Emi Koussi

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Emi Koussi
Emi Koussi-Tibesti Mountains-Chad.jpg
Emi Koussi seen from International Space Station
Elevation 3,445 m (11,302 ft)[1]
Prominence 2,934 m (9,626 ft)[1]
Ranked 103rd
Listing Country high point
Ultra
Location
Emi Koussi is located in Chad
Emi Koussi
Emi Koussi
Location in Chad
Location Chad
Range Tibesti Mountains
Coordinates 19°47′37″N 18°33′7″E / 19.79361°N 18.55194°E / 19.79361; 18.55194Coordinates: 19°47′37″N 18°33′7″E / 19.79361°N 18.55194°E / 19.79361; 18.55194
Geology
Type Pyroclastic shield
Age of rock Holocene
Last eruption unknown
Climbing
First ascent 1938[citation needed]
Easiest route Hike

Emi Koussi is a high pyroclastic shield volcano that lies at the southeast end of the Tibesti Mountains in the central Sahara of northern Chad. It is the highest mountain in Chad, and the highest in the Sahara. The volcano is one of several in the Tibesti massif, and reaches 3,445 metres (11,302 ft) in elevation, rising 2.3 km (1.4 mi) above the surrounding sandstone plains. The volcano is 60 by 80 km wide.[2]

Two nested calderas cap the volcano, the outer one being about 12 by 15 km in size. Within it on the southeast side is a smaller caldera, about 2–3 km wide and 350 m deep. Numerous lava domes, cinder cones, maars, and lava flows are found both within the calderas and along the outer flanks of the shield.[2] The inner caldera contains large natron deposits which see some harvesting for domestic animal salt lick use by the local people.

Emi Koussi has been studied as an analog of the Martian volcano Elysium Mons. One of the most important morphological differences between volcanoes on Mars and Earth is the widespread furrowing of the surface due to flowing water on terrestrial volcanoes. The furrows are shallow valleys. Larger channels have a different origin. Major channels can be seen on volcanoes on both planets and indicate low points in caldera rims where lava spilled out of pre-collapse craters.[3]

Emi Koussi as photographed by space shuttle mission STS-108.(The large vertical object in foreground is the vertical stabilizer of the Space Shuttle Endeavour.)
As seen from the International Space Station, this photograph highlights the entire volcanic structure


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Africa Ultra-Prominences". Peaklist.org. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Emi Koussi". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0205-021. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Emi Koussi Volcano, Chad, North Africa". NASA Earth Observatory. December 8, 2002. Retrieved 3 November 2013. 

Sources[edit]