 555 111.
 Solomon Islands 999 There are also local numbers in each urban centre, quicker than dialling 999.[33]
 Vanuatu 112

North America[edit]

See also: 9-1-1
Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Canada 911 Non-emergency 311 in certain areas. 112 is redirected to 911 on GSM mobile phones.
 Mexico 066 065 068 Not all these three numbers are available in every state. 060 can be used to request general information regarding an emergency in the whole country.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 17 15 18
 United States of America 911 Various services available through regional or national N11 codes (e.g.: 311 non-emergency police or city services) in certain areas. 112 may redirect to 911, but should not be relied upon.[34]
 Barbados 211 511 311 References: Police, Ambulance, Fire.
 Cayman Islands 911
 Costa Rica 112
911
 Dominican Republic 911 112 is redirected to 911 on mobile phones.
 Guatemala 110 120 123 911 exists only for private services like medical insurance.
 El Salvador 911
 Haiti 114 118 115
 Honduras 199 195 198
 Jamaica 119 110
 Nicaragua 911 Police - 118; Ambulance - 128; Fire - 115.
 Panama 911
 Trinidad and Tobago 999 990

South America[edit]

Country Police Ambulance Fire Notes
 Argentina 101 107 100 Emergency dispatcher - 911. 112 forwards to 911 on mobile phones.
 Bolivia 110 118 119 911 forwards to 110.
 Brazil 190 192 193 Federal highway police - 191; Federal police - 194; Civil police - 197; State highway police - 198; Civil defense - 199; Human rights - 100; emergency number for Mercosul area - 128. 112 and 911 are redirected to 190 on mobile phones. See also: Brazilian telephone numbering plan#Public utility.
 Chile 133 131 132 Useful mnemonic is ABC123: Ambulancia (Ambulance) 131, Bomberos (Fire) 132, Carabineros (Police) 133.
 Colombia 112
123
Police - 156; Ambulance - 132; Fire - 119; Traffic accident - 127, GAULA (anti-kidnapping) - 165.
 Ecuador 911 Police - 101; Fire - 102; All emergencies in Guayaquil - 112; Traffic accident in Guayaquil - 103; Red Cross - 131.
 French Guiana 112 Police - 17; Ambulance - 15; Fire - 18.
 Guyana 911 913 912
 Paraguay 911
 Peru 105 117 116 Civil defense - 115; Domestic violence - 100.
 Suriname 112 Police - 115; Ambulance - 113; Fire - 110.
 Uruguay 911
 Venezuela 911[35]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Can't be accessed from foreign telephone lines
  2. ^ Can't be accessed from foreign telephone lines

References[edit]

  1. ^ call services
  2. ^ "50 years of 111 – Planning 111". New Zealand Fire Service/New Zealand Police/St John Ambulance/Wellington Free Ambulance. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  3. ^ a b BBC London; Why 999 for an emergency?
  4. ^ a b c British Telecom Archives U.K. Telephone History
  5. ^ Patent for SIM Free Emergency Calls
  6. ^ for emergency service access using a mobile phone
  7. ^ EENA. EENA Operations Document: False Emergency Calls, European Emergency Number Association, 15-03-2011.
  8. ^ Staff report (Aug 19, 1946). Just Dial 116 for emergency telephone calls. Los Angeles Times
  9. ^ [Mobile Reference (2007) Chapter:History of emergency services numbers]
  10. ^ "9-1-1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  11. ^ Villager p.13
  12. ^ Motorcyclist Association p.58
  13. ^ Federal Communications Commission
  14. ^ "RFCs prepare for Internet emergency calls". blog.anta.net. 8 January 2008. ISSN 1797-1993. Retrieved 8 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "Guidelines to select Emergency Number for public telecommunications networks" (PDF). International Telecommunications Union. 15 May 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Wireless 911 Services". Federal Communications Commission. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  17. ^ "Calls Made From Payphones". Federal Communications Commission. 26 June 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  18. ^ "Technology tackles bogus 999 calls". BBC News. 23 May 2002. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  19. ^ Gordenker, Alice (19 November 2009). "Keikaisen (guard ships)". The Japan Times. So, What the Heck Is That? (monthly column). Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  20. ^ European Radiocommunications Office
  21. ^ European Union
  22. ^ SOS 112 Europe
  23. ^ Latest status on E-112 initiative: http://www.esafetysupport.org/en/esafety_activities/28_recommendations/
  24. ^ EU rules on 112
  25. ^ 112 in Belgium
  26. ^ http://112.be/en/faq-112.html#10
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ "Contact". Politie. Retrieved 2013-03-01. 
  30. ^ Swisscom: Emergency numbers
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ "Emergency 111 Frequently Asked Questions - New Zealand Police | New Zealand Police". Police.govt.nz. 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  33. ^ White Pages 2008, Solomon Islands Telephone Directory, p1
  34. ^ http://www.snopes.com/crime/warnings/fakecop.asp
  35. ^ [4]
  • Mobile Reference (2007) "Chapter:History of emergency services numbers"
  • David M. Cutler (2000) "The Changing Hospital Industry: Comparing Not-for-Profit and For-Profit" p. 118

External links[edit]