Emergy

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Emergy is a type of available energy (exergy) that is consumed in direct and indirect transformations needed to make a product or service.[1] Emergy accounts for, and is, therefore, in effect a measure of quality differences between different forms of energy. Emergy is an expression of all the energy used in the work processes that generate a product or service in units of one type of energy. Emergy is measured in units of emjoules, a unit referring to the available energy of one kind consumed in transformations. Emergy accounts for different forms of energy and resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) Each form is generated by transformation processes in nature and each has a different ability to support work in natural and human dominated systems. The recognition of these differences in quality is a key concept of the emergy methodology.

History[edit]

The theoretical and conceptual basis for the emergy methodology is grounded in thermodynamics[citation needed], general system theory[2] and systems ecology.[3] Evolution of the theory by Howard T. Odum over the first thirty years is reviewed in Environmental Accounting[1] and in the volume edited by C.A.S. Hall titled Maximum Power.[4]

Background[edit]

Beginning in the 1950s, Odum analyzed energy flow in ecosystems (e.g. Silver Springs, Florida;[5] Eniwetok atoll in the south Pacific;[6] Galveston Bay, Texas[7] and Puerto Rican rainforests,[8] amongst others) where energies of many different forms at many different scales were observed. His analysis of energy flow in ecosystems and the differences in the work potential of sunlight, fresh water currents, wind and ocean currents led him to make the suggestion that when two or more different energy sources drive a system they cannot be added without first converting them to a common measure that accounts for their differences in energy quality. This led him to introduce the concept of "energy of one kind" as a common denominator with the name "energy cost".[9] He then expanded the analysis to model food production in the 1960s,[9] and in the 1970s to fossil fuels.[10][11]

Odum's first formal statement of what would later be termed emergy was in 1973:

Energy is measured by calories, btu’s, kilowatthours, and other intraconvertable units, but energy has a scale of quality which is not indicated by these measures. The ability to do work for man depends on the energy quality and quantity and this is measurable by the amount of energy of a lower quality grade required to develop the higher grade. The scale of energy goes from dilute sunlight up to plant matter, to coal, from coal to oil, to electricity and up to the high quality efforts of computer and human information processing.[12]

In 1975 he introduced a table of “Energy Quality Factors”, kilocalories of sunlight energy required to make a kilocalorie of a higher quality energy,[13] the first mention of the energy hierarchy principle which states that “energy quality is measured by the energy used in the transformations” from one type of energy to the next.

These energy quality factors, were placed on a fossil-fuel basis and called "Fossil Fuel Work Equivalents" (FFWE), and the quality of energies were measured based on a fossil fuel standard with rough equivalents of 1 kilocalorie of fossil fuel equal to 2000 kilocalories of sunlight. "Energy quality ratios" were computed by evaluating the quantity of energy in a transformation process to make a new form and were then used to convert different forms of energy to a common form, in this case fossil fuel equivalents. FFWE's were replaced with Coal equivalents (CE) and by 1977, the system of evaluating quality was placed on a solar basis and termed solar equivalents (SE).[14]

Embodied energy[edit]

The term "embodied energy" was used for a time in the early 1980s to refer to energy quality differences in terms of their costs of generation, and a ratio called a “quality factor” for the calories (or joules) of one kind of energy required to make those of another.[15] However, since the term embodied energy was used by other groups who were evaluating the fossil fuel energy required to generate products and were not including all energies or using the concept to imply quality, embodied energy was dropped in favor of “embodied solar calories” and the quality factors became known as "transformation ratios".

Introduction of the term "emergy"[edit]

Use of the term "embodied energy" for this concept was modified in 1986 when David Scienceman, a visiting scholar at the University of Florida from Australia, suggested the term “emergy” and "emjoule" or "emcalorie" as the unit of measure to distinguish emergy units from units of available energy.[16] The term transformation ratio was shortened to transformity in about the same time. It is important to note that throughout this twenty years the baseline or the basis for evaluating forms of energy and resources shifted from organic matter, to fossil fuels and finally to solar energy.

Between 1986 and today, the emergy methodology has continued to develop as the community of scientists has expanded and as new applied research into combined systems of humans and nature has presented new conceptual and theoretical questions. The maturing of the emergy methodology has resulted in more rigorous definitions of terms and nomenclature and refinement of the methods of calculating transformities. There is now an International Society for the Advancement of Emergy Research and a biennial International Conference held on the campus of the University of Florida.

