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- it achieves predictable global effects
- it does not require global visibility
- it does not assume any kind of centralized control
- it is self-stabilizing
Emergence is said to arise from the cooperation of many simple processes, i.e. high-level behaviour resulting from low-level interaction of simpler building blocks.[examples needed]
- Brunner, Klaus A. (2002). "Cybernetics and Systems 2002: Proceedings of the 16th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research" 1. Vienna. pp. 189–192. Retrieved 2009-02-18.