Chronology[edit]

The following table is a chronology of the evolution of the emergy methodology and nomenclature providing a brief insight into the development of the concept.

Table 1: Development chronology of emergy, transformity, and conversion ratios.
Years Baseline Unit Emergy Values Units Reference
1967–1971 Organic matter the baseline. All energies of higher quality (wood, peat, coal, oil, living biomass, etc.) expressed in units of organic matter. Sunlight equivalent to organic matter = 1000 solar kilocalories per kilocalories of organic matter. g dry wt O.M.; kcal, conversion from OM to kcal = 5kcal/g dry wt. [9][17]
1973–1980 Fossil fuels and then coal the baseline. Energy of lower quality (sunlight, plants, wood, etc.) were expressed in units of fossil fuels and later in units of coal equivalents. Direct sunlight equivalents of fossil fuels = 2000 solar kilocalories per fossil fuel kilocalorie Fossil fuel work equivalents (FFWE) and later, coal equivalents (CE) [10][11]
1980–1982 Global solar energy the baseline. All energies of higher quality (wind, rain, wave, organic matter, wood, fossil fuels, etc.) expressed in units of solar energy 6800 global solar Calories per Calorie of available energy in coal Global solar calories (GSE). [3][18]
1983–1986 Recognized that solar energy, deep heat, and tidal momentum were basis for global processes. Total annual global sources equal to the sum of these (9.44 E24 solar joules/yr) Embodied solar joules per joule of fossil fuels = 40,000 seJ/J Embodied solar equivalents (SEJ) and later called "emergy" with nomenclature (seJ) [19]
1987–2000 Further refinements of total energy driving global processes, Embodied solar energy renamed to EMERGY Solar Emergy per Joule of coal energy ~ 40,000 solar emjoules/ Joule (seJ/J) named Transformity seJ/J = Transformity; seJ/g = Specific emergy [1]
2000–present Emergy driving the biosphere reevaluated as 15.83 E24 seJ/yr raising all previously calculated transformities by the ratio of 15.83/9.44 = 1.68 Solar emergy per Joule of coal energy ~ 6.7 E 4 seJ/J seJ/J = Transformity; seJ/g = Specific emergy [20]

Definitions and examples[edit]

Given next are definitions of most important terms used in the emergy methodology.

Emergy is the available energy of one form that is used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The unit of emergy is the emjoule or emergy joule. Using emergy, sunlight, fuel, electricity, and human service can be put on a common basis by expressing each of them in the emjoules of solar energy that is required to produce them. If solar emergy is the baseline, then the results are solar emjoules (abbreviated seJ). Although other baselines have been used, such as coal emjoules or electrical emjoules, in most cases emergy data are given in solar emjoules.

Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) are computed based on the emergy required to generate one unit of output from a process. There are several types of UEVs, as follows:

Transformity — the emergy input per unit of available energy output. For example, if 10,000 solar emjoules are required to generate a joule of wood, then the solar transformity of that wood is 10,000 solar emjoules per joule (abbreviated seJ/J). The solar transformity of the sunlight absorbed by the earth is 1.0 by definition.
Specific emergy — the emergy per unit mass output. Specific emergy is usually expressed as solar emergy per gram (seJ/g). Material resources may best be evaluated with data on emergy per unit mass. Because energy is required to concentrate materials, the unit emergy value of any substance increases with concentration. Elements and compounds not abundant in nature therefore have higher emergy/mass ratios when found in concentrated form since more environmental work was required to concentrate them, both spatially and chemically.
Emergy per unit money — the emergy supporting the generation of one unit of economic product (expressed as currency). It is used to convert money payments into emergy units. Since money is paid to people for their services and not to the environment, the contribution to a process represented by monetary payments is the emergy that people purchase with the money. The amount of resources that money buys depends on the amount of emergy supporting the economy and the amount of money circulating. An average emergy/money ratio in solar emjoules/$ can be calculated by dividing the total emergy use of a state or nation by its gross economic product. It varies by country and has been shown to decrease each year, which is one index of inflation. This emergy/money ratio is useful for evaluating service inputs given in money units where an average wage rate is appropriate.
Emergy per unit labor — the amount of emergy supporting one unit of labor directly supplied to a process. Laborers apply their work to a process and in so doing they indirectly invest in it the whole emergy that made their labor possible (food, training, transport, etc). This emergy intensity is generally expressed as emergy per time (seJ/yr; seJ/hr), but emergy per money earned (seJ/$) is also used. Indirect labor required to make and supply the inputs to a process is generally measured as dollar cost of services, so that its emergy intensity is calculated as seJ/$.
Empower — a flow of emergy (i.e., emergy per unit time). Emergy flows are usually expressed in units of solar empower (solar emjoules per time, seJ/s, seJ/yr).

Nomenclature[edit]

To avoid confusion with other forms of analysis and to rigorously define concepts, an emergy nomenclature has been developed that defines terms, units, and ratios used in emergy evaluations. The following table shows terms, abbreviations, definitions and units related to emergy, summarized from the literature.

Table 2. Terms, abbreviations, main indicators and units of the emergy
Term Definition Abbreviation Units
Extensive Properties
Emergy The amount of available energy of one type (usually solar) that is directly or indirectly required to generate a given output flow or storage of energy or matter. Em seJ (solar equivalent Joules)
Emergy Flow Any flow of emergy associated with inflowing energy or materials to a system/process. R=renewable flows;
N= nonrenewable flows;
F= imported flows;
S= services
seJ*time−1
Gross Emergy Product Total emergy annually used to drive a national or regional economy GEP seJ*yr−1
Product-related Intensive Properties
Transformity Emergy investment per unit process output of available energy Τr seJ*J−1
Specific Emergy Emergy investment per unit process output of dry mass SpEm seJ*g−1
Emergy Intensity of currency Emergy investment per unit of GDP generated in a country, region or process EIC seJ*curency−1
Space-related Intensive Properties
Emergy Density Emergy stored in a volume unit of a given material EmD seJ*volume−3
Time-related Intensive Properties
Empower Emergy flow (released, used) per unit time EmP seJ*time−1
Empower Intensity Areal Empower (emergy released per unit time and area) EmPI seJ*time−1*area−1
Empower Density Emergy released per unit time by a unit volume (e.g. a power plant or engine) EmPd seJ*time−1*volume−3
Selected Performance Indicators
Emergy released (used) Total emergy investment in a process (measure of a process footprint) U= N+R+F+S
(see Fig.1)
seJ
Emergy Yield Ratio Total emergy released (used up) per unit of emergy invested EYR= U/(F+S)
(see Fig.1)
==
Environmental Loading Ratio Total nonrenewable and imported emergy released per unit of local renewable resource ELR= (N+F+S)/R
(see Fig.1)
==
Emergy Sustainability Index Emergy yield per unit of environmental loading ESI= EYR/ELR
(see Fig.1)
==
Renewability Percentage of total emergy released (used) that is renewable. %REN= R/U
(see Fig.1)
==
Emergy Investment Ratio Emergy investment needed to exploit one unit of local (renewable and nonrenewable) resource. EIR= (F+S)/(R+N)
(see Fig.1)
==

Accounting method[edit]

(For a more complete discussion of Emergy Accounting methods see Environmental Accounting: Emergy and environmental decision making, [1]

Emergy accounting uses the thermodynamic basis of all forms of energy, resources and human services, and converts them into equivalents of one form of energy, usually solar emergy. To evaluate a system, first a system diagram is drawn to organize the evaluation and account for all inputs and outflows. A table of the actual flows of resources, labor and energy is constructed from the diagram and all flows are evaluated. The final step of an emergy evaluation involves interpreting the quantitative results. In some cases, the evaluation is done to determine the fit of a development proposal within its environment. In others, it may be a question of comparing different alternatives, or the evaluation may be seeking the best use of resources to maximize economic vitality (Table 4, below lists some of the many published emergy evaluations of systems and processes).

Emergy evaluations are both synthetic and analytic. Synthesis is the act of combining elements into coherent wholes for understanding of the wholeness of systems, while analysis is the dissection or breaking apart of systems to build understanding from the pieces upward. In the emergy method of evaluation, sometimes called emergy synthesis, first the whole system is considered through diagramming, then the flows of energy, resources and information that drive the system are analyzed. By evaluating complex systems using emergy methods, the major inputs from the human economy and those coming “free” from the environment are integrated to analyze questions of public policy and environmental management.

Systems diagram[edit]

A systems diagram of a city embedded in its support region showing the environmental energy and non renewable energy sources that drive the region and city system
Energy system diagram of a city in its support region

Systems diagrams are used to show the inputs that are evaluated and summed to obtain the emergy of a resulting flow or storage. The purpose of the system diagram is to conduct a critical inventory of processes, storages and flows that are important “drivers” of the system (all flows that inflow across the system boundary) and are therefore necessary to evaluate. A simple diagram of a city and its regional support area is shown in Figure 1 (many example diagrams can be found at the EmergySystems.org web site).

Preparation of evaluation table[edit]

A table (see example below) of the actual flows of resources, labor and energy is constructed from the diagram. Raw data on inflows that cross the boundary are converted into emergy units, and then summed to obtain total emergy supporting the system. Energy flows per unit time (usually per year) are presented in the table as separate line items. Tables are usually constructed in the same format, as given by the column headings and format below:

Table 3. Example emergy evaluation table
Note Item(name) Data(flow/time) Units UEV (seJ/unit) Solar Emergy (seJ/time)
1. First item xxx.x J/yr xxx.x Em1
2. Second item xxx.x g/yr xxx.x Em2
--
n. nth item xxx.x J/yr xxx.x Emn
O. Output xxx.x J/yr or g/yr xxx.x \sum_{n}^1Em_i

Column #1 is the line item number, which is also the number of the footnote found below the table where
raw data sources are cited and calculations are shown.

Column # 2 is the name of the item, which is also shown on the aggregated diagram.

Column # 3 is the raw data in joules, grams, dollars or other units.

Column # 4 shows the units for each raw data item.

Column # 5 is the unit emergy value, expressed in solar emergy joules per unit. Sometimes, inputs are
expressed in grams, hours, or dollars, therefore an appropriate UEV is used (sej/hr; sej/g; sej/$).

Column # 6 is the solar emergy of a given flow, calculated as the raw input times the UEV (Column 3 times
Column 5).

All tables are followed by the numbered footnotes that show citations for data and calculations.

Calculating unit values[edit]

After the table is prepared that evaluates all the inputs, a unit emergy value of the product or process is calculated. The output (row “O” in the example table above) is evaluated first in units of energy or mass. Then the input emergy is summed and the unit emergy value is calculated by dividing the emergy by the units of the output. The unit values that result for each evaluation are useful for other emergy evaluations. Thus, emergy evaluations generate new emergy unit values.

Performance indicators[edit]

a basic diagram showing an economic progess that draws resources from the environment that are both renewable and non renewable energies and feedbacks from the main economy.
Systems diagram showing flows used in the performance indicator ratios

The systems diagram in Figure 2 shows non-renewable environmental contributions (N) as an emergy storage of materials, renewable environmental inputs (R), and inputs from the economy as purchased (F) goods and services. Purchased inputs are needed for the process to take place and include human service and purchased non-renewable energy and material brought in from elsewhere (fuels, minerals, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, etc.). Several ratios, or indices are given in Figure 2 that are used to evaluate the global performance of a process as follows:

Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR). Total emergy released (used up) per unit of emergy invested. The ratio is a measure of how much an investment enables a process to exploit local resources in order to further contribute to the economy.
Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR). The ratio of nonrenewable and imported emergy use to renewable emergy use. It is an indicator of the pressure of a transformation process on the environment and can be considered a measure of ecosystem stress due to a production (transformation activity.
Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI). The ratio of the Emergy Yield Ratio to the Environmental Loading Ratio. It measures the contribution of a resource or process to the economy per unit of environmental loading.
Aerial Empower Intensity. The ratio of total emergy use in the economy of a region or nation to the total area of the region or nation. Renewable and nonrenewable emergy density are also calculated separately by dividing the total renewable emergy by area and the total nonrenewable emergy by area, respectively.

Several other ratios are sometimes calculated depending on the type and scale of he systems being evaluated.

Percent Renewable Emergy (%Ren). The ratio of renewable emergy to total emergy use. In the long run, only processes with high %Ren are sustainable.
Emprice. The emprice of a commodity is the emergy one receives for the money spent. Its units are sej/$.
Emergy Exchange Ratio (EER). The ratio of emergy exchanged in a trade or purchase (what is received to what is given). The ratio is always expressed relative to one or the other trading partners and is a measure of the relative trade advantage of one partner over the other.
Emergy per capita. The ratio of total emergy use in the economy of a region or nation to the total population. Emergy per capita can be used as a measure of potential, average standard of living of the population.

Uses of methodology[edit]

The recognition of the relevance energy to the growth and dynamics of all complex systems has resulted in increased emphasis on methods of environmental evaluation that can account for and interpret the effects of matter and energy flows, at all scales in systems of humanity and nature. The following table lists some general areas in which the emergy methodology has been employed.

Table 4. Fields of Study and Emergy Evaluations
Emergy and ecosystems
Self-organization (Odum, 1986; Odum, 1988)
Aquatic and marine ecosystems (Odum et al., 1978a; Odum and Arding, 1991; Brandt-Williams, 1999)
Food webs and hierarchies (Odum et al. 1999; Brown and Bardi, 2001)
Ecosystem health (Brown and Ulgiati, 2004)
Forest ecosystems (Doherty et al., 1995; Lu et al. 2006)
Complexity (Odum, 1987a; Odum, 1994; Brown and Cohen, 2008)
Biodiversity (Brown et al. 2006)
Emergy and Information
Diversity and information (Keitt, 1991; Odum, 1996, Jorgensen et al., 2004)
Culture, Education, University (Odum and Odum, 1980; Odum et al., 1995; Odum et al., 1978b)
Emergy and Agriculture
Food production, agriculture (Odum, 1984; Ulgiati et al. 1993; Martin et al. 2006; Cuadra and Rydberg, 2006; de Barros et al. 2009; Cavalett and Ortega, 2009)
Livestock production (Rótolo et al.2007)
Agriculture and society (Rydberg and Haden, 2006; Cuadra and Björklund, 2007; Lu, and Campbell, 2009)
Soil erosion (Lefroy and Rydberg, 2003; Cohen et al. 2006)
Emergy and energy sources and carriers
Fossil fuels (Odum et a.l 1976; Brown et al., 1993; Odum, 1996; Bargigli et al., 2004; Bastianoni et al. 2005; Bastianoni et al. 2009)
Renewable and nonrenewable electricity (Odum et al. 1983; Brown and Ulgiati, 2001; Ulgiati and Brown, 2001; Peng et al. 2008)
Hydroelectric dams (Brown and McClanahan, 1992)
Biofuels (Odum, 1980a; Odum and Odum, 1984; Carraretto et al., 2004; Dong et al. 2008; Felix and Tilley, 2009; Franzese et al., 2009)
Hydrogen (Barbir, 1992)
Emergy and the Economy
National and international analyses (Odum, 1987b; Brown, 2003; Cialani et al. 2003; Ferreyra and Brown. 2007; Lomas et al., 2008; Jiang et al.,2008)
Trade (Odum, 1984a; Brown, 2003)
Environmental accounting (Odum, 1996)
Development policies (Odum, 1980b)
Sustainability (Odum, 1973; Odum, 1976a; Brown and Ulgiati, 1999; Odum and Odum, 2002; Brown et al. 2009)
Tourism (Lei and Wang, 2008a; Lei et al., 2011; Vassallo et al., 2009)
Gambling industry (Lei et al., 2011)
Emergy and cities
Spatial organization and urban development (Odum et al., 1995b; Huang, 1998; Huang and Chen, 2005; Lei et al.,2008; Ascione, et. al 2009)
Urban metabolism (Huang et al.,2006; Zhang et al., 2009)
Transportation modes (Federici, et al. 2003; Federici et al., 2008; Federici et al., 2009; Almeida et al., 2010 )
Emergy and landscapes
Spatial empower, Land development indicators (Brown and Vivas, 2004; Reiss and Brown, 2007)
Emergy in landforms (Kangas, 2002)
Watersheds (Agostinho et al., 2010)
Emergy and ecological engineering
Restoration models (Prado-Jartar and Brown, 1996)
Reclamation projects (Brown, 2005; Lei and Wang, 2008b; Lu et al., 2009 )
Artificial Ecosystems: wetlands, pond (Odum, 1985)
Waste treatment (Kent et al. 2000; Grönlund, et al. 2004; Giberna et al. 2004; Lei and Wang, 2008c)
Emergy, material flows and recycling
Mining and minerals processing (Odum, 1996; Pulselli et al.2008)
Industrial production, ecodesign (Zhang et al. 2009; Almeida et al., 2009)
Recycling pattern in human-dominated ecosystems (Brown and Buranakarn, 2003)
Emergy and thermodynamics
Efficiency and Power (Odum and Pinkerton, 1955; Odum, 1995)
Maximum Empower Principle (Odum, 1975; Odum, 1983; Cai e al., 2004)
Pulsing paradigm (Odum, 1982; Odum, W.P. et al., 1995)
Thermodynamic principles (Giannantoni, 2002, 2003)
Emergy and systems modeling
Energy systems language and modeling (Odum, 1971; Odum, 1972)
National sustainability (Brown et al. 2009; Lei and Zhou, 2012)
Sensitivity analysis, uncertainty (Laganis and Debeljak, 2006; Ingwersen, 2010)
Emergy and policy
Tools for decision makers (Giannetti et al., 2006; Almeida, et al. 2007; Giannetti et al., 2010)
Conservation and economic value (Lu et al.2007)

References for each of the citations in this table are given in a separate list at the end of this article

Controversies[edit]

The concept of emergy has been controversial within several academic communities including ecology, thermodynamics and economy.[21][22][23][24][25][26] Emergy theory has been criticized under the assumption that it fosters an energy theory of value to replace other theories of value. This criticism may miss the fact that the goal of emergy evaluations is to provide an "ecocentric" value of systems, processes, and products as opposed to the anthropocentric values of economics.[original research?] Thus it does not purport to replace economic values but to provide additional information, from a very different point of view, which public policy might benefit from.[original research?][citation needed]

While energy quality has been recognized, somewhat, in the energy literature where different forms of fossil energy are expressed in coal or oil equivalents,[27] and some researchers have even expressed electricity in oil equivalents[28] by using 1st law efficiencies, many researchers have been reluctant to accept quality corrections of other forms of energy and resources. The idea that a calorie of sunlight is not equivalent to a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Joule's mechanical equivalent of heat).[29] Others have rejected the concept as being impractical since from their perspective it is impossible to quantify the amount of sunlight that is required to produce a quantity of oil. This latter issue results from a concern about the uncertainty involved in such quantification. In combining systems of humanity and nature and evaluating environmental input to economies, mainstream economists criticize the emergy methodology for disregarding market driven values as determined by willingness to pay.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Odum, H.T. 1996. Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Policy Making. John Wiley and Sons, New York. p370
  2. ^ von Bertalanffy. L. 1968. General System Theory. George Braziller Publ. New York 295 p.
  3. ^ a b Odum, H.T. 1983. Systems Ecology: An Introduction. John Wiley, NY. 644 p.
  4. ^ Odum, H.T., 1995. Self organization and maximum power. Chapter 28, pp. 311-364 in Maximum Power, Ed. by C.A.S. Hall, University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
  5. ^ Odum, H.T. 1957. Trophic structure and productivity of Silver Springs, Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 27:55-112.
  6. ^ Odum, H.T. and E.P. Odum. 1955. Trophic structure and productivity of a windward coral reef at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. Ecol. Monogr. 25:291-320.
  7. ^ Odum, H.T. and C.M. Hoskin. 1958. Comparative studies of the metabolism of Texas Bays. Pubi. Inst. Mar. Sci., Univ. Tex. 5:16-46.
  8. ^ Odum, H.T. and R.F. Pigeon, eds. 1970. A Tropical Rain Forest. Division of Technical Information, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. 1600 pp.
  9. ^ a b c Odum, H.T. 1967. Energetics of food production. In: The World Food Problem, Report of the President's Science Advisory Committee, Panel on World Food Supply, Vol. 3. The Whitehouse. pp. 55-94.
  10. ^ a b Odum, H.T. et al. 1976. Net Energy Analysis of Alternatives for the United States. In U.S. Energy Policy: Trends and Goals, Part V - Middle and Long-term Energy Policies and Alternatives. 94th Congress 2nd Session Committee Print. Prepared for the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce of the U.S. House of Representatives, 66-723, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Wash, DC. pp. 254-304.
  11. ^ a b Odum, H.T. and E.C. Odum. 1976. Energy Basis for Man and Nature. McGraw-Hill, NY. 297 pp
  12. ^ Odum, H.T. 1973. Energy, ecology and economics. Royal Swedish Academy of Science. AMBIO 2(6):220-227.
  13. ^ Odum, H.T. 1976. 'Energy quality and carrying capacity of the earth. Response at Prize Ceremony, Institute de la Vie, Paris. Tropical Ecology 16(l):1-8.
  14. ^ Odum, H.T. 1977. Energy analysis, energy quality and environment. In Energy Analysis: A New Public Policy Tool, M.W. Gilliland, ed. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Selected Symposium No. 9, Wash. DC. Westview Press. pp. 55-87.
  15. ^ Odum, E.C., and Odum, H.T., 1980. Energy systems and environmental education. Pp. 213-231 in: Environmental Education- Principles, Methods and Applications, Ed. by T.S. Bakshi and Z. Naveh. Plenum Press, New York.
  16. ^ Scienceman, D.M., 1987. "Energy and Emergy," in G. Pillet and T. Murota (eds), Environmental Economics: The Analysis of a Major Interface, R. Leimgruber, Geneva, pp. 257–276. (CFW-86-26)
  17. ^ Odum, H.T. 1971. Environment, Power and Society. John Wiley, NY. 336 pp.
  18. ^ Odum, H.T., M.J. Lavine, F.C. Wang, M.A. Miller, J.F. Alexander, Jr. and T. Butler. 1983. A Manual for Using Energy Analysis for Plant Siting with an Appendix on Energy Analysis of Environmental Values. Final report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG/CR-2443 FINB-6155. Energy Analysis Workshop, Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville. 221 pp.
  19. ^ Odum, H.T. and E.C. Odum, eds. 1983. Energy Analysis Overview of Nations. Working Paper WP-83-82. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. 469 pp.
  20. ^ Odum, H.T., M.T. Brown and S.B. Williams. 2000. Handbook of Emergy Evaluation: A Compendium of Data for Emergy Computation Issued in a Series of Folios. Folio #1 - Introduction and Global Budget. Center for Environmental Policy, Environmental Engineering Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, 16 pp. Available on line at: http://emergysystems.org/folios.php.
  21. ^ Ayres, R.U., 1998. Ecology vs. Economics: Confusing Production and Consumption. Center of the Management of Environmental Resources, INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France.
  22. ^ Cleveland, C.J., Kaufmann, R.K., Stern, D.I., 2000. Aggregation and the role of energy in the economy. Ecol. Econ. 32, 301–317.
  23. ^ Hau JL, Bakshi BR. 2004. Promise and problems of emergy analysis. Ecological Modelling 178:215–225.
  24. ^ Mansson, B.A., McGlade, J.M., 1993. Ecology, thermodynamics and H.T. Odum’s conjectures. Oecologia 93, 582–596.
  25. ^ Silvert W. 1982. The theory of power and efficiency in ecology. Ecological Modelling 15:159–164.
  26. ^ Spreng, D.T., 1988. Net-Energy Analysis and the Energy Requirements of Energy Systems. Praeger Publishers, New York, 289 pp.
  27. ^ Cleveland, C.J. 1992. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the U.S. Ecological Economics. Volume 6, Issue 2, October 1992, Pp 139-162.
  28. ^ (electricity production potential/MWe) (1000 kW/MW) (8760 hrs/yr.) (0.9 capacity factor) (3413 BTU/kW-hr) (1 bbl oil equivalent/6 x 106 BTU) = Barrels of Oil Equivalent per year (BOE/yr).
  29. ^ Sciubba, E., 2010. On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Energy 35, 3696-3706.
References for Table 4
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Odum, H.T., Gayle, T., Brown, M.T., and Waldman, J., 1978b. Energy analysis of the University of Florida. Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville. Unpublished manuscript.
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Rydberg, T., A.C. Haden. 2006. Emergy evaluations of Denmark and Danish agriculture: Assessing the influence of changing resource availability on the organization of agriculture and society. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 117, Issues 2-3, November 2006, Pages 145-158
Ulgiati, S., Odum, H.T., and Bastianoni, S., 1993. Emergy Analysis of Italian Agricultural System. The Role of Energy Quality and Environmental Inputs.In: Trends in Ecological Physical Chemistry. L. Bonati, U. Cosentino, M. Lasagni, G. Moro, D. Pitea and A. Schiraldi, Editors. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 187-215.
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